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Article

Donna G. Cardamone

revised by James Haar

(b Monte San Giovanni Campano, nr Arpino, c1510; d after 1579). Italian composer, teacher, poet and theorist. He was active in Naples during the 1540s, though he seems never to have held a permanent post there. He was attached, perhaps informally, to the entourage of Giovanna d'Aragona: his madrigal volume of 1548 opens with dedicatory poems addressed to her and her sons Fabrizio and Marc'Antonio Colonna. He seems also to have had some connection with the short-lived Accademia dei Sereni (1546–8), composing a madrigal for a comedy staged there in 1548. At some point, perhaps in the 1550s, Cimello was in Rome in the service of Marc'Antonio Colonna. During that time he began a treatise on plainchant reform, and he had some dealings with Annibale Zoilo, to which he later alluded in a rambling letter to Cardinal Guglielmo Sirleto (in I-Rvat ). In the early 1570s he was in Benevento, teaching grammar and music at the local seminary and doing research on witchcraft in the area; he claimed to have written some collections of poetry (none are known to survive) including a poem called ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Brooklyn, NY, Dec 24, 1945). American musicologist. She graduated from Brooklyn College, CUNY, with a BA in music in 1966. Her graduate studies were undertaken at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, where she studied with William S. Newman and received the MA (1968) and PhD (1971). She began her academic career as an instructor at Roosevelt University (1970–71); she was an assistant professor at Virginia Commonwealth University (1971–3) and Brooklyn College (1973–6). In 1976 she joined the faculty of Rice University, where she was made professor of musicology in 1992. She joined the editorial board of the journal Women and Music in 1995.

Citron’s interests in the area of historical musicology include canon formation and 19th-century music, but much of her writing deals with gender issues and women composers, particularly Fanny Mendelssohn and Cécile Chaminade. Her book ...

Article

Christiane Spieth-Weissenbacher

(b Paris, April 19, 1919; d 2010). French musicologist. He studied at the Sorbonne (1936–9, licence ès lettres 1938, agrégation 1946, doctorat ès lettres 1961). Most of his career has been devoted to teaching, in secondary education (1942–57) and then in higher education, in the faculty of arts at Clermont-Ferrand (1963–9) and at the Sorbonne (1969) and the New Sorbonne, Paris III (1970–83); he was also chargé de recherche at the CNRS (1957–60) and director of studies at the Institut Français in London (1960–63).

Citron's work involves literature as much as musicology, and deals mainly with the 19th and 20th centuries (e.g. La poésie de Paris dans la littérature française de Rousseau à Baudelaire (Paris, 1961), the subject of his doctoral dissertation). In addition to the works of Balzac, Mallarmé and Giono he has edited Berlioz's ...

Article

[Leo St. Damian]

(b Liebeshain?, near Chicago, Dec 23, 1858; d Zurich, Jan 27, 1917). American pianist, pedagogue, inventor, philosopher, theologian, and physiologist, mostly active in Germany. He was, according to Rudolf Breithaupt’s Die natürliche Klaviertechnik (3/1912), the “founder of the physiological school, and especially the shoulder mechanics” and offered “the oldest scientific explanation of the modern psycho-physiological method [of piano playing].” In 1882 he married Anna Steiniger (1848–91), a prominent Prussian pianist and Ludwig Deppe’s assistant, whose partially fictitious and romanticized biography, allegedly based on her diary, he published as Iphigenia, Baroness of Styne (London, 1896).

Friedrich Adolf Steinhausen, in his Über die physiologischen Fehler und die Umgestaltung der Klavier-Tehnik (1905), states that Clark can be given “the credit and the merit of a first scientific attempt” of applying physiologically based movements. Clark thus emerges as the world pioneer in the physiological approach to piano playing and the first scholar to offer a scientific explanation and graphic illustration of the rolling movement of arm and wrist, in his ...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Santiago de Chile, July 31, 1934; d Santiago, Oct 10, 1994). Chilean musicologist. He studied composition and musicology at the University of Chile under Alfonso Letelier and Juan Orrego-Salas (taking the licentiate in 1960 with Acústica y sonido musical), and privately under Lucila Césped; he also studied musicology under Lang, Edward Lippman and Ernest Sanders at Columbia University (MA 1964), and composition and electro-acoustic music under Beeson, Luening and Ussachevsky. Subsequently he was professor of musicology at the University of Chile (1964–82), where he was also secretary of the music faculty and editor of Revista musical chilena (1964–8, 1981). At the University of Chile he directed the Institute of Musical Research (1968–70) and was dean of the faculty of music and performing arts (1973–6). In the 1980s he transferred his instructional and research activities to the Catholic University of Chile where he remained until the end of his life. He was vice-rector there (...

