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Article

Robert Pascall

(b Frauental, Styria, May 5, 1842; d Vöslau, nr Vienna, Oct 5, 1899). Austrian conductor, teacher, editor and composer, brother of Robert Fuchs. He studied theory with Simon Sechter in Vienna and was appointed Kapellmeister of the Bratislava Opera in 1864. He then worked as an opera conductor in Brno (where his only opera, Zingara, was first produced in 1872), Kassel, Cologne, Hamburg, Leipzig and finally, from 1880, at the Vienna Hofoper. In 1873 he married the singer Anthonie Exner in Kassel. Fuchs became a professor of composition at the Vienna Conservatory in 1888 and succeeded Hellmesberger as its director in 1893; the next year he received the title of assistant Hofkapellmeister for his work at the court opera. He played an important part in preparing the Schubert Gesamtausgabe, editing the dramatic works and some of the orchestral music. He also edited operas by Handel, Gluck and Mozart and wrote songs and piano pieces....

Article

Harry Eskew

(b Pennsylvania, April 6, 1778; d Singers Glen, VA, Dec 24, 1862). American composer and tune book compiler. A Mennonite, he compiled for the German-speaking denominations of the Shenandoah Valley Die allgemein nützliche Choral-Music (Harrisonburg, VA, 1816), a shape-note tune book that contained chiefly chorales but also included four folk-hymn tunes taken from Davisson’s Kentucky Harmony (1816). In 1832 he published in Winchester, Virginia, A Compilation of Genuine Church Music, a book of mostly Anglo-American tunes, which had reached ten editions by 1860. By the fifth edition (1851) the title had become Harmonia sacra, being a Compilation of Genuine Church Music, and its notation had changed from four- to seven-shape. A 25th edition, The New Harmonia sacra: a Compilation of Genuine Church Music (1993), is still in use among Mennonites of the Shenandoah Valley. Funk’s other shape-note publications include A Map or General Scale of Music...

Article

Mel R. Wilhoit

[Homer, Charlotte G.]

(b Wilton, IA, Aug 18, 1856; d Hollywood, CA, Sept 14, 1932). American composer and editor. In 1892 he moved to Chicago where he established a studio and during the ensuing 23 years became one of the most prolific and successful writers of gospel hymns. He was associated with numerous prominent evangelists, including Gipsy Smith, J. Wilbur Chapman and Dwight L. Moody, as well as the songleader and publisher Rodeheaver, who acquired Gabriel’s services in 1912. Gabriel supplied much of the copyrighted material used by the Rodeheaver company for 20 years, often writing both words and music. He frequently employed the pen name Charlotte G. Homer.

Gabriel wrote over 8000 works, the most popular of which were Send the light (1891), When all my labors and trials are o’er (The Glory Song, 1900), My Savior’s Love (1905) and Brighten the corner where you are...

Article

Darlene Graves and Michael Graves

[William J. ]

(b Alexandria, IN, March 28, 1936). American gospel songwriter, performer, producer, and publisher. He grew up on a small farm in Indiana and graduated from Anderson College with a major in English and a minor in music. He went on to receive a master’s degree in guidance and counseling and met his future wife and song-producing partner, Gloria Sickal, while both were teaching high school. Gaither started singing gospel music as a child and in 1956 formed the Bill Gaither Trio with his brother Danny and his sister Mary Ann. He started his own publishing company in 1959. He continued to perform and compose while a teacher at Alexandria High School and in 1961 formed the Gaither Music Company to publish his works. After their marriage in 1962, Gaither and his wife wrote their first major song, “He touched me,” which was a significant hit by 1963. He re-formed the Bill Gaither Trio with Gloria and Danny, and in ...

Article

Jonathan Wilshere

(b Leicester, March 15, 1769; d Leicester, Nov 16, 1853). English hosiery manufacturer, writer on music, minor composer and editor. Procuring a copy of Beethoven’s E♭ String Trio op.3 in Bonn, he played the viola in a Leicester performance in 1794, three years before its London publication. He was thus regarded as the introducer of Beethoven’s music to England and was asked, at the unveiling of Beethoven’s statue in Bonn (1848), to sign the inauguration parchment beneath the names of Victoria and Albert. He was a member of the semichorus at Victoria’s coronation (1838) and trained a 100-voice chorus for the important 1827 Leicester Musical Festival; some of his songs, glees and duets appeared under ‘W.G., Leicester’, with one psalm tune, published as by Paxton. He provided linking music for Judah, an oratorio freely based on Beethoven, Haydn and Mozart (the slow movement of Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony quickening into the March of the Philistines). Gardiner wrote to Beethoven offering 100 guineas for an overture to ...

