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Article

Gaynor G. Jones

revised by Bernd Wiechert

(b Danzig [now Gdańsk], Feb 9, 1828; d Treysa, nr Marburg an der Lahn, Feb 18, 1905). German music historian and librarian. He intended to follow a career in theology, but changed to music (1851), studying composition in Leipzig with J.C. Lobe and E.F. Richter and taking organ lessons. He taught music in Leipzig before moving to Hamburg in 1863, where he gave lectures on music history and theory. He was a critic for the Hamburger Correspondent for seven years. In 1873 he was appointed to the staff of the Hamburg City Library; he remained there until 1889, when he retired to Marburg. Little known for his compositions (a few vocal works), Dommer earned more acclaim for his writings on music. His greatly revised and enlarged edition of Koch's Musikalisches Lexikon (1865) and, in particular, his own Handbuch der Musikgeschichte (1868) showed him to be a scholar with a thorough command of his subject. His books on Luther printings and early Marburg prints were of pioneering importance. He was also the author of numerous shorter essays and articles, many for the ...

Article

(b Philadelphia, Sept 15, 1880; d Merion, PA, March 9, 1965). American music scholar. A lawyer by profession, he devoted himself in his spare time to music and from 1930 to 1960 he held informal gatherings (known as the ‘Accademia dei Dilettanti di Musica’) at his home to study and perform vocal music of the 17th to 20th centuries. (He also conducted larger groups on Sunday evenings.) Concerned that the words should be understood but also fit the music, Drinker began a series of translations remarkable for their craftsmanship and sheer number: between 1941 and 1954 he translated many Bach works (212 cantatas, the St Matthew Passion and the St John Passion, the Easter and Christmas oratorios and the Magnificat), all Brahms's vocal works, all Mozart's choral works, all Schumann's and Medtner's songs, all the solo songs of Wolf, Musorgsky and Schubert and all Schubert's partsongs. His devotion and scholarship were recognized in honorary degrees awarded him by the University of Pennsylvania (...

Article

(b Great Barrington, MA, Feb 23, 1868; d Accra, Ghana, Aug 27, 1963). American writer and social activist. He attended Fisk University (BA 1888), Harvard University (BA 1890, PhD 1895), and the University of Berlin, cultivating music enthusiastically as a choral singer and concertgoer. Beginning with The Souls of Black Folk (1903) and continuing well into the century in essays published in The Crisis and other periodicals, Du Bois synthesized European artistic values with insightful affirmations of African American culture, including music; this approach both informed and typified the New Negro aesthetic of the early 20th century. His chapter in Souls on “The Sorrow Songs” reveals a profound understanding of the beauty and social significance of black music. Influenced here by the folk art theories of Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744–1803), Du Bois refashioned them to create a foundation for African American cultural consciousness. Elsewhere he referenced ...

Article

Mark E. Perry

(b San Juan, PR, March 26, 1854; d San Juan, PR, April 4, 1934). Puerto Rican composer, flutist, scholar, and conductor. His earliest achievements came as a flutist; he studied flute with Italian-born Rosario Aruti. Chiefly self-taught as a composer, he was influenced musically by his father, a cellist and double bass player, and Felipe Gutiérrez Espinosa, an established Puerto Rican composer of sacred music. In 1877 Dueño Colón received the gold medal from the Ateneo Puertorriqueño for the symphonic work La amistad (1877). In 1880 he formed a municipal band in Bayamón and shortly afterwards served as the flutist for the chapel of San Juan Cathedral. Awards for his compositions continued, including a silver medal at the Pan American Exposition, held in Buffalo in 1901, for Canciones escolares, a collection of original songs as well as arrangements for Puerto Rican school children. In addition to showing substantial interest in European masterworks, he embarked on the scholarly study of the Puerto Rican ...