Article

(b Wendelstein, Jan 10, 1479; d Breslau, Jan 10, 1552). German theologian, historian, humanist, music theorist and pedagogue. After studies with Heinrich Grieninger in Nuremberg, Cochlaeus entered the University of Cologne in 1504. A year later he had already gained the baccalaureate degree and in 1507 the MA. During these years his first treatise, Musica, was printed in three editions. He also became the music teacher of Heinrich Glarean, who, greatly admiring him, later included in his Dodecachordon three pedagogical compositions from his Musica. In 1510 on the recommendation of Willibald Pirckheimer, he became the rector of St Lorenz school in Nuremberg. There he organized a humanistically orientated curriculum and wrote the Tetrachordum musices (1511), his most valuable music treatise. In 1517 he earned a doctorate in theology at Ferrara and was ordained to the priesthood in Rome. In succeeding years he acquired a reputation as a fierce and unremitting opponent of Lutheranism and Calvinism. In an encounter with Luther at Worms in ...

Article

Argia Bertini

revised by Giulia Anna Romana Veneziano

(b Florence, July 8, 1638; d Florence, Jan 16, 1703). Italian composer, teacher, music editor, theorist, organist and singer. He spent his entire life as a priest in Florence. On 1 August 1663 he was appointed chaplain at the cathedral, S Maria del Fiore, where he was also active as an organist and singer. He was particularly admired as a teacher, and it was this above all that determined the nature of his publications; the numerous reprints particularly of Il cantore addottrinato and Scolare addottrinato bear witness to the popularity of his methods. In these two manuals he sought to establish rules for the effective composition and performance of church music, contributing, according to his contemporaries, to the codification of the ‘true rule of ecclesiastical singing’. However, he is better remembered for his Corona di sacre canzoni and Colletta di laude spirituali, which have great importance for the final phase in the history of the ...

Article

Sally K. Sommers Smith Wells

(b New York, NY, Dec 13, 1936). American Folklorist and musicologist. Trained as a physical chemist, he is one of the foremost scholars of American traditional-music history, practice, and recording. In addition to holding faculty positions in chemistry at two undergraduate institutions in Portland, Oregon, he has taught undergraduate courses in folk song, bluegrass, country, and Jewish music in Portland and at UCLA. Cohen is perhaps best known for his long association with the John Edwards Memorial Foundation (now John Edwards Memorial Forum; JEMF). He served as the editor or co-editor of the JEMF Quarterly from its inception (as the JEMF Newsletter) in 1965 through 1988. He has lectured and written extensively on American folk song and is particularly well known for his study of the railroad as a theme in American folk music, published as Long Steel Rail: the Railroad in American Folksong. He has also compiled a two-volume regional encyclopedia of American folk music as well as a collection of case studies in folk music research, ...

Article

(b Ipswich, June 13, 1870; d Bromsgrove, Jan 19, 1941). English organist and music scholar. He was a Gilstrap scholar at the RCM, where he was taught the organ by Walter Parratt (1888–93; FRCO 1892, ARCM 1893) and then studied music at New College, Oxford (1893–5, BMus 1895). After serving as organist at St Margaret’s, King’s Lynn, he returned to London (having become a Roman Catholic) as organist of the Italian Church, Hatton Garden (1898–1915); he was then organist of the Birmingham Oratory until his death. He edited the quarterly Music and Liturgy (1932–6), and for several years lectured on polyphony at the Oxford Summer School, and on Latin church music by early English composers at the universities of London and Birmingham.

Collins devoted nearly all his spare time to copying and collecting manuscripts of early church music in London (British Museum), Oxford, Cambridge, Tenbury and elsewhere, editing it initially for his own church and later for general use. His preference was exclusively for polyphonic music of the 15th and 16th centuries and he became the leading authority on its notation in English sources. After his edition of 15 offertories by Lassus was published in Düsseldorf (...

Article

Viorel Cosma

(b Ploieşti, Feb 28, 1913; d Bucharest, April 18, 2010). Romanian ethnomusicologist. She studied with Alessandrescu, Brăiloiu, Breazul and Chirescu at the Bucharest Conservatory (1933–7), and in the sociology faculty of Bucharest University (1942–3). She was a research worker at the Arhiva de Folclor (1935–49), a secondary school teacher in Bucharest and Ploieşti (1942–9), professor of folklore at the Bucharest Academy (1949–76), a scientific researcher at the Bucharest Institute for Folklore (1949–64) and Institute for South-East European Studies (1967–74) and professor of music at Timişoara University (1992–4). She collected more than 9000 Romanian folksongs, both in Romania and from Romanians living abroad and used them as the basis for transcriptions and thoroughly documented studies, which aimed to promote the aesthetic value of Romanian folk music. She wrote the biography of Constantin Brăiloiu (...

