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Guido M. Gatti and John C.G. Waterhouse

[Parma, Ildebrando da]

(b Parma, Sept 20, 1880; d Rome, Feb 13, 1968). Italian composer, conductor and critic. He was the most respected and influential of the more conservative Italian musicians of his generation.

The son of a piano teacher, Pizzetti spent most of his childhood (from 1884) in Reggio Emilia. While at school there he showed less inclination towards music than towards the theatre, writing plays for casual performance among his schoolmates. In 1895, however, he entered the Parma Conservatory, where he studied under Telesforo Righi, a modest but outstanding teacher of harmony and counterpoint, and gained his composition diploma in 1901. Meanwhile he became conversant with 15th- and 16th-century Italian instrumental and choral music performed and expounded by Giovanni Tebaldini, one of the pioneers of Italian musicology, who directed the conservatory from 1897 and took a personal interest his development. Pizzetti’s leanings towards the theatre by no means diminished, and he grew more and more anxious to compose an opera. Various early attempts, mostly unfinished, already showed his preference for heroic subjects, exalted romantic characters and large-scale construction....

Article

Ivan Čavlović

(b Županja, March 6, 1905; d Sarajevo, March 28, 1979). Bosnian-Herzegovinian composer, conductor, pianist, and critic. He studied composition in the class of Blagoje Bersa, conducting in the class of Fran Lhotka, and the piano in the class of Svetislav Stančić at the Academy of Music in Zagreb, graduating in 1927. From 1927 to 1928 he studied composition with Vincent d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum de Paris, and from 1928 to 1929 with Joseph Marx in Vienna.

From 1930 he made his mark conducting several choral ensembles in Zagreb, including Oratorijski zbor sv. Marka, Sloga, Lisinski, and Zagrebački madrigalisti. From 1947 he worked in Sarajevo as a conductor at the Sarajevo Opera House and the Sarajevo Philharmonic Orchestra. From 1955 he taught conducting at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo. He was very active as an accompanist, historian, and critic. He wrote the first historical studies of music in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as many articles for newspapers, magazines, radio, and TV programmes. His rather modest composing legacy is permeated with folk elements, within formal designs of (neo)-classical orientation. He also made arrangements of the works of other Bosnian-Herzegovinian composers (notably Franjo Maćojevksi and Bogomir Kačerovski) to meet the particular needs of local performance contexts....

Article

Karl Stapleton

(b Klatovy, Aug 14, 1837; d Prague, July 19, 1888). Czech composer, pianist and critic. His early musical training was with his father, an organist, and the composer Měchura. After studying law at Prague University (1854–63) he became a court official, but most of his life was devoted to music. He attended Smetana's piano school (1854–5), later becoming a lifelong friend and powerful advocate of Smetana's music. He was a co-founder of the Prague Hlahol choral society (1861), the publishing house Hudební Matice (1871) and the Jednota pro Komorní Hudbu (Society for Chamber Music, 1877). He was music critic of Národní listy (1865–78), editor of Hudební listy (1870-72) and Dalibor (1873–5), and of several collected editions of Czech songs and choruses, including Vesna, Záboj and Hlahol. During the 1870s his free musical soirées provided a valuable platform for performances of works by developing Czech composers, including Dvořák and Fibich. He composed many popular and idiomatic Czech songs and choruses....

Article

Robert Stevenson

(b Zamora, Michoacán, Sept 29, 1900; d Mexico City, Dec 3, 1991). Mexican music critic, scholar, pianist and composer . After studying the piano with Antonio Gomezanda in Mexico City, she was a pupil of André Schaeffner, Lazare Lévy and Alfred Cortot in Paris. She gave début piano recitals in New York City in 1938 and in Paris in 1948. Upon resettling in 1949 in Mexico City, she assisted Adolfo Salazar as writer for the newspaper Novedades and contributed extensively to Mexican and foreign journals. In 1963 she established Heterofonía, Mexico’s longest running musicological journal, and was its editor until her decease.

