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(b Verneuil, Dec 9, 1796; d Verneuil, Jan 28, 1870). French composer and teacher. His later achievements in the encouragement of amateur music-making in the provinces were foreshadowed in his youth when, at the age of 11, he wrote some marches for the local wind band at Verneuil. He played the flute and the horn, and in 1808 went to Paris to study composition with Momigny and later with Méhul and Cherubini at the Conservatoire. He returned to Verneuil in 1815 and divided his life between music and the management of his estate in the village of Grosbois nearby. He composed an opera Les amants querelleurs, accepted by the Opéra-Comique but played at the Théâtre du Gymnase in 1824. He was prolific in the popular genres of the time and devoted much attention to the guitar, for which he wrote a tutor. Many of his chamber works combine the guitar with strings or wind. He also supplied several books of wind music for the newly reorganized National Guard. In ...

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Thomas Clark

(Don )

(b Duncan, OK, Sept 12, 1930). American composer. A talented trumpet player from Vernon, Texas, Austin played jazz in the first One O’clock Lab Band at North Texas State University, and later served in the Fourth US Army Band based in San Antonio. He studied with Violet Archer (North Texas State University), darius Milhaud (Mills College) and Andrew Imbrie (University of California, Berkeley). Austin’s 38-year academic career included positions at University of California-Berkeley, University of California, Davis, University of South Florida, and the University of North Texas (formerly NTSU). He taught composition and other subjects as diverse as marching band and advanced computer music research.

In the 1960s he was associated with Karlheinz Stockhausen and David Tudor, and also formed an extended association and friendship with John Cage. While a member of the faculty at UC Davis, he co-founded, edited, and published the journal SOURCE: Music of the Avant Garde...

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[Johann]

(b Tonnedorf, nr Erfurt; d Eisenberg, nr Gera, Jan 22, 1617). German writer on music, composer and schoolmaster. In 1579 he was teaching at the Lateinschule at Ronneburg, near Gera, and in 1591 he was Rektor of the Lateinschule at Gera. Later he was a preacher at Bernsdorf, near Torgau, at Munich and at Krossen, near Gera, and from ...

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[Giorgos, Yorgos]

(b Mariupol, Ukraine, near the north coast of the Sea of Azov, Sept 27, 1875; d Athens, May 16, 1924). Greek composer, critic, and music educator. After the return of his family to Athens in 1887 he studied music privately with Loudovikos Spinellis, and later, in 1895, he went to Naples, Italy, to study composition at the Conservatory of San Pietro a Majella with Paolo Serrao. He came back to Athens in 1901, where he clashed with the representatives of the biggest music institution, the Athens Conservatory, due to the shift of the repertory towards German instead of Italian music, and the changing of the method of music education. He founded, along with Georgios Lambelet, one of the most important cultural magazines of the period, the journal Kritiki (1903–4), through which he expressed his ideas about the paths of music education and Greek music. During the period ...

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Harrison Ryker

(b Enschede, Oct 22, 1906; d Oegstgeest, Sept 2, 1970). Dutch composer and teacher. The son of a music dealer, he first learned music from his father’s stock of scores and recordings, before studying the piano with Rudolph Breithaupt and composition with Friedrich Koch at the Berlin Hochschule (1924–9). Also working as a jazz and cabaret pianist (under the name Billy Barney), and encouraged by his fellow student Boris Blacher, he developed simultaneous enthusiasms for Gershwin and Webern. He returned to the Netherlands in summer 1929, shortly after meeting Pijper in Berlin; some months later he began composition studies with the latter, at the same time destroying all his compositions from before 1930. The study sessions grew progressively less formal, and Pijper remained a friend and mentor until his death in 1947. After several years in Enschede, mostly working with amateur ensembles, van Baaren became director of the Amsterdam Musieklyceum in ...

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Laurie J. Sampsel

(b Milton, MA, Feb 18, 1760; d French Mills, NY, Nov 23, 1813). American composer, singing master, singer, and tunebook compiler. Babcock lived most of his life in Watertown, MA, where he worked as a hatter. As a teenager he fought in the Revolutionary War, and he died while enlisted in the Army during the War of 1812. He was active primarily as a psalmodist during the period from 1790 to 1810. Babcock was the choir leader at the Watertown Congregational church, sang at and composed music for town events, and taught singing schools there in 1798 and 1804. He may also have been an itinerant singing master in the Boston area. Babcock composed 75 extant pieces, including anthems, set pieces, fuging tunes, psalm, and hymn tunes. Most of his music was first published in his own tunebook, Middlesex Harmony, which was published in two editions (1795...

