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Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(b Nürnberg, Germany, Jan 9, 1685; d Nürnberg, Germany, June 5, 1760). German violin maker. His antecedents as a violin maker are unknown, and he possibly apprenticed in the Tyrol or Italy. Certainly, his best instruments step beyond the usual confines of the German school. His earliest surviving instrument is a pochette dated 1708, and his latest a violin of 1760. Maussiell’s instruments follow the Stainer and Tecchler models but are too individual to be considered copies. The archings on the smaller instruments are high, while those on his (rarer) large ones vary from broad to medium. Instead of the standard scroll, Maussiell often carved a lion’s or woman’s head, and he also frequently used fishbone for purfling. His printed labels, which can be large, are in either latinized or germanic type; occasionally he used a much smaller, handwritten label. The varnish is of good quality and usually ranges between a yellow-brown and red-brown. Tonally his larger, flatly arched instruments are best although all his violins tend towards an alto timbre....

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Felix Friedrich

(bap. Cologne, November 15, 1632; dPrague, March 18, 1691). Bohemian organ builder of German birth. Mundt arrived in Bohemia before 1668 and learnt his craft under the Prague organ builder Hieronymus Artmann, whom he probably assisted with the instruments at St Benedikta and St Mikuláš in Prague. The first original work definitely attributable to him is the repair of the organ in St Tomáse in the Little Quarter of the city in 1668, in collaboration with Matthäus Köhler (or Kehler) of Svitavy. Mundt’s most noteworthy instrument is that in the Týn Church, Prague, for which he received without charge the freedom of the city. The work failed to meet the approval of an apparently conservative board in its examination of the organ on 28 April 1673; for this reason, and also partly because of a fire in the church in 1682, Mundt made several modifications to the instrument, above all in its voicing. In ...

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Tim Carter

[ Il Bardella ]

( d Florence, Jan 25, 1621). Italian lutenist and singer, inventor of the chitarrone . Sometimes styled ‘bolognese’ (and probably related to the Bolognese composer Romolo Naldi), he was associated with the Medici court in Florence from 1571, and by 1588 he was custodian of the court’s musical instruments. In 1609 his salary was a high 16 scudi per month, comparable with that of Giulio Caccini. He is recorded often as performing at court, sometimes as a singer (e.g. in the first of the intermedi for the wedding of Grand Duke Ferdinando I and Christine of Lorraine in 1589) but chiefly as an instrumentalist. Emilio de’ Cavalieri credited him with the invention of the chitarrone (in a letter to Luzzasco Luzzaschi of 1592; see Prunières) – Naldi seems to have designed and first used the instrument in the 1589 intermedi – and his virtuosity on the instrument was praised by Caccini in the preface to ...

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Ian Spink

( b Cambridge, Feb 1581; d London, bur. Dec 23, 1650). English organist, heraldic artist and possibly instrument maker . He was the son of Robert Norgate (d 1587), Master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Subsequently Norgate’s mother married Nicholas Felton, later Bishop of Ely, in whose house he was brought up. Norgate went to London, where he served the king in numerous capacities.

In 1611 he was granted the office of tuner of the king’s virginals, organs and other instruments jointly with Andrea Bassano until the latter’s death in 1626. He is usually referred to as Keeper of the Organs, and payments were made to him for building a new organ at Richmond (£120 in 1639) and at various times between 1629 and 1641 for repairing the organs and virginals at other royal palaces. These payments may have been for arranging and overseeing the work rather than for carrying it out himself. During this period he held the post alone, but in ...

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John Dilworth

( b 1651; d London, 1724). English maker of string instruments . He was an important and prolific maker whose work spans the end of the supremacy of the viol (by which instrument he achieved his greatest fame) and the growth in popularity of the violin family in England. Apprenticed in the Guild of Weavers in 1668, he probably received instruction in instrument making from Richard Meares, and his viols are the epitome of the elegant English style of the period. Beautifully made instruments, in the style of Meares, their elegant form is often richly decorated with elaborate double purfing and floral patterns, including his own monogram. The decoration also extends to the fingerboard and tailpiece, which on surviving examples are intricately inlaid. The arched fronts were made in the distinctive English manner, from several bent staves jointed together. The heads are magnificently carved, but frequently an open scroll of very pure form is used instead. The varnish is slightly thinner and harder than is found on the best English work of the 17th century. The earliest known instrument by Norman is a bass viol dating from ...

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John Dilworth

(b before 1615; fl c1660–90). English violin maker. Although most authorities place his workshop on London Bridge, there is no clear evidence of this. The Pamphilon family, which includes four other violin makers, was active in the Essex villages of Widdington, Little Hadham and Clavering in the 17th and 18th centuries. Edward Pamphilon’s instruments certainly found their way to the shop of the music seller John Miller on London Bridge, where they were labelled and sold. Original labels are rare, and do not specify the place of origin; one gives a date of 1684, and another is very precise, specifying a date of 3 April 1685. Most labels were presumably removed by later dealers to facilitate the resale of Pamphilon’s violins as more valuable Brescian instruments. The instruments do, in fact, bear a close resemblance to earlier Brescian work, having a high build and rather crude workmanship, but they differ in several features: the ribs are set into a slot cut around the inner edge of the back, the belly and the sides of the neck root; and the neck root protrudes into the soundbox. This construction method is also characteristic of Flemish makers of the time. The scroll is distinctive, decorated with small punch marks around the turns of the volute. The instruments sometimes have a very high-quality varnish, at first glance easily mistaken for Italian....

