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Jared Pauley

Los Angeles-based rap group. Instrumental in developing “freestyle rap” as a legitimate genre as well as being one of the few groups from the West Coast to feature jazz-based production. Freestyle Fellowship consists of rappers Myka 9, Aceyalone, Self Jupiter, P.E.A.C.E., and J. Sumbi, the group’s producer.

The group got their collective start at The Good Life Café in Los Angeles, a prominent venue for poets and freestyle rap artists. Freestyle Fellowship also played a pivotal role in establishing Project Blowed, a weekly performance workshop for aspiring rappers located in Los Angeles’s Leimert Park neighborhood.

The group is best known for its 1991 debut album To Whom It May Concern, which has been heralded as an underground classic by many in the hip-hop community for its extensive use of jazz samples and improvised lyrics. The group released a second album Innercity Griots in 1993. (The album’s executive producer, Kedar Massenburg, went on to discover singer Erykah Badu.) Freestyle Fellowship did not record another album until ...

Article

Amy Kazuye Kimura

Balinese dance and music group founded in 1979 in the San Francisco Bay Area by Michael Tenzer, Rachel Cooper, and I Wayan Suweca. It has since grown into an internationally recognized ensemble that has toured throughout North America and Bali. Under the leadership of its permanent directors and visiting artists from Bali, its members have studied using traditional methods, foregoing written notation, learning instead through imitation and by rote. The group has performed a variety of Balinese dance and music genres, including gender wayang, gong kebyar, bamboo jegog, and angklung. Its repertoire has included traditional works as well as kreasi baru (“new creations”) by Balinese and American artists, commissioned with the support of public and private funding initiatives. The group’s long-standing ties to artistic circles in both the United States and Bali have positioned it as a strongly cross-cultural organization, mutually influencing both American and Balinese musicians and dancers. In addition to performances, the ensemble has hosted educational workshops to share and promote Balinese arts and culture. In ...

Article

Jared Pauley

Rap duo consisting of Guru (G.U.R.U.; Keith Edward Elam; b Roxbury, MA, 17 July 1961; d New York, NY, 19 April 2010) and DJ Premier (Christopher Edward Martin; b Houston, TX, 21 March 1966). It is considered one of the greatest hip-hop duos of all-time, and its combination of rugged East Coast hip hop with jazz samples was highly influential on the sound of mid-1990s rap music.

Gang Starr was initially formed in 1985 by Elam, who at the time used the stage name Keithy E, and DJ 1 2 B-Down. After the duo disbanded Guru recruited DJ Premier, then going by the name Waxmaster C. The pair released their first studio album, No More Mr. Nice Guy (1989), and quickly gained recognition. They continued to build interest with their song “Jazz Thing,” which was featured prominently in Spike Lee’s film Mo’ Better Blues (1990...

Article

Jacqueline Warwick

Popular music phenomenon involving pre-teen and teen girls that was especially prevalent in the early to mid-1960s and had a significant echo in the 1990s with such groups as Destiny’s Child and the Spice Girls. Most girl groups comprised between three and five members, all adolescent girls, who generally dressed alike and performed simple choreography while they sang about themes of importance to girl culture. For the most part songwriting credits on girl group records are attributed to professional songwriters, instruments were played by professional session players, and the songs treat such topics as crushes on boys, wedding fantasies, the strictness of parents, and the travails of adolescent romance. Some of the best known groups are the Shirelles, the Crystals, the Marvelettes, Little Eva, and Lesley Gore (the last two associated with the genre although nominally solo artists). The Supremes and the Shangri-Las are generally considered girl groups, although their chief popularity came after the main girl group phenomenon had ended. Between ...

Article

Horace Clarence Boyer

American gospel quartet. Its original members were Henry Owens (lead), Clyde Reddick (tenor), Willie “Bill” Johnson (baritone), and Orlandus Wilson (bass); Reddick was later replaced by Willie Langford, but returned to the group in the 1950s. The group was formed in the late 1920s in Norfolk, Virginia, while its members were still attending high school, and had achieved great popularity by the mid-1930s. Their style was similar to that of barbershop quartets of the period, emphasizing close harmony with precise attacks and releases. Most of their repertory consisted of black spirituals, to which they applied a secular beat. Although they were not the first gospel quartet to broadcast—the Southernaires and the Delta Rhythm Boys had preceded them—their radio broadcasts in the 1930s and 1940s inspired several generations of vocal quartets, including the Harmonizing Four, the Dixie Hummingbirds, and the Soul Stirrers. In 1940, after appearing at Café Society, New York, they began to perform more secular music and eventually settled in Europe. Although the group has occasionally changed membership, it has remained active into the 21st century....