Article

Albert Dunning

(b Zeist, June 16, 1890; d Budel, Sept 1, 1974). Dutch music teacher and musicologist. He took lessons in singing, the violin and keyboard instruments; later, as a teacher, he studied the piano with Dirk Schäfer and theory with Johann Wagenaar. As a headmaster in The Hague he was concerned with the problems of musical education and music for young people; this brought him into contact with Fritz Jöde and other like-minded music teachers abroad. His activities as a music educationist include the founding of a society for folk music and folkdancing (1930), and through his work on a state commission for school music teaching (1946–8) he contributed to the renewal of music for young people in the Netherlands after the war.

In 1940 he received the doctorate at the University of Utrecht with a dissertation on Coclico which he prepared under Smijers. On the latter's death in ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b London, Jan 28, 1916; d London, April 27, 2001). English ethnomusicologist and composer. After reading medicine at Oxford, he studied composition at the RCM (1937–9) with Ireland (who had earlier given him private lessons) and returned to Oxford to take the BMus (1943). He later studied composition privately with Seiber, Rubbra and Julius Harrison and carried out postgraduate work in Indian music at the London School of Oriental and African Studies. He was successively a regional director of the Arts Council (1943–5), a member of the music division of the BBC (1948–63) and an assistant director of the Institute of Comparative Music Studies and Documentation, Berlin (1964–6), he was also editor of the Journal of the International Folk Music Council (1965–8). He joined the faculty of the UCLA in 1969 and was appointed professor of music there in ...

Article

Vera Lampert

(b Tapolcafő, Sept 30, 1902; d Budapest, Nov 20, 1988). Hungarian musicologist. He studied theology at Pápa, Hungary (1920–22), and at Dayton, Ohio (1922–4, BD 1924), before reading music and philology at Budapest University (1925–8). He was professor of church music and hymnody in the Budapest Reformed Theological Faculty (1952–78), and took the kandidátus degree in musicology (1962) for his book on 16th-century Hungarian melodies. He was a member of the International Fellowship for Hymnological Research and a regular contributor to its yearbook, and a member of the musicology committee at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, of which he was president (1977–80). His chief research topic was Hungarian music history, with special reference to the musical life of Hungarian Protestant churches and schools; he prepared many organ settings and choral compositions for church use.

Énekeskönyv református keresztyének számára...

Article

Stanley Sadie

[Cyril Leonard Elwell]

(b Cambridge, Oct 30, 1908; d Cambridge, Dec 26, 1977). English writer on music. Largely self-taught, he worked in various university departments and libraries from 1930; his musical studies were particularly encouraged by E.J. Dent. He was appointed assistant in the music section of the University Library, Cambridge, in 1943 and librarian of the Pendlebury Library at the University Music School in 1946, becoming curator in 1957; in the following year the honorary MA was conferred on him by the University of Cambridge. He retired in 1973.

Cudworth’s interests ranged wide. He lectured and wrote on architecture and local history, and wrote novels and plays as well as librettos for musical treatment by Patrick Hadley (Fen and Flood, 1954; Connemara, 1958). His scholarly interests focussed on the 18th century and especially on British music, where his work on the keyboard concerto and the symphony opened up new areas of study; but he also worked on the links between music and literature, while his careful research on questions of attribution and authenticity solved many outstanding problems (it was he who established that ‘Purcell’s Trumpet Voluntary’ was by Jeremiah Clarke). Cudworth was a prolific writer of criticism and record sleeve notes as well as a frequent and skilful broadcaster. Many generations of Cambridge music students are indebted to him for his generous and friendly assistance and counsel....

Article

Bojan Bujic

revised by Jernej Weiss

(b Vučja vas, nr Ljutomer, Slovenia, Sept 19, 1911; d Ljubljana, Slovenia, Sept 2, 1993). Slovenian musicologist. He attended the State Male Teachers Training College in Maribor (1927–32), and studied education science and psychology at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana (1932–6). He obtained his musical education in composition under Slavko Osterc at the Conservatory in Ljubljana (1932–7) and under Jaroslav Křička at the Master School of the Prague Conservatory (1937–8). In 1938 he received the PhD in music education at the Faculty of Arts in Ljubljana. In the years 1938–43 and 1945–61 he taught music history at the Ljubljana Conservatory (from 1939 at the Academy of Music in Ljubljana). In 1962 he founded the department of musicology at the University of Ljubljana, where he became professor of history of Slovenian and contemporary world music and head of the department (...