La mujer mexicana en la música (Mexico City, 1958); repr. in Heterofonía, nos.104–5 (1991), 5–99 Ludwig van Beethoven (Mexico City, 1970) ‘Mexico’, VintonD ‘Mexican Women in Music’, LAMR, 4 (1983), 120–31 I. Farfán Cano: ‘En los ámbitos de la música’, Inter-American Music Review, 12/1 (1991), 1–2...

Article

Henri Vanhulst

(b Liège, July 30, 1877; d Liège, April 30, 1952). Belgian composer, pianist and critic. He studied at the Liège Conservatory with his father Jean-Théodore Radoux, and in 1907 he won the Belgian Prix de Rome with his cantata Geneviève de Brabant. Appointed professor of harmony at the Liège Conservatoire in 1905, he was inspector of music education from 1930 to 1942. He founded a piano quartet, and was for a long time active as a music critic. His interest in Walloon folk music resulted in the publication of several collections of songs with his own accompaniments. He employed leitmotifs, and his vocal style is clearly influenced by Wagner, as is the composer’s use of the orchestra to comment on the actions and emotions of the characters. His musical style is thus hardly original, but he was at his best in his operas and choral works, where his lyrical facility was most pleasing....

Article

Meredith Ellis Little

(fl early 18th century). French dancing-master and author. He was dancing-master to Elisabetta Farnese (1692–1766), who became Queen of Spain on her marriage to Philip V in 1714. Rameau wrote two important works on French court dance, both published in Paris in 1725. The first, entitled Le maître à danser, is the most authoritative exposition of the early 18th-century French style of dancing, a style which was performed throughout Europe because of its elegance and refinement. The book was read and approved by Louis Pécour, dancing-master for the Paris Opéra, and may thus be taken to represent the central French practice of its day. It gives a clear and detailed account of such matters as the correct way to stand, move and ask a lady to dance, etiquette at court balls and the movements and steps of dances, as well as a complete description of the minuet. It is directed primarily towards the needs of social dancing, and does not discuss virtuoso practices peculiar to ballet. The book, which was several times reprinted, contains many excellent drawings which clarify the verbal descriptions. John Essex translated it into English in ...

Article

(b Stockholm, Nov 30, 1884; d Stockholm, May 11, 1947). Swedish composer, conductor and critic. He studied composition with Lindegren (1903–4) and with Pfitzner in Berlin (1905–6), where he had singing lessons with Hey (1905–6), continuing these latter studies in Munich (1906–7). As a music critic he worked for the Svenska dagbladet (1907–9), the Stockholms dagblad (1910–14, 1927–30), the Dagens nyheter (1920–21), and the Nya dagligt allehanda (1938–42). In the decade after 1910 he was active as a singing teacher, and he was press adviser at the Swedish Royal Opera from 1930 to 1936. He made his conducting début in 1915 and was chief conductor of the Göteborg Orchestral Society (1922–5); later he made guest appearances with various orchestras. He was a founder of the Society of Swedish Composers (...

Article

Jehoash Hirshberg

(b Russia, 1899; d Tel Aviv, 1968). Israeli critic, choral conductor and composer of Russian birth. In 1925, soon after his emigration to Palestine, he was appointed music critic of the newly founded socialist daily Davar, a position he retained throughout his life. He changed his surname from Rabinowitz to the more Hebrew Ravina in 1930. His frequent and detailed reviews, which insisted on a high standard of performance and programming, and sought a genuine Jewish musical style, were highly influential. In an attempt to bring music to the people, he collaborated with David Shor on an ambitious education project that included public lectures, the publication of popular music appreciation booklets and song anthologies, and the establishment of a nation-wide network of amateur choirs. He was also a strong supporter of contemporary music in Palestine. His many songs (around 60), mostly written for young children, were intended as part of a newly composed folksong repertory....

Article

Ralph Scott Grover

(b Northampton, May 23, 1901; d Gerrards Cross, Feb 14, 1986). English composer, critic, pianist and teacher.