Article

Martina Bratić

(b Krapinica, Croatia, Sept 11, 1874; d Zagreb, Croatia, Dec 12, 1948). Croatian composer, organist, music educator, theoretician, and writer. Dugan had his first musical experience during his choir lessons in an archiepiscopal secondary school. He then studied theology and took organ lessons with the principal organist of the Zagreb Cathedral, Vatroslav Kolander. In 1893 he started mathematics and physics studies but graduated from the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin in 1908 (composition with Robert Kahn, conducting with Max Bruch, and organ with H. Becker). He became a director of the Croatian Music Institute (1908) and was named Zagreb Cathedral’s principal organist in 1912 (the position which he held until his death). From 1897 to 1920 he also worked as a secondary school teacher, giving lessons in mathematics and physics. At the Zagreb Music Academy he taught music theory, composition, and the organ (1920–1941); here his most important contribution was amplifying the foundation of, and developing the curriculum for, the counterpoint and fugue courses. He was also active as a conductor of, among others, the Croatian Choral Society, Kolo, and he periodically wrote music reviews. He worked as an editor of the music section in the sacral music journal ...

Article

Kimberly Greene

(b Perth Amboy, NJ, Feb 19, 1766; d New York, NY, Sep 28, 1839). American playwright, librettist, theater manager, historian, and painter. Despite losing his sight in one eye due to an accident, Dunlap became a professional portrait painter in his youth, and he was noted for his paintings of George Washington. In 1784 he traveled to London and studied painting with Benjamin West. Upon his return to the United States in 1787, he began writing plays and became America’s first professional playwright. Over a period of 40 years he translated, adapted, or wrote more than 70 plays, many of which used music by composers such as Benjamin Carr, Alexander Reinagle, Victor Pelissier, and James Hewitt. He was influenced by the plays of German dramatist August von Kotzebue, whose works he translated and made popular in the United States.

Dunlap’s The Archers, or Mountaineers of Switzerland (1796...

Article

Eric Blom

revised by Anne-Marie Riessauw

(b Ghent, Aug 4, 1843; d Ghent, May 18, 1910). Belgian musicologist and composer. The son of the poet Prudens van Duyse, he studied the violin from the age of seven. When he was ten he entered the Ghent Conservatory, where he was a pupil of Karel Miry; he won prizes in harmony (1859) and counterpoint (1861–2). His operetta Teniers te Grimbergen, on a libretto by his father, was produced in 1860 at the Minardtheater in Ghent, and several short vaudevilles followed at the Nationaal Toneel in Antwerp; his opéra comique Rosalinde was also produced there in 1864. At about this time he entered the University of Ghent, where he took a degree in law in 1867. While continuing to compose (in 1873 he won second prize in the Belgian Prix de Rome with his cantata Torquato Tasso’s dood), he made a career as a magistrate and as a musicologist. He played an important part in the cultural education of the working class by organizing evenings of singing, which were highly successful. However, his greatest musical achievements lie in his researches into folksong, in which connection he did epoch-making work. His last monograph, ...

Article

Ora Frishberg Saloman

(b Boston, May 13, 1813; d Boston, Sept 5, 1893). American writer on music. A graduate of Harvard College (1832) and Harvard Divinity School (1836), Dwight manifested an early affinity with the German idealist tradition in his annotated translations of poetry by Goethe and Schiller. As a leading contributor to the Associationist Harbinger (1845–9) and Dwight's Journal of Music (1852–81), which he founded and edited, he elevated criticism to a higher and more educational plane. After the death of his wife in 1860, he spent his last 20 years as resident librarian and permanent president of the Harvard Musical Association, which sponsored an annual series of concerts under his management (1865–82).

Dwight's writings of the 1840s reflect New England transcendentalist currents and a familiarity with such European thinkers as E.T.A. Hoffmann, A.B. Marx, Gottfried Fink, Charles Fourier, F.-J. Fétis, Frédéric Kalkbrenner, Thomas Carlyle and William Gardiner. Championing aesthetic education and informed listening, Dwight proposed that music – as art, science, and language of feeling ennobling and uniting people – be made widely accessible. In America he was a pioneer in describing the humanistic importance and large-scale structures of Beethoven's symphonies....

