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William C. Smith

revised by Peter Ward Jones

[ Theobald ]

( b Duchy of Modena, 1762; d London, June 14, 1839). Italian flautist, instrument maker and publisher . He apparently played both the flute and the oboe, but gave up the latter after moving to England where he first appeared at a London concert in February 1785, subsequently becoming well known as a solo and orchestral flautist, and remaining active in this capacity until about 1803. In 1787 he established premises in London where from various addresses he published his own compositions (mainly for flute) and other works. From 1789 he sometimes employed the piano maker and music publisher James Ball to print and sell his publications. In 1800 Monzani entered a partnership with Giambattista Cimador as Monzani & Cimador, from about 1803 occupying a building known as the Opera Music Warehouse. Cimador’s arrangement of several Mozart symphonies for flute and strings was allegedly provoked by the refusal of the King’s Theatre orchestra to play the works in their original form because of their difficulty; six of these were published by Monzani after Cimador’s death. From ...


Frank Dobbins

(b Paris, c1510). French lutenist, editor and composer. He lived in Paris and was active as a ‘marchant et joueur d'instruments’ from 6 August 1541 when he took on an apprentice and agreed to teach him the viol and the lute. He maintained a variety of commercial interests; in 1548 he was involved in slave-trading and between 1549 and 1553 he dealt in engravings. On 13 February 1552 he obtained from Henri II a ten-year privilege to print, or have printed, music by his teacher, Alberto da Ripa, and tablatures for guitar, spinet and other instruments. On 19 April Michel Fezandat made an agreement with him to bear the whole cost of printing in return for half the proposed 1200 copies; Morlaye had simply to provide corrected proofs. The collaboration proved fruitful and during the next six years Fezandat printed under Morlaye's privilege three guitar (or cittern) books and four lutebooks, and the partbooks of two collections of four-voice psalms. Morlaye's voice, lute playing and Christian charity were praised in poems by Jacques Grévin published in ...


George J. Buelow

( b Wetter, nr Marburg, 1584/5; d after 1627). German lutenist and music anthologist ; he came from the same family as W.M. Mylius. Trained in chemistry and medicine at various German universities, he completed his doctorate in medicine at Marburg University in 1618. In 1606 he became a citizen of Frankfurt. The records of St Bartholomäus there (now the cathedral) show that on 15 June 1618 he received permission to present Sunday lute concerts with organ accompaniment, for which he was paid 16 gulden a year. He wrote the large-scale Philosophia reformata and books on theology and medicine, the last known one in 1628; one or two include a portrait dated 1618 (‘aetatis suae 33’). His musical importance lay in a large anthology of lute pieces – apparently lost – Thesaurus gratiarum in quibus continentur diversorum authorum cantiones selectissimae, utpote praeambula, toccatae, fugae, fantasiae, galliardae, courantes, voltae, alemandi, passomezi, branles et eius generis choreae ad testudinis tabulaturam...


David Johnson and Heather Melvill

(b Crail, bap. March 21, 1710; d Knebworth, Herts., Jan 2, 1769). Scottish composer, publisher, arranger and cellist. His father, John Oswald (d Berwick-upon-Tweed, bur. 2 Oct 1758), a skilled musician, was town drummer of Crail and later became leader of the town waits at Berwick-upon-Tweed; his brother Henry (b Crail, 1714) also became a professional musician. By 1734 Oswald was teaching dancing in Dunfermline. A sketchbook (Lord Balfour of Burleigh’s private collection, microfilm in GB-En ) shows many features of his compositional style already in place. A set of tunes for scordatura violin (in The Caledonian Pocket Companion, x, c1760), dedicated to patrons in the Fife and Tayside area, was probably written at this time, along with the airs for violin and continuo The braes of Ballendine and Alloa House (in A Curious Collection of Scots Tunes, 1740). In 1735...


Horace Clarence Boyer

(b Atlanta, GA, Aug 4, 1886; d Pittsburgh, PA, Dec 16, 1963). American gospel composer and publisher. When he was 13 he settled with his family in Chicago, where he continued to study piano and began to write gospel songs and arrange black spirituals for the Beth Eden and Liberty Baptist churches. In 1925 he formed the Pace Jubilee Singers, an early conservative gospel group which recorded songs by Pace, Tindley, and others for Victor and Brunswick (1926–9). For a short time the group was accompanied by Thomas A. Dorsey, for whom Pace published several songs through his Pace Music House (established in Chicago in 1910). Pace moved to Pittsburgh in 1936 and shortly afterwards organized the Pace Gospel Choral Union, a 25-member ensemble that was enlarged to as many as 300 singers for special celebrations; its repertory consisted of gospel songs and spirituals. Pace also founded two highly successful music publishing houses in Pittsburgh—the Old Ship of Zion Music Company (...