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Tatjana Marković

(b Belgrade, Feb 10, 1927; d Belgrade, Oct 13, 2009). Serbian composer and music critic. He studied composition with Milenko Živković at the Academy of Music in Belgrade, graduating in 1955, and at the Accademia Nazionale di S. Cecilia in Rome (1967–8). He was a conductor of the choral society Napredak (1953–5), and then taught at Stanković music school (1955–66) and at the Music Academy (today Faculty of Music, 1966–96). As a music critic, he collaborated with various newspapers (Borba, Naša borba, Politika, Večernje novosti) and translated several books. He received awards from Udruženje kompozitora Srbije (‘the Association of Serbian composers’) and Yugoslav Radio, and received the Vukova nagrada. He followed the aesthetic of Stevan Mokranjac and his own professor Živković. His lyric music, predominantly choral, is distinguishable by his afinity for humour, both in his choice of lyrics and the musical means. He uses verbal punning (...

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Douglass Seaton

(b Berlin, 4/Oct 5, 1796; d Berlin, April 15, 1869). German organist, teacher and composer. He was not a descendant of J.S. Bach. He received his earliest musical training from his father Gottfried Bach, organist at the Dreifaltigkeitskirche in Berlin, and accompanied services there while still a boy. After completing his secondary education he took a teaching position in a noble household outside Berlin. On his father’s death in 1812 he returned to seek the post of organist at the Dreifaltigkeitskirche but did not succeed in obtaining the situation. He received instead an appointment in 1814 at the Gertraudenkirche, a less prominent position. During his two-year term there he studied counterpoint and fugue with Zelter and the piano with Ludwig Berger. He joined the Berlin Singakademie in 1815. He was appointed organist and music director at the important Marienkirche in 1816. In the following years he studied the violin with C.W. Henning and broadened his general education through travel and the study of languages. In ...

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Peter Ross

[Hans Kaspar]

(b Zürich, Dec 26, 1695; d Zürich, June 23, 1755). Swiss composer and music pedagogue. The year of his birth has been given incorrectly in some sources as 1697. His father Joseph, originally a tailor and from 1692 a schoolteacher, planned a theological training for Johann Caspar, who was his second son. After study at the cathedral school, the Collegium Humanitatis, and (from 1715) the theology class, Bachofen gained the title V.D.M. (verbi divini minister) in 1720. In 1711 he joined the collegium musicum at the chapter house, and in 1715 he became a member of one that met at the German School. In 1720 he became a singing teacher at the lower grammar school. His small income compelled him to seek a secondary source of income, from trading in violin strings. Despite disputes with officials and colleagues, he was appointed, after J.K. Albertin’s death in ...

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(b ?Normandy, ?1625; d Paris, Sept 27, 1690). French singing teacher and composer. He may have been a priest. He lived for most of his life in Paris but he was also in the service of Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Elbeuf. Although he was important as a composer and teacher, Bacilly’s most valuable legacy is the vocal treatise Remarques curieuses sur l’art de bien chanter, which has for long been recognized as one of the most detailed sources of information on French 17th-century vocal practice. However, until the publication of an English translation with the examples included, the application of its precepts to vocal performance had been virtually impossible since the examples Bacilly used to illustrate his teachings were not included in the text (he simply referred instead to specific passages in published volumes of airs de cour). The importance of the Remarques lies in two main areas: it is one of the earliest volumes to give specific descriptions and applications of the expressive melodic figures (...

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Harald Herresthal

(Krohn)

(b Drammen, Aug 31, 1908; d Oslo, June 12, 1989). Norwegian composer and teacher. He graduated as an organist from the Oslo Conservatory in 1931 and then studied in Leipzig (1931–2), with later periods of study with Rivier in Paris (1950) and Hanns Jelinek in Vienna (1965). In 1932 he became an organist in Drammen; he held organ recitals and was also active as a choirmaster, accompanist and music critic for several newspapers. He taught theory and composition at the Oslo Conservatory (1948–73) and continued there until 1978 as a lecturer when the institution became the Norges Musikkhøgskole.