Article

Friedrich W. Riedel

Benedictine abbey near Krems, Lower Austria. It was founded in 1083 by Bishop Altmann of Passau as a monastery for prebendaries. In 1094 it was taken over by Benedictines from St Blasien in the Black Forest, and rapidly became an important centre of religious and intellectual life. After a period of decline during the Reformation, Göttweig flourished in the Baroque era, particularly under the abbot Gottfried Bessel (1714–49), who, after a fire in 1718, instigated the rebuilding of the monastery in Baroque style. Despite the misfortunes which befell the monastery during the Enlightenment and the Napoleonic Wars, and the disruption caused by World War II, Göttweig remained an important religious and cultural centre. It has a long musical tradition; choral singing was fostered from the abbey’s foundation, and its choir school dates from the Middle Ages. By the 15th century an organist had been appointed, and polyphony was sung in the 16th century. An inventory of ...

Article

Rebecca A. Forrest

Punk band. It was founded in 1987 by Billie Joe Armstrong (b Oakland, CA, 17 Feb 1972; guitar and vocals), Mike Dirnt (b Berkeley, CA, 4 May 1972; bass and backing vocals), and John Kiffmeyer (b 11 July 1969; drums), who was later replaced by Tre Cool (b Frank Edwin Wright III, Frankfurt, Germany, 9 Dec 1972). Most often categorized as punk, Green Day draws on musical influences from punk, ska, and classic rock, among others.

The band cultivated a fruitful partnership with Lookout! Records in the late 1980s and early 1990s, which in part fostered their initial underground success. This later was parlayed into a major record deal with Reprise Records, which produced their hit album Dookie (1994). The album offered fans a fresh sound in an industry that was saturated with grunge music, its title (slang for excrement) suggesting juvenile subject matter. The album included “Longview” and “Basket Case,” which both reached number one on the US Alternative charts, and the band’s first Top 10 song, “When I Come Around.”...

Article

Nicolas Roussakis

Instrumental group. It was formed in New York in 1962 “to provide high-caliber performances of difficult new music.” The founders were charles Wuorinen and harvey Sollberger , who were both at the time graduate students at Columbia University. The inaugural concert took place on 22 October 1962 in the university’s McMillin Theater, featuring works by Peter Westergaard, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Otto Luening, and Ralph Shapey. The group was first professional contemporary music group in residence at an American university. It remained at Columbia until 1971, when it became affiliated with the Manhattan School, where it remained until 1985. In 1969 the group received the Laurel Leaf Award from the ACA; the same year nicolas Roussakis joined as administrator, later serving as executive director until 1985. The group has given many world premieres, notably (with date of premiere): Babbitt’s Ensembles for Synthesizer (1964) and Phonemena (1975); Davidovsky’s Synchronisms no.3 (...

Article

Helena Simonett

A seven-man synthesized band categorized as “Regional Mexican.” The band was formed in Chicago in 1996 by percussionist José Luis Terrazas, a native of Durango, Mexico, who grew up in Chicago. The duranguense “Chicago sound” recreated Mexican brass-band sound with synthesizers and drums to interpret Mexican standards such as rancheras and baladas (rustic and refined love songs). Beyond covering traditional songs, the young group also played fast-paced dance tunes that became known as Pasito Duranguense (The Durango Step). Terrazas formed his own label but soon after signed with BMG and then with Mexico-based Disa Records. “El Pasito Duranguense,” one of the tracks off their first Disa album, was an instrumental polka that spurred a dance craze in the Midwest similar to the quebradita in Southern California in the early 1990s. The group received gold and platinum albums, took the 2004 Billboard Award for Best Regional Mexican Album for De Durango a Chicago...