A.J. Hipkins

(b Vienna, Dec 21, 1826; d Jugenheim, nr Darmstadt, May 9, 1905). Austrian pianist, editor and teacher , father of Max von Pauer . His father was a Lutheran minister, and his mother a member of the great piano-making family of Streicher. He studied the piano under Theodor Dirzka (until 1839) and F.X.W. Mozart (1839–44), harmony and counterpoint under Simon Sechter (1839–44) and orchestration and composition under Franz Lachner in Munich (1845–7). In 1847 he became director of the musical societies at Mainz, where he was active until 1851 conducting and composing theatrical music. However, his début as a pianist in London (23 June 1851) and subsequent appearances there were so successful that he decided to remain. He succeeded Potter as professor of the piano at the RAM (1859–64) and in 1861 began the first of three series of historical chronological performances of harpsichord and piano music. He also gave concerts abroad and was appointed Austrian court pianist in ...



Charles K. Wolfe

(b nr West Monroe, LA, Aug 8, 1921; d Nashville, TN, Feb 24, 1991). American country-music singer, guitarist, songwriter, and publisher. He performed as a guitarist on radio station KMLB (Monroe, LA) before 1950, when he joined the “Louisiana hayride ” on KWKH (Shreveport, LA). Recording contracts with the local Pacemaker label (c1950), Four-Star, and Decca (1951) allowed him to resign his part-time job as a clerk at Sears, Roebuck and concentrate on music. After his initial hit, “Wondering” (1952), he gained national attention with “Back Street Affair” (1952), one of the first country songs to deal forthrightly with adultery. An equally important landmark was “There stands the glass” (1953), a classic drinking song and the first country hit to use the pedal steel guitar, played by Bud Isaacs. It became the favorite backup instrument in country music for the next two decades, and Pierce was the first of many country singers whose slurs, octave jumps, and use of dynamics complemented its sound. During his peak years (...


Renate Federhofer-Königs

( b Schwandorf, Oberpfalz, before c 1550; d ?c 1591). German singer, teacher and music editor . There is evidence that he was a singer in the court chapel of Emperor Ferdinand I at Vienna from 1557 to 1564. From 1564 to 1569 he served in a similar capacity at the court of Archduke Ferdinand of the Tyrol, who transferred his household from Prague to Innsbruck late in 1566. He sang tenor at the court of Duke Wilhelm in Landshut in 1573 and from 1580 he held an appointment as organist and schoolmaster in Regensburg. He was active as an editor and brought out two sets of compositions by his friend Christian Hollander, Newe teutsche, geistliche und weltliche Liedlein (1570) and Triciniorum … fasciculus (1573), and a miscellaneous collection of German songs, Schöner ausserlessner geistlicher und weltlicher teutscher Lieder (RISM 1585 37). He also edited a collection of poorly translated chansons by Lassus, reputedly his teacher, under the title of ...


Albert Mell

revised by Matthias Wiegandt

(b Berlin, Dec 28, 1812; d Dresden, Sept 12, 1877). German cellist, composer, conductor and editor, brother of Eduard Rietz. He studied the cello from the age of eight with Franz Schmidt, Bernhard Romberg and Moritz Ganz. In 1829 he joined the orchestra of the Königstadt theatre. Refusing Spontini's offer of a post in the Berlin court orchestra, he went to Düsseldorf in 1834 to assist Mendelssohn at the Opera; though nominally only assistant conductor he did most of the conducting. When Mendelssohn left Düsseldorf, Rietz became the city's musical director. During the next 12 years he established a reputation as a conductor and a composer; more than two dozen works of his were published, including the music for Goethe's Singspiel Jery und Bately, two symphonies, a cello concerto and several sets of lieder. He continued to play the cello in public, with Ferdinand Hiller and Ferdinand David among others. He assisted Mendelssohn at the Lower Rhine Festival of ...


Beryl Kenyon de Pascual

(b Madrid, May 11, 1815; d Madrid, Oct 7, 1886). Spanish clarinettist, music publisher and instrument inventor . Romero began to study the clarinet in 1826 and by 1829 he was playing in a regimental band and a theatre orchestra in Valladolid. He subsequently joined the band of the royal guards, rising to bandmaster in 1841, and was appointed supernumerary clarinet in the royal chapel in 1844. During the 1840s and 50s he also played in Madrid theatre orchestras as a clarinettist and oboist. From 1849 to 1876 he was professor of the clarinet at the Madrid Conservatory and briefly taught the oboe. He opened a shop in 1854 selling both music and instruments and in 1856 founded a music publishing firm. By 1870 he had incorporated an instrument factory into his business and in 1884 he added a concert room.