The first public performance of his works in 1946 revealed his thorough knowledge of classical forms allied to a national Romantic style. A strong interest in the polyphony of Palestrina is reflected in the Mass (1949) and other vocal works. In Paris he became acquainted with French neo-classicism, and with Hindemith’s compositional technique as his background, Baden composed two symphonies, a concertino for clarinet and orchestra and chamber music that was frequently performed, such as the Wind Trio no.1. In the 1960s he ventured into 12-note technique (seen in his themes and his increasingly bold use of dissonance), and although he only used it extensively in the chamber work ...

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John Gillespie

revised by Laura Moore Pruett

[Bärmann, Karl ]

(b Munich, Germany, July 9, 1839; d Newton, MA, Jan 17, 1913). Pianist, teacher, and composer of German birth. His father, Carl Bärmann (1810–85), and his grandfather, Heinrich Joseph Bärmann (1784–1847), were both renowned clarinetists; the latter was an intimate friend of Weber and Mendelssohn, both of whom composed works for him. Carl Baermann studied in Munich with Franz Lachner and Peter Cornelius and later became a pupil and close friend of Franz Liszt. He taught for many years at the Königliche Musikschule in Munich, becoming a professor in 1876, then in 1881 came to the United States. He made a successful debut as pianist in Boston (22 December 1881). Having decided to remain, he became prominent there as a performer, playing Beethoven’s “Emperor” concerto with the Boston Symphony Orchestra during its first season in 1882. He was also highly esteemed as a teacher: ...

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Rose Mauro

(b Coburg, June 30, 1823; d Basle, July 16, 1896). German critic, teacher and composer. He studied the piano and cello at the Prague Conservatory and moved to Vienna in 1842, where he studied theory with Sechter and was active performing, teaching and composing. He was appointed to the Vienna Conservatory in 1852, but his high standards and outspoken critical stance led to his dismissal in 1855. In 1859 Bagge became the editor of a new journal, the Deutsche Musik-Zeitung, which opposed the ‘New German’ sympathies of Franz Brendel’s Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. He moved to Leipzig in 1863 to edit the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung (later the Leipziger allgemeine musikalische Zeitung); it closely reflected his conviction that composers should strive to imitate music of the past. Bagge’s own reviews praise music by such composers as Bargiel, Volkmann, Reinecke and Kirchner. He regarded much of Brahms’s music as undisciplined, contributing to a critical climate that may have prompted Brahms to adopt a more classically-oriented style....

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David Tunley

(b c1720; d Paris, c1798). French publisher, composer and teacher. On 27 April 1765 he took over the music publishing house known as A la Règle d’Or, which comprised businesses once owned by Boivin, Ballard and Bayard. During some 30 years he issued many works by both French and foreign composers, the latter including not only early masters like Corelli and Vivaldi, but also some of those who were influential in the development of the emerging Classical school: Carl Stamitz, Haydn, Piccinni, Paisiello, Cimarosa, Boccherini and Clementi. French composers included Gossec, Davaux, Monsigny and Brassac, and some of the earlier generation, Lully, Lalande and Campra. One of his major publications was the Journal d’ariettes des plus célèbres compositeurs, comprising 240 works issued in 63 volumes (scores and parts) from 1779 to 1788. Bailleux’s adoption of the royal privilege granted to the Ballard family led to his imprisonment during the Terror. He was released after the coup d'état of 9 Thermidor (...

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David Tunley

revised by Michael Jones

(Leslie)

(b London, Feb 14, 1880; d Sydney, Dec 8, 1956). English composer, pianist and teacher. He studied at the RCM under Stanford and Franklin Taylor. In 1901 he was appointed to teach the piano and composition at the Newcastle Conservatory of which he became principal a few years later. He was on the Continent at the outbreak of World War I and was interned at Ruhleben. On his return to Newcastle he resumed his activities as teacher, pianist, conductor and composer until the end of 1933, when he was appointed director of the New South Wales State Conservatorium, Sydney. Immediately before his departure he was elected an FRCM and awarded an honorary DMus by the University of Durham. In Sydney he exercised a strong influence on the development of musical life, particularly through his fine conducting. His symphony ‘Before Sunrise’ won a Carnegie Award in 1917. Bainton was less affected by the modality of English folksong than were many contemporaries, although much of his work has a pastoral tone. He was drawn to late-Romantic harmony, yet even his richest writing never obscures the direct lyrical impulse. His works have clarity of form and show a high degree of craftsmanship. One of his major works, ...