Born into a poor working-class family, Rubbra was fortunate in having music-loving parents. His mother’s pure soprano voice was prominent in her church choir, and she was in demand locally as a soloist. He began piano lessons at eight, transferring later to a teacher who added instruction in harmony and counterpoint. In his uncle’s music shop he discovered the music of Cyril Scott and Debussy. Leaving school at 14 to help his family financially, he worked as an office boy, then a railway clerk. At 17 he organized an all-Scott concert in Northampton, prompting the composer to accept him as a private pupil. In 1920 he won a composition scholarship to Reading University for study with Holst, and also piano with Evlyn Howard-Jones. In 1921 Rubbra won an open scholarship to the Royal College of Music where his teachers were, Holst, Howard-Jones (privately) and R.O. Morris in counterpoint; Vaughan Williams was used as a substitute during Holst’s absences. Of Rubbra’s earliest compositions, some of his songs were published during his RCM days. One, ...

Article

Daniel Zager

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Robert (D.) ]

(b New York, c1945). American writer. He studied clarinet and drums and played drums in workshops with Jaki Byard (1968–71) and Cedar Walton (1972). In the 1960s and 1970s he wrote for American and European periodicals, including Down Beat, Jazz Journal, and Jazz Forum, and in 1975 he began publishing the monthly magazine Cadence, which in the following years printed many wide-ranging interviews with jazz and blues musicians and reviews of recordings. Later he formed Cadence Jazz Records (1980), which by the late 1990s had issued more than 100 recordings; North Country Record Distribution (1983), which distributes the jazz and blues recordings of more than 900 small independent labels; Cadence Jazz Books (1992), which publishes reference books, histories, and discographies; and CIMP (1996), for which he had produced about 100 recordings by the turn of the century. He donated his extensive indexed collection of books and journals, covering jazz and blues literature in the English language, to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture of the New York Public Library (...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Cayambe, Dec 10, 1903; d Quito, Dec 11, 1977). Ecuadorian composer, pianist and music critic. He first studied with his father Francisco Salgado, himself a composer, then entered the Quito Conservatory in 1910. His first attempts at composition dated from 1913. As a teenager he played the piano in silent-film theatres. He graduated in piano in 1928 and in 1934 was appointed professor of solfège and harmony at the Quito Conservatory (director for two periods, beginning in 1952). Besides directing the group Camara Voz Andes, he founded and directed the symphonic ensemble of the Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana and conducted the orchestra and chorus of the conservatory. For many years he was the music critic of the daily El comercio, and he contributed to the Spanish journal Ritmo.

Salgado is generally considered the leading composer of his generation. He was a prolific composer, mostly of a musical nationalist persuasion, as his numerous symphonies, tone poems, concertos and operas bear witness. He also cultivated typical Ecuadorian popular genres, such as the sanjuanito and pasillo. His ...

Article

Othmar Wessely

(b Pihl, nr Česká Lípa, Bohemia, Jan 30, 1787; d Salzburg, July 3, 1857). Austrian writer on music. He was the son of Count Kinsky’s brewer, Andreas Schmid, and his wife, Theresia Bergmann. After his initial instruction in singing and the piano, he received further musical education after 1798 as a singer in the monastery of the Calced Augustinians in Česká Lípa. From 1804 he lived as a theatre musician and music teacher in Prague, where he also began his literary activity. In 1812 he settled as a private teacher in Vienna. He became a drafting probationer for the Viennese court library in 1818, and was made a Skriptor in 1819 and a Kustos in 1844. At the request of Moritz, Count Dietrichstein, he organized the collection which became the basis for the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, and was its first keeper; his handwritten catalogue is still in existence. From this task arose not only his fundamental studies on the history of printing music from movable type, but also his more than 500 supplements and reports appended to C.F. Becker’s ...