Article

Paul C. Echols

revised by David Music

(b Northampton, MA, May 14, 1752; d New Haven, CT, Jan 11, 1817). American poet and author of hymn texts. He graduated from Yale College in 1769, becoming a tutor there two years later. He served as a chaplain in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and wrote the texts of several patriotic songs, one of which (“Columbia, Columbia, to Glory Arise,” 1787) became widely popular. From 1783 to 1795 he was pastor of the Congregational Church in Greenfield Hill, Connecticut, where he rose to eminence as a preacher, educator, and poet. He was elected president of Yale College in 1795. In 1798, at the request of both Congregational and Presbyterian governing bodies in Connecticut, he undertook a revised edition of Isaac Watts’s Psalms and Hymns to replace one by Joel Barlow (1785) that had previously been compiled for the Congregationalists. Issued at Hartford in ...

Article

Hubert Unverricht

(b Neuruppin, Dec 30, 1775; d Oppeln [now Opole, Poland], March 12, 1824). German composer and writer. While a law student at the University of Halle he also studied music with D.G. Türk (1795–7). After attending the Berlin court he was music director of the Breslau opera (1801–3, succeeded by C.M. von Weber in 1804) and then returned to law as an administrator. He was a founder of the Philomusische Gesellschaft (1804–6), for which he wrote several scholarly essays, and also contributed to a number of periodicals, including the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung in Leipzig.

In spite of his short, but intensive, career as a professional musician, Ebell wrote several compositions which are above a mere amateur standard. His chamber music is inclined towards the early Romantic Biedermeier style, while his operatic arias more closely follow Classical models. His last work was the Mass of ...

Article

John Trevitt

revised by Jean Gribenski

(Armand Joseph)

(b Paris, July 17, 1872; d Perthes-lès-Hurlus, Feb 19, 1915). French musicologist. He studied composition with César Franck (1887–90) and while studying literature at the Sorbonne (licencié ès lettres 1894) and history at the Ecole de Chartes, his interest in musicology was fostered by Lionel Dauriac; he participated in founding the ISM (1899) and, with Dauriac and Prod’homme, its French section (1904) before studying musicology with Riemann in Leipzig (1905). He took the doctorate at the Sorbonne in 1906 with two dissertations on 17th-century French music (the Kassel Manuscripts and contemporary aesthetic doctrines).

In 1907 he transformed the ailing journal Mercure musical into the Mercure musical et bulletin français de la S.I.M., which numbered Debussy and Ravel among its contributors and quickly became an important mouthpiece for the modern school of composition. The Académie des Beaux-Arts accepted his plan (...

Article

Alec Hyatt King

(b Munich, Dec 30, 1880; d El Cerrito, CA, Feb 13, 1952). American musicologist of German origin. He was a cousin of the scientist Albert Einstein. He began by studying law, but abandoned it after only a year and became a pupil of Adolf Sandberger in musicology and of Anton Beer-Wallbrunn in composition. In 1903 he obtained the doctorate at Munich University with a dissertation on German works for the viola da gamba in the 16th and 17th centuries. During the next decade he brought his name to a wider public with a series of articles in scholarly journals. His appointment in 1918 as the first editor of the Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft gave him a position of great influence, which he held until 1933. He was also music critic on the Münchner Post until 1927 and on the Berliner Tageblatt from 1927 to 1933. In the latter year he left Germany because of the Nazi regime. He stayed in London for some time and then lived mainly in Mezzomonte, near Florence. Towards the end of his stay in Europe he was offered a post at Cambridge but refused it. In ...