Article

Ingram D. Marshall

(Adams)

(b Portland, ME, Jan 27, 1952). American composer, publisher and writer on music. He studied with Tenney and Budd at the California Institute of the Arts (BFA 1972). He is best known as the editor and publisher of Soundings (1971–91), a journal that included scores by many now well-known American avant gardists and experimentalists such as Lou Harrison, Nancarrow and Partch as well as composers of his own generation. Like some of his mentors, Garland has chosen to live outside the academic and commercial musical worlds. He has travelled widely and been strongly influenced by the musics of Mexico and Indonesia. His works are spare but lyrical, often using exotic instrumentation though much of his output is for the piano (he has written a number of works for the pianists Herbert Henck and Aki Takahashi). His most ambitious work is The Conquest of Mexico, a shadow puppet dance-drama. In more recent works, such as ...

Article

John Snelson

[Armitage, Reginald Moxon]

(b Wakefield, July 15, 1898; d London, March 4, 1954). English composer, lyricist and publisher. He became the honorary deputy organist at Wakefield Cathedral at the age of 12, then won a scholarship to the RCM at 15, studying with Sir Frederick Bridge and Sir Walter Parrott. After brief service in World War I he took a degree in music at Christ’s College, Cambridge; while there he began to compose popular songs, and subsequently Charlot commissioned him to write for his 1926 revue. Having adopted his now familiar pseudonym, Gay became a leading writer of popular songs, several of which became closely identified with leading British performers. These included I took my harp to a party (Gracie Fields), There’s something about a soldier (Cicely Courtneidge), Run, rabbit, run (Bud Flanagan) and All over the place (Tommy Trinder). Many of his songs were interpolated into films and became dance-band favourites. Alongside his collaborations with other lyricists, most notably with Frank Eyton in the 1940s, his own lyrics include ...

Article

Howard Mayer Brown

revised by Lynda Sayce

(b Nuremberg, c1500; d Nuremberg, 1570). German instrumentalist, lute maker and compiler and arranger of several volumes of instrumental music. He was probably the son of Conrad Gerle (d 1521), a well-known lute maker in Nuremberg. He may be presumed to have spent his life in his native city. He may have been related to Georg Gerle who worked as an instrument maker in Innsbruck during the second half of the 16th century.

Hieronymus Formschneider of Nuremberg published three volumes of music by Hans Gerle: Musica teusch, auf die Instrument der grossen unnd kleinen Geygen, auch Lautten (1532), Tabulatur auff die Laudten (1533) and Eyn newes sehr künstlichs Lautenbuch (1552). On the title-page of the last volume the author called himself ‘Hans Gerle den Eltern’ (the elder), implying the existence of a younger relative with the same forename.

The first volume, ...

Article

Walter Gerstenberg

(b Frankenhausen, March 26, 1758; d Hildesheim, Dec 7, 1841). German music publisher and composer. From 1778 to 1786 he attended the Gymnasium Andreanum in Hildesheim as a singer, and then studied law in Leipzig until 1788. On 26 March 1792 he opened a music and book shop in St Petersburg after spending a short period as a private tutor in Kiev; in 1793 he made his schoolfriend Friedrich August Dittmar a partner in the business, which had come to the fore with many musical and literary publications. He opened his own music engraving works in 1795, and in 1796 went to Gotha, where he founded a branch of the St Petersburg firm, but moved to Hildesheim in the same year. Connections with the parent firm in St Petersburg steadily weakened, and Dittmar carried on the business alone under many different trade names until 1808. Between 1792 and ...

Article

Lawrence F. Bernstein

(fl Paris, 1540–60). French editor, composer and arranger. He was employed as an editor by Pierre Attaingnant in Paris, where he was known as a ‘musicien compositeur’. The title-pages of books 3, 4 and 5 of Attaingnant’s Danceries state that the music was ‘looked over’ or ‘looked over and corrected’ by Claude Gervaise, sçavant musicien’. After Attaingnant’s death Gervaise continued to give editorial assistance to Marie Lescallopier Attaingnant, who maintained the printing establishment, bringing out volumes of music sporadically until 1558. His circle of friends is known to have included at least one other Parisian musician, Julien Le Maître, court oboist and violinist.

