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Article

Delbek  

Article

Natalie M. Webber

[mihiňgu-berē, nāḍagam-berē]

Small double-headed barrel drum of Sri Lanka. It is found mostly in the coastal region of the south-west. The drum was brought to Sri Lanka from Tamil Nadu with the genre in which it is most often used, the folk drama ṭṭukūttu. It is almost identical with its Indian counterpart, the maddalam. Its body is made from jak wood and its shape and construction are similar to the ṭa-berē, except that it seldom exceeds 46 cm in length and has a large badama (tuning paste) spot (which affects the tuning and timbre) on the left head. It is occasionally suspended from a sling and played standing, but more often the player squats on the ground, with the drum on his lap or on the floor.

The Sinhalese version of the ṭṭukūttu, the ḍagam, continues to thrive on the south-western coast. Two demala-berē players provide the rhythmic accompaniment to the songs and dances in this narrative form, one playing a simple rhythmic ostinato, the other elaborating on it. There are 14 ostinato patterns used in ...

Article

Ḍerā  

Jonathan Katz

Type of friction drum, used in folk dance in Maharashtra, west India. It consists of an earthenware pitcher with a goatskin head; the pitcher contains water, and the head is pierced by two long palm leaves which pass into the inside. The instrument is held by one person sitting and played by a dancer, who moves the fingers and thumbs up and down the leaves, the sound being amplified by the resonating pitcher. The ...

Article

J. Richard Haefer

Generic term for drum among the Ojibwa Indians of the Great Lakes area of North America. It specifically refers to the large powwow-style drum that is a recreation of the historic war drum. The drum is made from a large log or from a staved washtub about 50 to 60 cm in diameter and 35 cm deep. Traditionally it was double-headed, but modern washtub drums have a circular wooden piece attached to the base to hold the staves in place, with a circular opening cut in the middle of the circular piece and a single cowhide head on the top. Leather straps attached to each side are used to mount the drum to the dedsaakwa’igan, a four-pole frame that holds the drum above the ground; the old term for the drum legs is waaganaakobijigan (‘scalp sticks’). The drum is played by four or more singers each with a baaga’akokwaan or ...

Article

Dhāḥ  

Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

Double-headed barrel drum of the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The body, about 40 cm long and 21 cm maximum diameter, is usually made of wood but occasionally of brass. The lower-pitched head, made from cowhide, is struck with a wooden stick; the higher-pitched head, of goatskin, is 1 or 2 cm smaller and struck by the hand. The drum is played together with bhuchyā and sichyā cymbals during processions, dances, and navabājā (nine-drum ensemble) performances. When used in Bhaktapur navabājā performance the drum is called kakhi and decorated with horns from Himalayan mountain sheep. For Buddhist processional music it is painted red and decorated with Chinese ‘longlife’ ideograms in gold paint, and played by Sākya gold- and silversmiths.

S. Wiehler-Schneider and H. Wiehler: ‘A Classification of the Traditional Musical Instruments of the Nevars’, Journal of the Nepal Research Centre, vol.4 (1980), 67–132.

See also Ḍholak ...

Article

Kettledrum of south India and Andhra Pradesh, usually played in pairs. The head is laced with thongs through holes around the edge and V-braced to a ring around the base of the small wooden bowl. These drums are occasionally used instead of the more normal m ṛda ṅga to accompany the ...

Article

Carol M. Babiracki

[ḍhapla, ḍapela]

Wooden, tambourine-like frame drum of southern Bihar, India. It is covered with goatskin, and in the early decades of the 20th century was played by tribal groups such as the Uraon and Muṇḍā as part of the percussion ensembles accompanying communal songs and dances. The drum was made by non-tribal leather-working communities such as the Goṛāit. The ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Medieval double-headed cylindrical drum of India. In the 13th-century Sa ṅgītaratnākara it is described as about 48 cm long and 25 cm in diameter. The heads are stretched on creeper hoops which have seven holes for tension cords. The drum is carried on a shoulder strap and played on the left side with the hand and on the right with a crook-stick. As the description is very similar to that of the medieval Arab ...

Article

Dhimay  

Mireille Helffer

revised by Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

[dhime]

Double-headed cylindrical drum of Nepal. It was originally played only by Newar farmers and bricklayers from the Kathmandu Valley. The body is traditionally a hollowed log, nowadays brass or tinned steel. The heads are laced with leather braces in an X pattern. The lower-pitched head, made from cowhide and struck by the hand, has tuning paste of mustard oil, crushed castor and apple seeds, and tree resin attached inside. The other head, made from goatskin, is struck with a flat cane formed into a spiral. A dhimaybājā ensemble comprises several drums along with large brass cymbals buchyā , and, in the city of Bhaktapur, sichyā . During town rituals dhimay drumming sets the festive mood and inspires people to dance. The drums invoke the gods along the processional route. In Kathmandu a long bamboo pole (dhujyāmujyā) decorated with yak tails and tassels is used as a mace in the procession; it is twirled in synchrony with the drumming. Until ...

Article

Dhol  

Robert At’ayan

revised by Jonathan McCollum

Double-headed drum of Armenia. The cylindrical body is 30 to 35 cm deep and 35 to 50 cm in diameter. One head of goatskin or plastic is thick and produces a deep sound while the other is thinner, giving a higher pitch. It is played with two wooden sticks (one usually thicker than the other) on both heads, or with the fingers and palms on one head. Different areas of the heads produce different pitches and timbres. It is used with other folk instruments to perform at weddings and funerals as well as in other peasant and urban folk celebrations. It is especially important for accompanying dances. The dhol in medieval times was also known as the ...