Article

Jann Pasler and Jerry Rife

(b Blâmont, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Sept 28, 1870; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, Paris, Aug 17, 1958). French composer, pianist and critic. Throughout his life, Schmitt was valued for his independent spirit and refusal to be identified with any school or group. In a time when many composers embraced Impressionism, his music, albeit influenced by Debussy, was admired for its energy, dynamism, grandeur, and virility, for its union of French clarity and German strength. While some works, especially youthful ones, reveal a desire to please and are sometimes facile, many others refuse lyrical abandon and sentimentality and are formed of a wilful and premeditated complexity as well as a passion for strong bold colours, violent emotions and extreme contrasts. Schmitt was considered a pioneer during his lifetime, rejected by some and embraced by others for a style that influenced and helped prepare for later innovations by Stravinsky, Ravel, Honegger and Roussel.

Schmitt was born in Lorraine near the German border. His parents loved music and assiduously controlled what he listened to, steering him toward the Classical and German Romantic repertories. His father hoped he would become an organist. At 17 he entered the Nancy Conservatoire where he studied the piano with Henri Hess and harmony with its director, Gustave Sandré. According to his biographer Pierre-Octave Ferroud, Schmitt's most significant musical experience during this period was Franck's Violin Sonata. In ...

Article

John Daverio and Eric Sams

(b Zwickau, Saxony, June 8, 1810; d Endenich, nr Bonn, July 29, 1856). German composer and music critic. While best remembered for his piano music and songs, and some of his symphonic and chamber works, Schumann made significant contributions to all the musical genres of his day and cultivated a number of new ones as well. His dual interest in music and literature led him to develop a historically informed music criticism and a compositional style deeply indebted to literary models. A leading exponent of musical Romanticism, he had a powerful impact on succeeding generations of European composers.

The fifth and last child of August Schumann and Johanna Christiana Schumann (née Schnabel), Robert Schumann was born into a household dominated by literary activity. (There is no evidence for a middle name ‘Alexander’, given in some sources; his birth and death certificates both give ‘Robert Schumann’. Possibly Alexander is a corruption of his teenage pseudonym ‘Skülander’.) His father, an author of chivalric romances and a tireless lexicographer, amassed a small fortune by translating Walter Scott and Byron into German. He was also a book dealer, and Robert, his favourite child, was able to spend many hours poring over the classics of literature....

Article

Ramona H. Matthews

(b Appleton, WI, July 21, 1893; d Neenah, WI, Nov 3, 1975). American pianist, teacher, and writer on music. He was educated at Charleston (South Carolina) College and the University of Wisconsin, and then went to Europe (1920) to study at the University of Madrid and elsewhere, his teachers including the pianist moriz Rosenthal. He settled in Paris to perform, teach, and write, serving as music and drama critic for the Paris Tribune (1921–34) and Paris correspondent for the Musical Digest of New York (1922–9), the Musical Courier of New York (1932–41), the Nuova Italia musicale of Rome, and the Musical Times of London. He was an enthusiastic promoter of concerts of American music in France, and organized the first European festival of American music (Bad Homburg, Germany, 1931). On his return to America (1942) he settled in Appleton to teach and write. He received several honors from the French government for his services to music, and was made a Chevalier of the Légion d’honneur in ...

Article

(b Dresden, 1738; d Schleswig, Nov 22, 1789). German actress and writer. At the end of an unhappy childhood she took to the stage. In 1754 she married the actor Hensel, but they separated three years later. She worked with various troupes and appeared several times in Vienna. After the collapse of the Hamburg Nationaltheater, she took up with the impresario Abel Seyler in 1769, and married him three years later, by which time she was recognized as Germany’s foremost tragedienne. Lessing praised her passionate and majestic acting at Hamburg, and Benda and F. W. Gotter wrote their chilling melodrama Medea to set off her skills in 1775. At the end of her career she wrote a five-act libretto Hüon und Amande, based on Wieland’s epic poem Oberon and set by the Schleswig music director Karl Hanke in 1789. The text was adapted for Paul Wranitzky shortly thereafter by Gieseke as ...