Gervaise is remembered principally for his instrumental music. In addition to editing three books of Danceries, he composed the music of the sixth volume. It contains numerous ensemble dances, almost all of them four-part, and closely resembles the other volumes of the series. The dance forms employed are the ...

Article

Milton Sutter

revised by Carlida Steffan

(b Friuli, ?1770; d Venice, early 1830). Italian music lexicographer, teacher and composer. He studied music in Padua with Jacopo Agnola and then went to Venice, where he taught theory and composition. There, in 1801, he published his Dizionario della musica sacra e profana, the first music dictionary in Italian, which he described as modelled on the French works by Brossard and Rousseau, and Grammatica ragionata della musica, an introduction to the elements of music and musical instruments, which included an annotated bibliography of writers on the theory and practice of music from 1500 to the end of the 18th century. Second editions of both works, the Dizionario revised and much enlarged, appeared in 1820. A reprint of this edition of the Dizionario appeared in 1830 (called the third edition on its title-page). Although much of the material in both editions of the Dizionario is superficial and incorrect, a few of the entries are useful, providing information not easily found elsewhere. In ...

Article

James R. Hines, Barbara Turchin and Nicholas Michael Butler

(b Hesse-Kassel, Germany, c1786; d New York, NY, July 30, 1829). American theater manager, pianist, organist, composer, and music publisher of German birth. He moved to the United States at the end of the 18th century and was probably related to the musician George Gilfert who was in New York as early at 1789. In his first New York advertisement in 1800, he was described as a musician “lately from Europe.” The New York directory of 1805 lists him as a music teacher in that city, but in 1806 he migrated to Charleston, South Carolina, with a number of other theater musicians. He presented his first concert there on 3 March 1807 and quickly became a favorite member of the local music scene. In December 1809 he became the organist of St. John’s Lutheran Church, and in December 1810 he opened a music store in partnership with a fellow German musician, Philip Muck, under the name C. Gilfert and Company. This institution chiefly sold imported instruments, accessories, and music, but in early ...

Article

Samuel F. Pogue

revised by Frank Dobbins

(fl Lyons, 1550–84). French music printer, bookseller, composer and instrumentalist. In 1551 he prepared the third in a series of four books of music for guitar printed in Paris by Robert Granjon and Michel Fezandat (RISM 1551²²). In the dedication Gorlier wrote apologetically of the four-course guitar and his reasons for composing for an inferior instrument, saying that he wanted to show that it was as capable as larger instruments of reproducing music in two or three parts. Besides being an ‘excellent joueur’ on the guitar, as cited on the title-page, he evidently played the spinet; in a pamphlet (now lost) concerning Loys Bourgeois’ Droict chemin de musique (1550) Bourgeois called him ‘trougnon d’épinette’ (‘garbage of the spinet’) and complained that he had not been educated in classical languages and mathematics like the singer-composers in Lyons, Layolle Roussel and Jambe de Fer.

Gorlier was granted a privilege for printing music on ...

Article

(b Besançon, 1514–20; d Lyons, 28–31 Aug 1572). French composer, music publisher and editor. The suggestion that he was Palestrina’s teacher has long been discounted. He was studying at Paris University in 1549 when chansons by him first appeared in print. In 1551 he became a proofreader with the publisher Nicolas Du Chemin, and from 1552 to 1555 he was Du Chemin’s partner (although even by this later date he was still described as ‘estudiant en l’University de Paris’). He played an important role as both composer and editor in the time he worked for Du Chemin. The Moduli undecim festorum (RISM 15547; ed. in RRMR, lvi, 1983), for instance, includes as part of its liminary materials a Latin poem by Goudimel in which he counselled his readers to ‘buy this book with money, you will see (believe me) no uncorrected work’. His music was well represented in this book as well as in others he prepared for his employer. Through Jean Brinon, to whom he dedicated his first book of psalms (...

Article

Katherine K. Preston

revised by Sidney R. Vise

(Burns)

(b Cavendish, MO, Sept 13, 1908; d New York, April 16, 1997). American composer and publisher. The son of amateur musicians, he began to compose at the age of nine. Ten years later he won a composition scholarship to the San Francisco Conservatory, where he studied with Ernest Bloch (1927–33). From 1933 to 1935 he attended the University of California, Berkeley, studying with Albert Elkus and E.G. Stricklen. A scholarship enabled him to continue his training in Paris, where he studied composition with Milhaud and conducting with Pierre Monteux (1935–7). After his return from France, Green taught at Berkeley and worked as an arranger for the WPA Music Project in San Francisco (1938). In 1939 he became supervisor of the San Francisco Federal Chorus and director of the Federal Music Project of Northern California (1939–41). He was chief of music for the Veterans Administration in Washington, DC, from ...