Romero was an influential figure in Madrid musical life. As a publisher he laid particular emphasis on making available works by Spanish composers and on enlarging the military band repertory. He published a series of specially commissioned Spanish-language tutors covering all conservatory and band instruments, himself writing those for the clarinet, the bassoon and the french horn. A modern revised edition of his clarinet tutor was still in use in Spain at the end of the 20th century. In ...


Daniel Zager

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Robert (D.) ]

(b New York, c1945). American writer. He studied clarinet and drums and played drums in workshops with Jaki Byard (1968–71) and Cedar Walton (1972). In the 1960s and 1970s he wrote for American and European periodicals, including Down Beat, Jazz Journal, and Jazz Forum, and in 1975 he began publishing the monthly magazine Cadence, which in the following years printed many wide-ranging interviews with jazz and blues musicians and reviews of recordings. Later he formed Cadence Jazz Records (1980), which by the late 1990s had issued more than 100 recordings; North Country Record Distribution (1983), which distributes the jazz and blues recordings of more than 900 small independent labels; Cadence Jazz Books (1992), which publishes reference books, histories, and discographies; and CIMP (1996), for which he had produced about 100 recordings by the turn of the century. He donated his extensive indexed collection of books and journals, covering jazz and blues literature in the English language, to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture of the New York Public Library (...


Matthew Greenall

(b London, Sept 24, 1945). English composer, conductor and editor. He was a chorister at Highgate School, following which he studied music at Clare College, Cambridge. He then taught at the University of Southampton, returning to Clare College as the director of music in 1975. In 1979 he left to devote himself to composition and subsequently to found the Cambridge Singers, a professional choir with whom he has made many recordings, both of his own music and of other (mainly European) choral works. Rutter has concentrated on composing vocal music, particularly for choirs. Within this field he has become probably the most popular and widely performed composer of his generation, especially in the UK and the USA. His idiom grows out of the British choral tradition as exemplified by Holst, Vaughan Williams, Howells, Britten and Tippett, but also draws on a wider sympathy for European music of the later 19th and early 20th centuries, especially the harmonic and melodic language of Fauré, Duruflé and their contemporaries. Rutter's particular gift is for skilled craftsmanship and memorable phrase, found at its simplest in works such as the anthem ...


Mel R. Wilhoit

(b Edinburg, PA, Aug 28, 1840; d Brooklyn, NY, Aug 13, 1908). American evangelistic singer, composer of gospel hymns, and hymnbook compiler. He rose to fame as music director for the evangelist Dwight L. Moody during a series of revival meetings held in England from 1873 to 1875. He popularized ‘singing the gospel’, in which he accompanied himself on a portable organ, performing the songs of Philip Phillips, Philip Bliss and William Bradbury, and making use of such effects as rubato and parlando delivery. He also directed the congregations in singing. Sankey became as effective a revivalist in song as was Moody in his sermons, elevating music to an equal role with preaching in evangelism.

In response to demands for the music used at their meetings, Sankey issued a 24-page pamphlet, Sacred Songs and Solos (London, 1873); this pamphlet eventually blossomed into a volume containing some 1200...


Spencer A. Huston

(b Kassel, Germany, Feb 22, 1819; d Quogue, Long Island, Aug 8, 1895). German pianist, editor, and music publisher, active in the USA. A student of Hummel and Spohr, he made his New York début at the Apollo Salon on 15 November 1838. He was highly praised as a pianist, accompanist, and chamber musician. Many accounts document him accompanying important singers and instrumentalists of New York during the mid-nineteenth century. He also performed piano duos, collaborating with Daniel Schlesinger, Frederick Rakemann, Otto Dresel, and Henry C. Timm, whom Scharfenberg called his “twin brother” because of their frequent appearances together. Joined by Timm and William Mason, he took part in the first New York performance of Bach’s D minor Triple Concerto, bwv1043. Scharfenberg was also active in numerous societies and musical organizations, and was treasurer for the “Vocal Society” and the American Musical Fund Society. He was a founding member and original treasurer of the New York Philharmonic Society, later serving as president from ...