Article

Rob Jovanovic

Hard rock band. It was formed in 1985 in Los Angeles by vocalist W. Axl (William Bruce) Rose (b Lafayette, IN, 6 Feb 1962), guitarist Izzy Stradlin (Jeffrey Dean Isbell, b Lafayette, IN, 8 April 1962), guitarist Tracii Guns (Tracy Richard Irving Ulrich, b Los Angeles, 20 Jan 1966), bassist Ole Beich (b Esbjerg, Denmark, 1955; d Copenhagen, 16 Oct 1991), and drummer Rob Gardner. Guns, Beich, and Gardner had been members of the band LA Guns, while Rose and Stradlin were friends from Indiana. This initial line up lasted for only a few shows before Guns and Beich left to be replaced by guitarist Slash (Saul Hudson, b London, 23 July 1965) and bassist Michael Andrew “Duff” McKagan (b Seattle, 5 Feb 1964), respectively. After a tour up the west coast another personnel change was precipitated by the withdrawal of Gardner, who was replaced by drummer Steven Adler (...

Article

Hapa  

William Bares

Hawaiian slack key guitar duo. It was formed in 1983 by New Jersey native Barry Flanagan, who relocated to Maui, and Honolulu native Keli’i Kaneali’i. Their distinctive blend of Hawaiian traditionalism with world beat eclecticism has significantly impacted the sound of today’s Hawaiian music. The group’s eponymous CD debut in 1993 broke sales records and won both “Contemporary Hawaiian Album of the Year” and “Album of the Year” at the 1994 Na Hoku Hanohano (Hawaiian Grammy) Awards. Despite several personnel swaps (bassist/vocalist Nathan Aweau for Kaneali’i in 2002; singer/songwriter Ron Kuala’au for Aweau in 2010), it remains one of Hawaii’s most in-demand and recognizable music acts. The 2005 album Maui (Finn) peaked at number seven on Billboard Magazine’s World Music charts.

If themes of serenity and natural beauty have long been integral to Hawaiian music, Hapa’s key contribution has been to add nuance in terms of musical and social composition. On the musical end, Hapa has enjoyed success by alloying Hawaiian ...

Article

One of the most popular purveyors of Philly soul during the 1970s, the group originated in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as the Charlamagnes before it changed its name in 1954. Led by Harold Melvin (1939–97), the group performed and recorded throughout the 1950s and 60s with limited success. Its first charting recordings included “My Hero” in 1960, released on the Val-ue label, and “Get out (and let me cry),” released on Landa in 1965. The group’s fortunes changed when Piacevole joined the ensemble as lead vocalist in 1970. The group signed with Kenny Gamble and Leon Huff’s Philadelphia International Records in 1972 and finally broke into the charts that same year with “If you Don’t Know me by Now.” A number of equally successful releases followed: “I miss you” (1972), “The Love I Lost” (1973), “Don’t leave me this way” (1975), and “Bad Luck” (...

Article

Musical wind ensemble usually consisting of three oboes and a bass oboe or bassoon with snare drums, popular in military units from the end of the 17th century until the rise of Harmoniemusik . The term denoted the military band as well as the instrumental combination, a practice that continued in some countries into the 19th century....

Article

Heart  

Ken McLeod

Rock group. It formed in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1973. Heart is composed of Seattle-born sisters Ann (b San Diego, CA, 19 June 1950) and Nancy (bSan Francisco, CA, 16 March 1954) Wilson supplemented bya changing lineup of side musicians. The two collaborate as songwriters, with older sister Ann serving asthe lead vocalist on the majority of the group’s recordings and Nancy as the group’s primary rhythm and lead guitarist. They were among the first women in rock to both write and play their own songs. The band achieved major success in the mid-1970s with their first two albums, Dreamboat Annie (1976) and Little Queen (1977), which spawned a number of top ten singles, including “Dreamboat Annie,” “Crazy on You,” “Magic Man,” and “Barracuda.” After a decline in popularity in the early 1980s, Heart again achieved chart success in 1985 with a self-titled album including the top ten hits “What About Love,” “Never,” “These Dreams,” and “Nothin’ at All.” Their band’s sound has ranged from hard rock and metal numbers (“Barracuda”) to folk-influenced ballads (“Dreamboat Annie”). In ...

Article

Loren Kajikawa

Jazz fusion group. Founded in 1974 by the multi-instrumentalist Dan Kuramoto and the koto player June Okida Kuramoto, Hiroshima took its name from one of two Japanese cities to suffer atomic attack during World War II. It consists of third-generation Japanese Americans and first rose to popularity in the late 1970s amid the Asian American movement, which also provided the impetus for the development of Asian American jazz. Hiroshima’s early sound mixed Japanese instrumentation, notably koto and bamboo flutes, with a blend of electric jazz, funk, and disco soul. In addition to playing a variety of saxophones, flutes, and keyboards, Dan Kuramoto has served as the group’s main arranger and songwriter.