Article

Alec Hyatt King

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Oct 22, 1832; d Templin, Feb 2, 1905). German editor and bibliographer. Self-taught in music, Eitner established himself at Berlin in 1853 as a music teacher and also became known as a composer. In 1863 he founded a practical music school, but soon became interested in historical research and in 1867 received a prize from the Amsterdam Maatschappij tot Bevorderung der Toonkunst for compiling in manuscript the Lexikon der holländischen Tondichter. Turning to a wider field of musical scholarship, Eitner founded the Gesellschaft für Musikforschung in 1868 (among the first of its kind anywhere) and became its president and secretary. In 1869 he established and edited the Monatshefte für Musikgeschichte as the society's journal and followed this in 1873 with the Publikation Älterer Praktischer und Theoretischer Musikwerke, consisting largely of unpublished early music, which ran to 29 volumes during the next 32 years.

Eitner realized the importance of systematic collection of information about the sources of musical history and made them available in published catalogues. In his own words, ‘Die Musik-Bibliographie ist die Grundlage alles historischen Wissens’. In ...

Article

W.R. Thomas and J.J.K. Rhodes

(b Hoxton, London, June 14, 1814; d London, Oct 28, 1890). English philologist and mathematician. His surname was changed in recognition of a legacy from a relative named Ellis, which made possible a life of independent and active scholarship. He was educated at Shrewsbury, Eton and Cambridge, where he read mathematics and classics. At first a mathematician, he became an important philologist who did more than any other scholar to advance the scientific study of English pronunciation. Intrigued by the pitch of vocal sounds, he became a writer on scientific aspects of music. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1864. His musical studies led to an English translation of Helmholtz’s Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen; its second edition (London, 1885) contains an appendix consisting of a summary of Ellis’s own papers on musical scales, theory of harmony, temperament and pitch, added with Helmholtz’s approval. Ellis’s view of harmony and temperament is controversial because it derived from the idea that music has a discoverable scientific basis, but his essay, ‘On the History of Musical Pitch’ (...

Article

Barry Millington

(b London, Aug 20, 1852; d London, Jan 2, 1919). English writer and translator. His father was a surgeon and following medical studies at St George's Hospital, London, Ellis held the post of Resident Medical Officer at the Western Dispensary from 1878. In the mid-1870s, however, he became (in his own words) ‘a devotee of Wagner's works’ and resigned his post in 1887, devoting himself over the following 28 years to the single-minded pursuit of Wagner studies.

From 1888 to 1895 he edited (and largely wrote) the macaronically titled journal of the London Wagner Society, The Meister, founded primarily to publish English translations of Wagner's more substantial prose works. Out of this project grew the first of Ellis's chief undertakings, the eight-volume English translation of Richard Wagner's Prose Works (1892–9). His other major endeavour was the six-volume Life of Richard Wagner, which was initiated as ‘an English revision’ of the ‘authorized’ biography by C.F. Glasenapp, but which from the fourth volume omitted Glasenapp's name from the title-page, on the grounds that it had become Ellis's own work. The latter project – flawed, idiosyncratic, but containing a wealth of detail not available elsewhere – remained uncompleted: volume six takes the story only to ...

Article

M.C. Carr

(Aimable [Amable] Elie)

(b Paris, Nov 18, 1808; d Paris, Oct 14, 1877). French theorist, writer on music and composer. He was of Polish descent. He began his musical studies at the singing school of St Eustache at the age of ten, and later played second violin in a boulevard theatre orchestra. In the 1820s he entered the Paris Conservatoire where he studied counterpoint and fugue with Fétis and composition with Le Sueur. With several friends he founded the Concerts d’Emulation which provided student composers and performers with the opportunity to be heard in public; the concerts lasted from 1828 to 1834. He won the second prix for composition in 1831 and was assistant professor to Reicha from 1832 until 1834 when he gained the Prix de Rome. During his stay in Rome he composed, among other things, an Omaggio alla memoria di Vincenzo Bellini, performed at the Teatro Valle in 1835. Back in Paris in 1836, he resumed his post as assistant at the Conservatoire, and later conducted the concerts in the rue Vivienne and those of the Société Ste Cécile. From 1840 to 1871 he was a professor of harmony at the Conservatoire. In 1867 he undertook a collected edition of his compositions; only three volumes (of a planned six) were published....

