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Article

Ferenc Bónis

( b Budapest, 26 Jan 1901; d Budapest, Oct 10, 1967). Hungarian musicologist and composer , son of Gyula Major. He studied composition with Kodály at the Budapest Academy of Music (1917–21) and philosophy at the Budapest Scientificrsity (1920–24), taking the doctorate in 1930 at Szeged University with a dissertation on the relationship of popular Hungarian music to folk music. After editing the periodical Zenei szemle (1926–8) he became a member of the editorial board of the periodicals Muzsika (1929–30) and Magyar muzsika (1935–6). Concurrently he taught composition and music theory and history, also serving as librarian, at the Budapest Conservatory and its successor, the Béla Bartók Music School (1928–44, 1945–63). He also lectured on the history of Hungarian music at the Budapest Academy of Music (1935–41, 1945–6), and in 1951 he became a member of the musicological committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences....

Article

[Chalikiopoulos][Niccolò Calichiopulo Manzaro]

(b Corfu, 26 Oct/Nov 6, 1795; d Corfu, 31 March/April 12, 1872). Greek composer, theorist, and teacher. He belonged to Corfu’s nobility. Mantzaros began his music studies in 1807 (pianoforte and ‘practical harmony’) and 1809 (violin) with the brothers Stefano (1768–1826) and Girolamo (1779–1842) Pojago, musicians of Corfu’s S Giacomo theatre, the former also composer of the opera Gli amati confusi (1791, the earliest known opera by an indigenous composer). He then pursued his studies in harmony and counterpoint with Stefano Moretti, a former maestro al cembalo of Corfu’s theatre from Ancona. Between 1810 and 1813 Mantzaros continued his studies in harmony, counterpoint, composition, and orchestration with a certain ‘cavaliere Barbati’, apparently a Neapolitan political refugée.

In 1815 Mantzaros made his debut presenting in Corfu a series of insert arias in Italian and the ‘azione comica’ Don Crepuscolo (the earliest of their kind in Greece). Similar compositions followed between ...

Article

Victoria Eli Rodríguez

(b Cienfuegos, Oct 6, 1915; d Havana, May 16, 2004). Cuban composer, musicologist, teacher, and administrator. One of the most important, senior figures in Cuban music, he began his musical studies at the age of seven with his aunt, Aurea Suárez (a native of Madrid). He went on to study with Jascha Fischermann in Havana (1936–7) and with Ardévol at the Havana Conservatory (1939–46), whose example in particular led him to become part of Cuba’s outward-looking artistic avant garde. As a teacher of history and aesthetics he worked at the Havana Conservatory (1945–68), the National School of Arts (1968–9), and the university summer courses (1945–70). He also worked as a music critic for various newspapers between 1943 and 1967. He belonged to the progressive associations Grupo de Renovación Musical (1942–48) and Nuestro Tiempo (1950–59). He served on numerous committees set up to reform music teaching in the country, worked in aid of various provincial music societies and in ...

Article

Christiane Spieth-Weissenbacher

( b Sète, Hérault, Sept 19, 1882; d Paris, Jan 27, 1954). French musicologist and composer . After completing his secondary education at the Collège de Sète, he attended the lycée and the arts faculty in Montpellier and then went to Paris, where he was first a pupil at the Lycée Henri IV (in the highest class) and then at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (Lettres), at the same time attending Rolland’s courses at the Sorbonne and Abel Lefranc’s at the Ecole des Haute Etudes. After obtaining the agrégation (1907) he was for two years a boarder at the Fondation Thiers. While pursuing postgraduate studies he attended d’Indy’s and Koechlin’s courses in counterpoint, fugue and composition at the Schola Cantorum.

He was appointed chargé de conférences at the University of Grenoble in 1910, and in the same year was seconded to the Institut Français in Florence to teach the history of French literature and French music. After World War I he resumed his duties in Florence before being sent to Naples (...