Although Hiroshima’s membership and style have shifted over the years, its most consistent feature has been June Kuramoto’s virtuosic koto playing. At the age of six, she began lessons with the koto sensei Kazue Kudo. Eventually mastering the instrument’s traditional repertoire, she also developed her own approach to improvising....

Article

Hawaiian falsetto singers and musicians. Of no direct relation to steel guitarist Sol Ho‘opi‘i, Solomon (b Maui, HI, 28 March 1935; d Maui, HI, 2 March 2006) and Richard (b Maui, HI, 15 March 1941) Ho‘opi‘i grew up in Kahakuloa on the remote northwest coast of Maui. From an early age they developed a virtuoso style of duet leo ki‘eki‘e (falsetto) marked by open, robust timbre, and a variety of vocal ornaments. Among these are traditional techniques from Hawaiian chant plus adapted practices such as yodeling, echoing, and percussive effects. Both brothers could sing all four voice parts and complex interplay was common, as on “Kupa Landing” and “I Ali‘i No ‘Oe.” The duo often modulated to higher keys as songs progressed, as in “Haleakala Hula.” Himeni (Hawaiian hymns) were another specialty. Discreet elements of early rock and roll also filtered into their sound, especially when performing at parties....

Article

Hole  

Article

Karen Raizor

Country-music comedy duo. The partnership began in 1932 in Knoxville, Tennessee, after Henry Doyle “Homer” Haynes Jr. (b 27 July 1920, Knoxville, TN; d 7 Aug 1971, Hammond, IN) and Kenneth Charles “Jethro” Burns (b 10 March 1920, Conasauga, TN; d 4 Feb 1989, Evanston, IL) were disqualified from a Knoxville station WNOX talent contest for sounding “too professional.” Subsequently hired as studio musicians, they formed the Stringdusters in 1936. They first appeared as Homer and Jethro, performing comedic versions of pop songs, in January 1939, and joined the Renfro Valley Barn Dance the next year. Following service in World War II the duo reunited at WLW (Cincinnati, Ohio) and recorded for King Records. Signing with RCA Victor in 1948, they had immediate success with a send-up of “Baby, It’s Cold Outside.” “How Much is That Hound Dog in the Window” (1953) became the first million-selling country comedy recording, and “The Battle of Kookamonga” earned a Grammy in ...

Article

Wendy F. Hsu

Rock band. Formed at Ramapo College in Mahwah, New Jersey, the Hsu-nami is an erhu progressive rock band fronted by Taiwanese American erhu player and composer Jack Hsu. Hsu was classically trained in violin. His erhu training included intensive summer lessons in Nanjing, China. The rest of the group is composed of Tony Aichele (guitar), Brent Bergholm (guitar), Dana Goldberg (keyboard), John Manna (drums), and Derril Sellers (bass). The Hsu-nami integrates an amplified “erhu,” a two-string spike fiddle used in Chinese classical and folk music, into an instrumental progressive rock sound. Their music is marked by virtuosic erhu melodies and shredding solos, in place of vocals, intertwined with heavy guitar riffs, funky rhythms, and metal-driven rock drumming. Part of the new-fusion rock movement, the group recasts the sound of its 1960s and 1970s roots.

The band has played alongside international and major recording artists such as Chthonic, Yellowcard, Bowling for Soup, Nightmare of You, and The Parlor Mob. Their music was also featured during the ...

Article

Anne Beetem Acker

Interactive computer network used as an extended musical instrument, played by a San Franciso Bay–area experimental computer network band also called The Hub. The band, founded in 1985 by Tim Perkis and John Bischoff, evolved from the League of Automatic Music Composers (1978–83). The concept of The Hub is to create live music resulting from the unpredictable behaviour of the interconnected computer system. The composer/performers consider their performances a type of ‘enhanced improvisation’.

Initially The Hub provided a custom-built central ‘mailbox’ computer and made use of a MIDI network providing communication between the composer/performers’ synthesizers. With the maturation of commercial MIDI equipment, the band shifted to using the Opcode Studio V multiport MIDI interface for their hub. Since MIDI is designed to allow one player or computer to control a group of synthesizers but not to allow a network of synthesizers to interact, band member Scot Gresham-Lancaster devised a way to program the system so the Opcode Studio V could route messages among all the synthesizers in the network....