Article

Stephan D. Lindeman and George Barth

(b Vienna, Feb 21, 1791; d Vienna, July 15, 1857). Austrian piano teacher, composer, pianist, theorist and historian. As the pre-eminent pupil of Beethoven and the teacher of many important pupils, including Liszt, Czerny was a central figure in the transmission of Beethoven's legacy. Many of his technical exercises remain an essential part of nearly every pianist's training, but most of his compositions – in nearly every genre, sacred and secular, with opus numbers totalling 861, and an even greater number of works published without opus – are largely forgotten. A large number of theoretical works are of great importance for the insight they offer into contemporary musical genres and performance practice.

The primary source of information about Czerny is his autobiographical sketch entitled Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben (1842). In it, he describes his paternal grandfather as a good amateur violinist, employed as a city official in Nimburg (Nymburk), near Prague. Czerny's father, Wenzel, a pianist, organist, oboist and singer, was born there in ...

Article

(b London, June 29, 1895; d Woking, March 3, 1984). English musicologist, composer and pianist. Her music studies were pursued privately with York Bowen and Fanny Davies for piano and with Benjamin Dale (whom she later married) for composition. Active as a pianist in the early part of her career, she broadcast frequently during the period 1927–31. From 1926 to 1928 she studied Swedish language and literature at University College, London, and later published translations from that and other languages (e.g. Redlich's Claudio Monteverdi and Reifling's Piano Pedalling). She taught theoretical subjects at the Matthay School (1925–31) and taught and lectured for the Workers' Educational Association (1945–50, 1957). She served on the council of the Society of Women Musicians (1920–25, 1946–9) and acted as Ethel Smyth's musical executor in 1944. Kathleen Dale's work was mainly in the field of keyboard music, though she also wrote a biography of Brahms and personal reminiscences of Ethel Smyth and Marion Scott. She edited Schubert's E minor Piano Sonata ...

Article

Era Barutcheva

(b Krasnodar, Sept 27, 1931). Russian musicologist. She studied under Druskin at the Leningrad Conservatory (advanced diploma 1955), and took a postgraduate course with Gozenpud at the Institute of Theatre, Music and Cinematography (1957–60). She was a lecturer at the College of Musical Education (1955–65) and in the department of the history of Western and Russian Music of the Academy of Culture (1966–76). In 1976 she was chosen to head the newly created department of music criticism at the Leningrad Conservatory; in 1996 she also became head of the musicological faculty there.

Among Dan′ko's many areas of research is music theatre, a theme reflected in her Kandidat dissertation (on Prokofiev's Betrothal in a Monastery, 1964) and her doctoral dissertation (on 20th-century comic opera, 1984), as well as in numerous books and articles. A leading figure in the musical life of St Petersburg, Dan′ko displays a lively interest in contemporary composers. She has guided the publication of academic collections and archive material and organized a number of musicological conferences....

Article

Igor′ Bėlza

revised by Lyudmila Korabel′nikova

(b Shuya, Vladimir province, 12/June 25, 1912; d Moscow, Sept 1, 1980). Soviet musicologist and teacher. After graduating from the Moscow Conservatory in 1936, he continued his studies as a postgraduate and took the Kandidat degree in 1939 with a dissertation on Tchaikovsky’s symphonies. While teaching music history at the Moscow Institute for Military Conductors (1944–57) he was also a senior lecturer at the Moscow Conservatory (1949–57). From 1945 to 1953 he was deputy director of the music department of All Union Radio, and from 1954 he was chairman of the committee of music critics at the Union of Composers of the USSR. Danilevich’s principal research interests were in 19th- and 20th-century Russian music. He wrote books and articles on Tchaikovsky and Rimsky-Korsakov and published numerous studies of Soviet composers, notably Kabalevsky and Shostakovich. A number of his works reflect the ideology of his time....

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Santiago, May 16, 1932). Chilean ethnomusicologist and folklorist. At the University of Chile he studied philosophy, specializing in Romance languages and Spanish education (1958–65); he also studied ethnomusicology and folklore privately with Carlos Lavín. He has held positions as professor of folklore at the Catholic University (1957–74), professor of ethnology and folklore at the University of Chile (appointed 1971), professor of ethnomusicology at the latter institution (appointed 1963), chairman of the art department of the Catholic University (1972–4) and president of the Research Committee of the University of Chile, northern campus (appointed 1974). In 1973 he visited the University of California at Los Angeles and Berkeley as a fellow of the University of Chile. He has lectured widely in Latin America and the USA, and participated in numerous international conventions and congresses. In his research he has concentrated on the study of Chilean folklore and folk music, devoting many years to field work; his extensive publications reveal a systematic and comprehensive approach to the subject....