Article

Philip Bate

revised by Michael Musgrave

(b Thiedewiese, Hanover, July 6, 1818; d London, Nov 17, 1882). German organologist and musicologist. His musical education began with the Hanover organist Enckhausen and continued with Hummel and Lobe. He moved to England in 1844–5, settling first in Manchester and then (permanently) in London; there he began the intensive reading which was to become the basis of all his later work, and began to form a library and an exceptional instrument collection. After the death of his wife in 1881 he sold his books and the majority of his instruments, most of which were acquired by the Victoria and Albert Museum. A limited number, however, were bought by A.J. Hipkins; these were presented to the RCM after Hipkins’s death.

His first scholarly publication of 1864 coincided with his connection with the South Kensington (later Victoria and Albert) Museum, where he remained for many years as its organological adviser, producing a series of publications on the holdings. His ...

Article

Wayne D. Shirley

(b Paris, July 21, 1883; d New York, May 6, 1944). American musicologist, administrator and composer of German birth. After studying at the universities of Strasbourg and Munich and as a composition pupil of Thuille in Munich, he emigrated to the USA (1905), becoming an American citizen in 1917. He was music editor for the Boston Music Company (1909–22), head of the Music Division of the Library of Congress (1922–34), president of the music publishing firm of G. Schirmer (appointed 1929) and honorary consultant in musicology to the Library of Congress (from 1934). Concurrently he worked as a columnist (1922–44) and editor (1929–44) of the Musical Quarterly. In 1934, with Sonneck and Kinkeldey, he founded the American Musicological Society, subsequently serving as its president (1937–8).

Engel was one of the first generation of American musicologists trained in Europe who applied the standards of continental musicology to American scholarship. He was closely associated with Sonneck (succeeding him as head of the Music Division of the Library of Congress, as president of G. Schirmer and as editor of the ...

Article

Pamela M. Potter

(b Cairo, Dec 20, 1894; d Marburg, May 15, 1970). German musicologist. He studied musicology with Sandberger at the University of Munich, obtaining the doctorate in 1925 with a dissertation on the development of the German piano concerto from Mozart to Liszt. In 1926 he completed his Habilitation at the University of Greifswald and was appointed reader in 1932. In 1935 he came to the University of Königsberg (now Kalingrad) as a supernumerary professor, simultaneously headed the institute for church and school music, and was made professor in 1944. After Königsberg came under Soviet rule, Engel went to the University of Marburg in 1946 to head its musicology department.

Launching his career with a specialization in the Italian madrigal, Engel soon became a longstanding champion of German music, producing studies of numerous German composers and even arguing for the German origins of Franz Liszt. He was an outspoken promoter of research on regional music history and dedicated himself to the histories of Pomerania and East Prussia while working in those provinces, overseeing periodicals such as ...

Article

Anna Amalie Abert

(b Leipzig, Feb 17, 1889; d Uppsala, March 16, 1966). German musicologist. After attending the Thomasschule in Leipzig he studied the organ (with Karl Straube), the piano (with Leonid Kreutzer), the cello and composition (with Paul Klengel), and was a pupil of Riemann at Leipzig University. In 1908 he went to Berlin where he worked under Kretzschmar and in 1914 obtained the doctorate with a dissertation on J.G. Naumann as an opera composer. He was assistant to Fritz Busch at the Dresden Staatsoper (1922–6), and throughout his years at Dresden to the time of his move to Sweden in 1939, played an active part in the musical life of the city. From 1926 he was lecturer in music history at the orchestra school of the Staatsoper. In 1948 he was appointed lecturer in music at Uppsala, and received an honorary doctorate from that university in 1955...