Article

Hooman Asadi

(b Mashhad, April 9, 1927; d Tehran, Feb 2, 1999). Iranian ethnomusicologist and composer. He was educated at the Tehran Superior Conservatory of Music and the University of Tehran, where he took the BA in law in 1950. Then he moved to Paris, where he studied with Line Taluel, Georges Dandelot and Noel Gallant at the Paris Conservatoire and the Ecole Normale de Musique. In 1954 he moved to Leipzig to continue his studies in composition with Ottmar Gerster and Johannes Weyrauch at the Hochschule für Musik, where he received the Superior Diploma in composition in 1963. Afterwards he studied musicology with Karl Gustav Fellerer and ethnomusicology with Marius Schneider at the University of Cologne and took the PhD in 1968. Upon finishing his postgraduate studies he returned to Iran and began teaching in the music department of the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, where he held the position of professor of music....

Article

Ferenc Bónis

( b Nagykáta, Nov 23, 1797; d Budapest, July 17, 1875). Hungarian musicologist, composer and teacher . His family name was originally Róthkrepf. He first studied the piano with his father József Róthkrepf, an elementary school teacher in Nagykáta and from 1804 teacher and choirmaster in Pest. Mátray studied law and had piano, singing and theory lessons in Pest. From 1816 to 1817 he worked there as a tutor in the services of Baron Simon Prónay, and from 1817 until 1830 he was similarly employed by Count Lajos Széchényi in Vienna. There his first compositions were published, as were editions of collections of Hungarian dances for piano. He returned to Pest in 1830 to complete his law studies. In 1833 he founded the associated periodicals Regélő and Honművész, which he edited for eight years. He was made a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Science in 1833, and in ...

Article

Christopher Wilkinson

(b Brunswick, 1619; d ?Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], 1667). German composer and theorist. He was a pupil of Heinrich Grimm at Brunswick. He apparently spent the major part of his life at Königsberg. He studied law and philosophy at its university about 1650 and seems to have continued his association with that institution on receiving the degree of doctor of law; he acknowledged the support of its faculty in the preface to his treatise Kurtzer, doch ausführlicher Bericht von den Modis Musicis, which was published in Königsberg in 1652 (reprinted 1658). In 1654 he became Kantor of the Old Town church. It is generally believed that he remained in that appointment until his death, though according to Walther he returned to Brunswick and practised law. No evidence supports this statement, and the fact that all his known compositions were published at Königsberg seems to contradict it. All Matthaei’s compositions are occasional sacred pieces. They display features similar to those found in the music of Johannes Eccard and his pupil Johann Stobaeus, particularly those in cantional style. This led Winterfeld to suggest that he studied with Stobaeus; he also believed that he may have been influenced by the ...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(Felix)

(b Santiago de Chile, May 2, 1943). Chilean musicologist, teacher and composer. He studied piano at the University of Chile under Germán Berner and composition under Gustavo Becerra, and graduated with a bachelor's degree in musicology. He pursued graduate study in Spanish Renaissance and Baroque music at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and Los Angeles (MA 1968), and took the doctorate in 1972 under Robert Stevenson with a dissertation on the masses of Francisco Guerrero. At the University of Chile he was coordinator of undergraduate studies in musicology (1973–81), director of the journal Revista musical chilena (1973–), academic director (1983–6) and dean of the College of Fine Arts (1986–7, 1995–), and vice-president for academic and student affairs (1990–93); he became a member of the Fine Arts faculty in 1963, and full professor in 1985.

Merino's extensive research and publications deal primarily with the musical culture and history of Chile and Latin America in an integrative manner, taking into consideration the various contexts of music-making phenomena. He was a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation fellow (...

Article

Jennifer Spencer

( b Saratov province, 1/March 13, 1862; d Moscow, June 1, 1926). Russian musicologist and composer . He studied theology in Moscow, and taught at the Synodal School there from 1894. In 1901 he was appointed professor of the history of church music at the Moscow Conservatory, and he also lectured at the Institute of Archaeology. He was for many years an active member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Metallov made a study of the neumatic notation of the early Russian Church, and transcribed pieces from service books dating from the 11th to the 14th centuries. He published two useful textbooks on notation, and also wrote books and articles dealing with the history of the Russian Church and with the development of early Russian music in general. He also composed some sacred music.