Article

Mireille Helffer

revised by Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

Double-headed frame drum of Nepal, used by shamans in the Himalayan area. The wooden frame is about 20 cm deep and 30 to 50 cm in diameter. The heads, of goatskin, are secured by wooden hoops and laced with leather thongs in a V pattern. The drum contains rudrakshaya seeds that rattle when it is beaten. It is held by a wooden handle in the shape of a ritual dagger, carved and heavily decorated with cosmic symbols. The drum is required for therapeutic and divinatory rites performed by shamans of various ethnic groups. The shaman holds the handle of the drum in his left hand, with the frame of the drum level with his face, and strikes the outer head with an S-curved cane held in his right hand. In West Nepal a different shaman drum has the same name; this single-headed frame drum has a cross-shaped handle inside the frame and symbolic metal decorations attached to the frame....

Article

Diaff  

Johanna Spector

[deff, gaval, qaval, qavāl]

Single-headed wooden frame drum of Azerbaijan, equivalent of the Middle Eastern duff. The frame, 30 to 45 cm in diameter and 5 to 8 cm wide, is often inlaid with mother-of-pearl or bone. Jingling rings are usually attached inside the frame; it is played with light finger taps or by shaking. An important rhythmic instrument, it is often played by the singer (...

Article

Dialle  

Article

Diangu  

Alan R. Thrasher

Frame drum of the Han Chinese in the Jiangnan region of central-eastern China. The diangu (‘point drum’), also known as huaigu (‘bosom drum’) and biqigu (‘water chestnut drum’), outwardly resembles the northern shugu, but is about one-third smaller. It has a thick wooden frame (diameter of about 18 cm), with a narrow rounded rim and broad shoulders on both sides that slope inward from the rim toward raised flat striking areas in the middle of the drum (about 6 cm thick at the centre). The striking area, known as the ‘drum heart’ (guxin), is a small circular opening in the otherwise solid frame (about 5 or 6 cm in diameter); the hole passes vertically through the frame as a cylindrical soundbox. The head is stretched across these surfaces, and tacked at the edges around the perimeter. The diangu has been used in accompaniment of Kunqu classical opera and other traditions of central-eastern China from about the 16th century onward. In traditional performance, the drum rests vertically on the right knee, supported by the right wrist, and is struck with a single thin stick held in the same hand. In accompaniment of Jiangnan ...

Article

Djumo  

Dance drum of the Monjombo people of the Ubangi region, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Djumo is also reportedly the Mandinko word for bougarabou, a West African goblet or conical drum with rope-tuned antelope-, calf-, or goatskin head, open at the base and often decoratively carved and varnished, and commonly played by hand in groups of three or four to back up ...

Article

Dò-bat  

John Okell

Burmese (Myanmar) double-headed drum. It is about 60 cm long and beaten on both heads by the player’s hands. It is played in pairs, with each player having one drum suspended horizontally across his chest. Like the ò-zi (goblet drum), the dò-bat drums are played on festive occasions, particularly in processions, in villages throughout Burma. They are usually accompanied by the ...

Article

Dok  

Patricia Matusky

Drum of Peninsular Malaysia. The conical wooden body is about 48 cm long, and the single head is about 30 cm in diameter. The head is attached with a metal hoop secured with tuning pins in brackets attached to the body; traditionally the head was secured by rattan or rope lacing. The ...

Article

Dubă  

Tiberiu Alexandru

[dobă, tobă]

Double-headed drum of Romania. It is made from a wooden hoop (veacă, văcălie), 12 cm wide and 20 to 25 cm in diameter, over which are stretched two heads, usually of goatskin, tightly laced with a cord network. The drum is struck with one or two wooden beaters (...

Article

Alastair Dick

[ḍugḍugī, ḍugḍugā, ḍaggā]

South Asian term denoting a small, finger-played kettledrum or bowl drum, generally of clay; it is played singly or as a pair. The terms ḍuggī and ḍaggā may also denote the bass drum otherwise known as bāyā of the modern north Indian art-music drum pair.

Meadows Taylor (1864) recorded the use of the dugdugâ, a small hand-drum used chiefly by mendicants and ballad singers, in the mid-19th century. In this tradition, the single small clay kettledrum ḍuggī is still used by the mendicant Baul singers of Bengal, attached to a waist belt and played by the fingers and hand, especially to accompany their own dancing. In its modern form the Baul ḍuggī is similar to the bāyā of the tablā, having a double skin with the upper one cut away in the centre to leave an outer ring, and with a permanent black tuning paste on the exposed lower skin, placed off-centre. The bracing of the skins is somewhat simpler, however: they are wrapped around a simple hoop and laced by cotton cords to a lower hoop in a V-pattern....

Article

Alastair Dick

[dhukkaṙ]

Paired small kettledrums of northwestern areas of the Indian subcontinent, similar or identical to the tablā. The term means ‘pair’. The dukkaṙ type (also called duggi or dugi), as found up to modern times in the Punjab, Afghanistan, and Kashmir, consists of two cylindrical drums—treble and bass—with laced heads, which are played by the fingers and palms. The Sikhs of the Punjab, who use it to accompany their devotional music, ...