Article

Lenore Coral

(b Durham, Nov 10, 1735; d London, July 6, 1813). English philanthropist and amateur musician . Best known for his fight to abolish slavery, he was also a keen amateur musician who played the flute, clarinet, oboe, flageolet and kettledrums. He had a good bass voice and his Short Introduction to Vocal Musick was published in 1767. Together with his brothers, William (1729–1810), surgeon to George III, and James (d 1783), an engineer, from 1775 until 1783 he held concerts on two barges on the Thames, attended by ‘not only men of the most eminent talents and skill, but also those of the highest and most distinguished rank’ (Hoare). This activity was recorded in a famous painting by Johan Zoffany which shows 15 music-makers, many of them members of the family, on their barge. The brothers also hosted fortnightly concerts of sacred music on Sunday nights in London....

Article

Joseph Clark

(b Graz, Oct 6, 1896; d Vienna, Nov 9, 1978). Austrian composer, conductor and critic. He studied composition at the Schule des Steiermärkischen Musikvereins, Graz (1901–15, 1918–20) with Mojsisovics, Kroemer, Künzel and later Kornauth. During the years 1921–3 he worked as a violin teacher in Leoben, a violinist in the Vienna SO and a conductor, vocal coach and critic in Graz. He edited the Viennese Musikbote (1924–5) and in 1926 he moved to Germany, settling first in Munich and then working as a music director in Paderborn and Herford, as a choral conductor in Essen and Bielefeld and as a theory teacher in Hagen. In 1933 he was appointed to teach theory and composition at the Cologne Musikhochschule where he was made professor in 1935. He also took over the direction of the university chorus and the Gürzenich choir in succession to Abendroth (...

Article

Christopher Mark

(b Swinton, nr Manchester, July 26, 1943). Australian composer, pianist, and critic, born in England. He lived in England until 1976 when he migrated to Australia, taking Australian citizenship in 1990. Entering the RCM in 1961, Smalley studied composition with Fricker and John White, whose wide-ranging interests he found especially stimulating, and piano with Antony Hopkins. He also studied composition with Goehr at Morley College, London (1962); with Stockhausen in Cologne (1965–6); and with Boulez during a Darmstadt summer course (1965). In 1968 he was appointed the first artist-in-residence at King’s College, Cambridge, where he subsequently held a three-year research fellowship. During this time he co-founded the live-electronics ensemble Intermodulation with Souster, Peter Britton and Robin Thompson. In 1974 Smalley was artist-in-residence at the University of Western Australia (UWA), returning two years later to become a research fellow and subsequently associate professor (...

Article

Marta Ottlová, Milan Pospíšil, John Tyrrell and Kelly St Pierre

[Friedrich]

(b Leitomischl, Bohemia [now Litomyšl, Czech Republic], 2 March 1824; d Prague, 12 May 1884). Czech composer, conductor, teacher, and music critic often described as the ‘father’ or ‘inventor’ of Czech national music. While his first language was German and his first nationalist compositions were based on Swedish narratives, Smetana asserted himself as composer of specifically Czech music from the 1860s, and his music posthumously became synonymous with a Czech national musical style. Today, Smetana’s eight operas, including Prodaná nevěsta (‘The Bartered Bride’), as well as his cycle of symphonic poems Má vlast (‘My Fatherland’) form the foundation of the Czech classical musical canon. His opera Libuše is also frequently cited as an ‘apotheosis’ of Czech music, especially in conjunction with the first movement of Má vlast, entitled ‘Vyšehrad’.

After his death, Smetana was transformed in the minds of his audiences and advocates from a composer of nationalistic music to a national symbol himself; he and his works became enduring points of reference for Czechs’ ever-shifting borders, politics, administrations, ethnicities, and imagined futures through the 20th century. For this reason, the actual Smetana in many ways has become inseparable from the myth of ‘Smetana’, as later critics and historians molded his life and work to match their needs. The composer’s supposed greatness, genius, Czechness, tragic deafness, and heroism all give voice to the shifting needs, anxieties, and interests of his audiences as much as to the composer himself....