Ocherk istorii pravoslavnogo tserkovnogo peniya v Rossii [A study of the history of Orthodox Church singing in Russia] (Saratov, 1893, 4/1915)...

Article

Vasilis Kallis

(bNicosia, Nov 12, 1905; dAthens, Sept 9, 1979). Cypriot composer, conductor, musicologist, and pedagogue. An iconic figure of art music in Cyprus. After studying in London (1927–30 at Trinity College of Music) and Paris (1930–34 at Ecole Normale, Schola Cantorum, and Institute de Pedagogie Musicale), Michaelides returned to Cyprus in 1934 to engage in activities that would be instrumental to the development of music on the island. Between 1934 and 1938 he formed various organizations such as the Limassol Conservatory, the Limassol Concert Association, a symphony orchestra, and a mixed choir, promoting the proliferation of musical life on the island.

In 1957, he relocated to Thessaloniki, Greece, following an invitation to take over the directorship of the Thessaloniki State Conservatory where he also taught advanced music theory, composition, and conducting. Two years later he founded the Symphony Orchestra of Northern Greece (1959), which he also conducted until his retirement in ...

Article

Laura Otilia Vasiliu

[ Karol ]

( b Chernivtsi, [now in Ukraine], Oct 20, 1819; d Lviv, Ukraine, May 21, 1897). Armenian-Polish-Romanian pianist, composer, folklorist, and teacher .

He studied the piano in Paris with Frédéric Chopin and composition with Anton Reicha (1844–7). He toured as a concert pianist in Austria, France, Italy, and Russia. He was a professor at and head of the Lviv Conservatory from 1858 to 1888. He then founded his own school. Among his students were the Romanians Ciprian Porumbescu, Paul Ciuntu, and Constantin Gros, but also the musician pianists of Lviv that would be his disciples—Raoul Koczalski, Moriz Rosenthal, and Aleksander Michałowski. He collected, notated, and processed Romanian and Polish folk songs (1848–54). He published a 17-volume critical edition of Chopin’s work (Leipzig, 1879). He used several verified sources, most of which were written or corrected by Chopin himself. His editions of Chopin’s works were first published in America in ...

Article

Aleksandar Vasić

(b Belgrade, Oct 27, 1884; d Belgrade, June 16, 1946). Serbian composer, musicologist, and music critic. Milojević studied various subjects at the University of Belgrade from 1904 to 1906 including German studies, comparative literature, Serbian language and literature, and philosophy. He concurrently attended Serbian Music School where he studied music theory subjects and composition with Stevan Mokranjac and piano with Cvetko Manojlović. For the next five semesters (1907–10), Milojević continued his studies at the Munich University Philosophy Faculty, where he studied musicology (with A. Sandberger and T. Kroyer), literature, and philosophy. At the same time, he attended Munich Music Academy, studying composition (with F. Klose), piano (R. Meier-Gschray), and conducting with score reading (F. Mottl). He graduated from Munich Music Academy in 1910. In the period between the two World Wars he developed an extraordinarily rich music career as a composer, musicologist, music critic, folklorist, music pedagogue, conductor, and organizer of music affairs. In ...

Article

(b Andelot, Haute-Marne, bap. Dec 4, 1667; d Aumont, 22 [not 27] Sept 1737). French composer, theorist and teacher. Michel Pignolet was the youngest of seven children born to the weaver Adrien Pignolet and Suzanne Galliot. On 27 January 1676 he entered the choir school at Langres Cathedral where he studied under Jean-Baptiste Moreau, director of the choir from October 1681 to February 1682. He added the name of ‘Montéclair’ (a fortress in Andelot) to his own some time after his arrival in Paris in 1687, but signed himself ‘Pignolet dit Montéclair’ as late as 1724. From the title-page of his Nouvelle méthode pour apprendre la musique (1709), we learn that he was ‘formerly maître de la musique for the Prince of Vaudémont’, whom he followed to Italy. Details of his Italian sojourn are unknown.