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Fatima Hadžić

[Ljubo]

(b Mostar, Bosnia, July 31, 1890; d Kasindo (near Sarajevo), 1951). Bosnian composer, choir conductor, and music educator. He attended the private school of music Glasbena škola F. Matějovský in Sarajevo. His music studies at the Imperial Academy of Music and the Performing Arts in Vienna (1910–11) and his studies in composition at the Royal National Hungarian Academy of Music in Budapest (1911–13) were interrupted due to his financial problems. In Sarajevo, he conducted the choirs of the Serbian Singing Society, ‘Sloga’ (1914–32), the Jewish singing society, ‘Lira’ (1927–31), and the Singing Society of Railwaymen, ‘Jedinstvo’. In 1920, he founded and conducted the Serbian Singing Society, ‘Petar Veliki Oslobodioc’, in Novo Sarajevo. From its foundation in 1920 until 1941 he worked as a teacher of piano and music theory in the District School of Music. He also worked as a music teacher in the First Gymnasium (...

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William E. Boswell

(b Wenham, MA, July 10, 1811; d Boston, MA, March 11, 1889). American teacher, singer, and composer. He sang, directed choirs, and taught music in Salem, Massachusetts, and in 1833 toured the country with a concert company. He then settled in Bangor, Maine, as a businessman, but moved to Boston in 1837 to study music with John Paddon. He was director of music at W.E. Channing’s church for eight years, and succeeded Lowell Mason as superintendent of musical instruction in the Boston public schools in 1841. Also in that year he began holding “musical conventions,” which led to many appearances as soloist with the Handel and Haydn Society, of which he later became vice-president. He founded the Boston Music School and served as principal and head of the singing department until 1868, when he retired and the school closed. He was editor of the Boston Musical Journal for several years. Baker collaborated in compiling over 25 collections of songs, hymns, anthems, and glees, including ...

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James Bash

(b Lenoir, NC, Apr 12, 1948). American composer and educator. He began his musical training with his junior high school band, playing first the euphonium, and later switching to trombone, which became his principal instrument. After graduating from East Carolina University (BM, 1970), Baker studied composition with SAMUEL ADLER and WARREN BENSON at the Eastman School of Music where he received his Masters in 1973 and Doctorate in 1975. Baker taught music at the University of Georgia (1974–1976) and the University of Louisville (1976–1988) before joining the faculty of the Jacobs School of Music at Indiana University in 1988. In 2007, he was appointed to the rank of Chancellor’s Professor at Indiana University.

At age 21, he wrote his first composition, a duo for flute and clarinet. Since that time he has received numerous commissions from around the world, but he is chiefly noted for his orchestral works. From ...

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Timothy M. Crain

(Nathaniel)

(b Indianapolis, IN, Dec 21, 1931). American composer and jazz cellist. He received both the BME (1953) and MME (1954) degrees from Indiana University and studied privately with J.J. JOHNSON, BOB BROOKMEYER, GEORGE RUSSELL, JANOS STARKER, JOHN LEWIS, and GUNTHER SCHULLER, among others. Unable to play the trombone professionally following a 1953 accident, Baker turned exclusively to the cello and pioneered the use of that instrument in jazz with such artists as Maynard Ferguson, Quincy Jones, George Russell, John Montgomery, and Lionel Hampton. He has taught at Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri, at Indiana Central University, Indianapolis, and in the Indianapolis public schools. In 1966 he joined the faculty of Indiana University, where he now serves as Distinguished Professor of Music and Chairperson of the Jazz Department. At IU, he established the 21st-Century Bebop Band, a student group dedicated to the preservation of bebop literature. He has received honorary doctorates from Wabash College, Oberlin College, and the New England Conservatory of Music. In ...