Anne Dhu McLucas

(b Edinburgh, June 1, 1776; d Philadelphia, Dec 11, 1831). American cellist, teacher, composer and music publisher of Scottish birth. He was the son of the Edinburgh cellist and composer J.G.C. Schetky and a nephew of Alexander Reinagle. Schetky emigrated to the USA in 1787 and became active as a performer and music teacher in Philadelphia, where he lived with the musicians Benjamin Carr and Joseph C. Taws. With Carr he was co-editor of The Musical Journal for the Piano Forte (vols.iii–v) and published music from about 1802 to 1811. Between 1812 and 1818 he apparently visited Britain, for he published piano compositions by his father and himself in London and Edinburgh. He was a co-founder in 1820 of the Musical Fund Society in Philadelphia, which owns a portrait of him.


Nils Schiørring

(b Sabro, 30 June ?1743; d Copenhagen, Feb 6, 1798). Danish harpsichordist, composer and music editor. He studied in Copenhagen with J.A. Scheibe and in Hamburg with C.P.E. Bach, whom he befriended. In 1773 he became a harpsichordist at the royal chapel and a teacher at the Hofteater's singing school. He replaced Giuseppe Sarti as chamber musician to the royal court in 1775. For Guldberg's new official psalter (1778) he edited a series of chorale books (1781–3) based on painstaking studies of early sources, to which, with C.P.E. Bach and the Danish musician Raehs as collaborators, he added outstanding harmonizations; these collections introduced monorhythmic chorale melodies (in minims) into Danish church song. Schiørring also edited collections of secular music (particularly popular songs from operas, plays and other works) and contributed to Gerber's Lexicon. (DBL, N. Schiørring)

all published in Copenhagen


Norbert Carnovale and Richard Dyer

(Alexander )

(b New York, NY, Nov 22, 1925). American composer, conductor, educator, writer, publisher, and record producer. He was born into a musical family that had immigrated to America from Germany; his father played in the violin section of the New York PO for 42 years. In 1937 Schuller enrolled in the St Thomas Church Choir School in New York where his general musical education was supervised by t. tertius Noble . By the time he finished high school, he was already a horn player of professional caliber. At the age of 16 he performed in the American premiere broadcast of Shostakovich’s Symphony no.7, the “Leningrad,” conducted by Toscanini; his first book, Horn Technique (London and New York, 1962, 2/1992) has remained a standard reference.

After a season touring in the American Ballet Theatre orchestra under the direction of Antal Dorati, Schuller was appointed to the position of principal horn in the Cincinnati SO (from ...


Jean R. Freedman

[Margaret ]

(b New York, NY, June 17, 1935). American folksinger, songwriter, and folksong collector, daughter of musicologist charles Seeger and composer, educator, and folksong anthologist Ruth Crawford Seeger. Peggy learned piano, guitar, music theory, and transcription from her parents. With her brother mike Seeger , she learned banjo from a book written by their half-brother pete r. Seeger . She later became proficient on autoharp, Appalachian dulcimer, and English concertina. She made her first recording, Folk Songs of Courting and Complaint, while a student at Radcliffe College (1953–5). During the autumn of 1955, she studied at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands. From 1956 to 1959 she traveled throughout Europe, the United States, Russia, and China before settling in England with folksinger, songwriter, and playwright Ewan MacColl [James Henry Miller] (1915–89), who became her musical partner, husband, and father of her children, Neill, Calum, and Kitty. With MacColl, she made more than 100 recordings of traditional Anglo-American ballads, political songs, love songs, work songs, and songs from literature. They frequently performed in folk clubs and concert halls, at festivals, on television, and in films. Seeger and MacColl felt that traditional music was a solid foundation on which the modern songwriter could build. They brought to their songwriting a political dimension, believing that folksongs represent the struggles of ordinary people whose lives are often ignored and whose creations are frequently slighted....


Bruce Degen

(b Middleborough, MA, March 13, 1779; d Providence, RI, Dec 31, 1848). American composer, compiler, teacher, singer, organist and publisher. After accidental eye damage leading to blindness, he undertook musical studies with John L. Berkenhead, Gottlieb Graupner and Thomas Granger about 1800. In 1805 he established himself as a teacher of the piano and organ in Dedham, Massachusetts, where he began to issue his music in collaboration with Herman Mann. Moving to Providence in 1807, Shaw became a central figure in the city’s musical life as organist, organizer of bands and composer of songs, odes, anthems and marches for patriotic and civic occasions. His ‘Military Divertimento’, Welcome the Nation’s Guest, celebrated the visit of Lafayette to Providence in 1824.

Shaw sought to improve the quality of local sacred music, co-founding the Psallonian Society, and provided inspiration to the founding of the Boston Handel and Haydn Society in 1815...