Montéclair performed on the basse de violon in the Paris Opéra orchestra as early as ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Nashville, TN, July 28, 1934). American theorist, composer and musicologist . He completed his undergraduate studies in 1958 at the University of California, Berkeley, where he worked with Andrew Imbrie. He was a graduate student at Princeton University; his teachers included Roger Sessions and Edward T. Cone, and he earned the PhD there in 1969. He also studied with Harald Genzmer at the Hochschule für Musik, Munich (1960–62). Morgan taught at Temple University (1967–79) and the University of Chicago (1979–89), after which he joined the faculty of Yale University.

Morgan was trained as a composer and was active as such until around 1980; he wrote chamber, orchestral and vocal music, and his trio for flute, cello and harpsichord was recorded. His current academic interests include music analysis, theory and aesthetics, as well as the music of the 19th and 20th centuries. He has explored such broad musical trends as Futurism and Modernism, and he has also investigated the compositional styles of Berg, Ives and Mahler. His survey of 20th-century music, for which he also prepared the accompanying anthology of music (...

Article

H.C. Colles

revised by Howard Ferguson

( b York, March 3, 1886; d London, Dec 15, 1948). English musical scholar, teacher and composer . He was educated at Harrow and Oxford, and studied at the RCM in London, where he joined the teaching staff. In 1926 he was appointed head of the department of theory at the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia but left after two years; he returned to England and continued teaching at the RCM until his death.

His first book, Contrapuntal Technique in the Sixteenth Century (1922), has had a lasting influence on teaching in England and elsewhere. It broke new ground by drawing a clear distinction between national schools of composition and by insisting that the study of counterpoint should be based on the works of the composers who wrote it rather than on arbitrary rules invented by later theorists. The textbooks that followed came from long teaching experience, and were skilfully designed to satisfy the needs of the average student....

Article

Nana Kavtaradze

(b Tbilisi, May 28, 1904; d March 5, 1984). Georgian composer, teacher and ethnomusicologist. A representative of the first generation of Georgian composers, he studied at the Tbilisi Conservatory, graduating from the composition class of Bagrinovsky and Barkhudarian (1930). As a postgraduate in Leningrad, he finished his studies with V. Shcherbachyov in 1933. From 1929 to 1984 he was a teacher and later (1942) professor of the Tbilisi Conservatory; he was also head of the composition department, dean of the faculty of theory and composition, later assistant director and then director. He directed the Paliashvili Opera and Ballet Theatre (1950–52) and was also chairman of the Georgian Composers’ Union (1940–51). He has been awarded many Soviet state prizes and the Nehru State Prize of India.

Although Mshvelidze’s development coincided with the isolation of Soviet culture from the newest compositional thinking of Western countries, his style is notable for its orginality and is based on Georgian musical folklore, especially of the Pshava mountain region in the north-west part of the country. He used as his starting point the severe and courageous character of Pshavian folk song with its characteristic monody consisting of a descending improvisatory melody over the range of seventh and set in an original mode similar to the phrygian but with a sharpened sixth and named by him the ‘Pshavian’ mode. This scale and declamatory monody were organically assimilated into the stylistic system of his symphonic works; since this treatment found a response in the creative process of many other Georgian composers Mshvelidze can be considered the founder of Georgian epic symphonism. In his conception of epic cycles, the rhapsodic unfolding of the material through the course of consecutive sections is carried out by means of continuous development; the general structure, however, sometimes falters through looseness of construction. The depiction of Vazha-Pshavela’s poetry in the symphonic poems ...