Article

Noal Cohen

[Grice, George General; Qusim, Basheer]

(b Pensacola, FL, Nov 28, 1925; d Pensacola, FL, March 14, 1983). American jazz saxophonist, flutist, composer, arranger, music publisher, and teacher. Known more as a composer and arranger than as an instrumentalist, he was nonetheless an alto saxophonist out of the Charlie Parker tradition with a lyrical bent and a recognizable style and sound. He studied clarinet initially and after serving in the US Navy (1944–6) attended the Boston Conservatory (to 1952). His first exposure came through an encounter with the saxophonist Stan Getz in Boston who recorded several of Gryce’s compositions. After moving to New York in 1953, Gryce was soon a part of the city’s vibrant milieu, recording with the drummer Max Roach and the pianist Tadd Dameron. Throughout his career, Gryce collaborated with a number of noted trumpet players including Clifford Brown, Art Farmer, Donald Byrd, and Richard Williams. With Byrd, he co-led the Jazz Lab, which made a number of highly regarded recordings in ...

Article

Howard Mayer Brown

revised by Frank Dobbins

(b Rouen, early 16th century; d c1565). French poet, translator and publisher. He is reputed to have gone to Geneva when he was young, to join the Calvinists, but his first published work was printed in Paris: a setting by Janequin of one of his chansons spirituelles, Hellas, mon Dieu, ton ire, published by Attaingnant in 1545. In 1546 his translations of the Te Deum and Psalm cxxiv were printed in Geneva as an appendix to two of Calvin's sermons; in the same year he published a prefatory quatrain in the Chrestienne resjouissance of Eustorg de Beaulieu. Denounced for bawdiness and swearing against Calvin and his pastors, he was imprisoned briefly in 1549 and thereafter took refuge in Lyons. By 1547 he had contributed a dedicatory poem to Loys Bourgeois' settings of psalm translations by Marot printed by Beringen of Lyons, while in 1548 a volume of his ...

Article

Andrew Thomson

(b Boulogne-sur-Mer, March 12, 1837; d Meudon, March 29, 1911). French organist, teacher, composer and editor. He was the son of Jean-Baptiste Guilmant, organist of St Nicolas, Boulogne, who was his first teacher; he also received harmony lessons from Gustav Carulli. Devoted to the organ from an early age, he set himself an unremitting regime of practice, composition and studying treatises. At 16 he had become organist of St Joseph, and two years later his first Messe solemnelle in F was performed at St Nicolas. Soon his musical activities broadened to include teaching solfège at the Ecole Communale de Musique, playing the viola in the Société Philharmonique, and establishing an Orphéon that won a number of prizes. In 1860 he went to Brussels to study with the organist J.N. Lemmens, purportedly the inheritor of the authentic tradition of J.S. Bach. Numerous opportunities to inaugurate new organs followed, above all those of Aristide Cavaillé-Coll in Paris at St Sulpice in ...

Article

(b New York, July 12, 1895; d Doylestown, PA, Aug 23, 1960). American lyricist, librettist, producer and publisher. Born into a notable theatrical family, his grandfather and namesake was the flamboyant opera impresario Oscar Hammerstein (1847–1919), who created and lost a handful of opera houses and companies around the turn of the century. Oscar studied law at Columbia where he became involved in the Varsity shows and, after graduation, continued to write songs. By ...

Article

Richard Crawford

revised by David W. Music

(b Washington, Litchfield Co., CT, Oct 15, 1784; d New York, NY, May 15, 1872). American composer, tunebook compiler, hymn writer, and writer on music. His early musical education came largely from independent study and family encouragement. In 1797 the family moved from New England to Clinton, New York, where Thomas led a village choir and began teaching singing schools. He became active in the Oneida County Musical Society (later named the Handel and Burney Society), formed around 1814. In 1815 he began his career as a tune book compiler. He taught singing schools in Utica and the surrounding area, and from 1819 to 1823 in the region of Troy and Albany.

In 1823 Hastings settled in Utica, where he edited the Western Recorder, a religious weekly. His regular column on church music helped to establish his reputation, and he made occasional trips from Utica to lecture and advise religious groups on the subject. In ...