Article

Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Reuseni, Suceava county, Romania, May 2, 1944). Romanian composer, musicologist, and teacher . Rooted in the folklore of Bukovina and in Byzantine liturgical music, furthering the musical environment of his predecessors Ciprian Porumbescu and George Enescu, his works stand at the crossroads of tradition and modernity, having become established through their authentic expression and mastery of form. His personality has been influential in the musical life of Iaşi and the George Enescu University of Arts, which he served as a professor, dean, and rector.

He studied at the George Enescu Conservatory in Iaşi. He graduated in pedagogy and composition under Vasile Spătărelu. He attended composition classes led by Ştefan Niculescu, Aurel Stroe, and Anatol Vieru at the Vacanţele muzicale de la Piatra Neamt (‘Musical Holidays of Piatra Neamţ’, 1972–80), and then he studied with Roman Vlad at the Santa Cecilia Academy in Rome (1980). Up until ...

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Cecil Adkins

( b Bernstadt, c 1685; d Königsberg, 1739). German theorist and composer . After early training at Altdorf and Wittenberg, Neidhardt matriculated as a theology student at Jena, where he produced his first treatise on temperament and apparently continued his musical training. It is likely that he studied with the university organist, J.N. Bach, who knew him well enough to allow him to try one of his temperaments on the new organ at the city’s central church; Bach’s tuning, however, was found more singable. Between 1710 and 1720, when he was appointed Kapellmeister at Königsberg, Neidhardt was again in Bernstadt as well as in Breslau, where he is known to have lectured on composition. He then remained at Königsberg until his death, teaching organ and versification to the university students in addition to his writing and official duties.

Along with Werckmeister, Neidhardt perfected the art of practical temperaments in the early 18th century. An advocate of circulating temperaments (those intended to be most consonant in the more frequently used keys, and progressively less so in the remoter ones), he wanted his more than two dozen temperaments to be flexibly applied, as may be judged from his recommendation of specific temperaments for a village, a town, a city, and the court (the last assigned an equal temperament). He was apparently an active composer throughout his life; his few extant works include chorale settings (...

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Paula Morgan

( b Portland, OR, Nov 22, 1923; d Richmond, VA, July 22, 2006). American musicologist and composer . She took the BA at Michigan State University (1939) and MA at the University of California at Los Angeles (1941); she then worked at Columbia University with Hertzmann and Lang and took the PhD in 1945. At the same time she studied composition with Arthur Farwell, Schoenberg and Sessions; her piano teachers included Serkin and Artur Schnabel. She subsequently taught at Western Maryland College (1945–9) and Syracuse University (1949–51), and in 1952 she joined the faculty of Drew University, where she was founder and head of the music department. In 1965 she became professor of music at North Texas State University, and in 1978 she moved to the Virginia Commonwealth University, where she was made professor and composition coordinator.

Newlin’s research centred on Austrian composers of the late 19th and 20th centuries, particularly Bruckner, Mahler, Schoenberg, Berg and Webern. Her book on Bruckner, Mahler and Schoenberg demonstrates the relationship between the three composers as heirs of the Romantic tradition. She edited and translated some of the major writings by and about Schoenberg. Her interests included electronic and computer music, multi-media and experimental musical theatre, and she was active in all these areas as composer, teacher and performer. She wrote songs, piano and chamber works, three operas and a symphony for chorus and orchestra....

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Deborah Campana

(b Birmingham, UK, Nov 19, 1955). British musicologist and composer. He studied music at St. John’s College, Cambridge University (BA 1978, MA 1982, PhD 1986). He taught at Keele University (1987–2000), where he also served as Professor of Music (1995–2000) and Research Dean on the Faculty of Humanities (1999–2000). He was Visiting Professor at the College of William and Mary, Virginia (1998). He is currently Professor of Music at the University of Southampton (2000–; Head of Department, 2001–3).

A prolific writer and reviewer of American music of the 20th century, Nicholls’s interests often focus on experimental composers, among them Charles Ives, Henry Cowell, and John Cage. Having received numerous grants toward research and teaching in addition to other honors, including a special commendation to Royal Over-Seas League PRS Composers’ Award (1991) and election to Fellowship of the Royal Society of Arts (...