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Joyce Lindorff

[Sancho]

(b São Martinho do Vale, Barcelos, Nov 1, 1645; d Beijing, Dec 24, 1708). Portuguese organist, theorist and organ builder. He was a Jesuit missionary; his 36-year stay in China produced far-reaching cultural exchange. His accomplishment in music, mathematics and diplomacy led to his being invited to Beijing by Emperor Kangxi. He astounded the emperor with a demonstration of musical notation, repeating Chinese melodies flawlessly after one hearing. Kangxi's subsequent creation of an academy to study ancient Chinese music culminated in the four-volume Lulu Zhengyi (‘A True Doctrine of Music’). A fifth volume, on Western music theory, was begun by Pereira and completed by Teodorico Pedrini, his successor as court musician; the whole was published in Beijing in 1713.

Pereira built several organs in Beijing for the Catholic church and for the emperor, including one which played Chinese songs mechanically. He also wrote Chinese hymns, his only known compositions. At Kangxi's behest Pereira was instrumental in negotiating the ...

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Othmar Wessely

revised by Dorothea Schröder

(b ?Stuttgart, bap. June 13, 1570; d after 1624). German composer, organist and organ builder. From 1602 onwards he was an organist at Horn, Lower Austria, and, from 1 November 1609 at the latest, at the church of the Protestant school at Steyr, Upper Austria, though he was not definitely appointed there until mid-February 1614. He built or renovated, among others, organs for churches at Steyr (1613), Enns (1615) and Horn (1606 and 1615) and a two-manual instrument for the church of the Cistercian Wilhering Abbey, Upper Austria (1619). None of these instruments has survived, though from our knowledge of the specification of the last-named we can conclude that his organs were of the werkprinzip type. In 1625 he had to flee from Steyr as a religious refugee, after which nothing more is heard of him.

Peuerl published four collections of his own compositions while he was at Steyr. His name is linked above all with the creation of the variation suite. There is still research to be done on the antecedents of this form, which possibly include early 16th-century Italian lute music and the variations of the English virginalists; the form was soon taken up by Schein, Posch and others. Peuerl’s suites consist of four dances: paduana, intrada, ‘dance’ and galliard. The ‘dance’ (‘Däntz’) is the basic theme; the other three are variations of it, the paduana being the closest to it and the intrada and galliard more distant. Peuerl, like H.L. Hassler, Aichinger, Schein and others, was one of the few German composers of the early Baroque period to compose italianate instrumental canzonas. He was also the first German composer to write (in his 1625 volume) for the Italian texture of two melody instruments and continuo. To some extent his songs (...

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Enrico Weller

German family of violin, bow, and string makers and instrument dealers, active in Markneukirchen (birth and death dates here refer to Markneukirchen). Among the best-known violin makers were Carl Friedrich Pfretzschner I (b cNov 1743; d 25 May 1798), Johann Gottlob Pfretzschner (b 15 Aug 1753; d 12 July 1823), and Johann Carl Pfretzschner (b 7 Oct 1739; d 12 Aug 1797); the last was also a successful string maker and instrument dealer. Elias Pfretzschner (b 1669) was important for the early Markneukirchen musical instrument trade; in 1713 he became the first violin dealer to join the violin makers’ guild. Four generations later, Carl Gustav Adolph Pfretzschner (b 1 April 1805; d 23 March 1883) founded the company G.A. Pfretzschner, one of the most famous Vogtland instrument dealers, which existed until 1977.

The family’s bow makers achieved international recognition through the company H.R. Pfretzschner. Its founder, Hermann Richard Pfretzschner Sr (...

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Guy Oldham

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Charles Beare

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Charles Beare

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Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

revised by Philip J. Kass

(b Rome, Italy, Sept 22, 1684; d Rome, Oct 9, 1752). Roman violin maker. He learned his trade from his father, Albert Platner (b c1643; d Rome, 12 Aug 1713), of Tyrolean origin. Domenico’s instruments bear a strong resemblance to those of David Tecchler, but with a softer and less angular approach. His craftsmanship was excellent, recalling that of Stainer. The soundholes are set slightly lower than normal. The scrolls also resemble those of Tecchler but with a softer character. The varnish ranges from golden yellow to brown, although a hint of orange-red is sometimes seen....

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Anne Beetem Acker

Term for any device, mechanism, or means by which a player controls an instrument. It embraces keys and keyboards, valves, mouthpieces, bows, plectra, beaters, ribbon controllers, joysticks, touchscreens, other computer input devices and displays running control software, and any other intermediary between player and instrument (real or virtual) giving the player control of the sound-producing elements....

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Denzil Wraight

(fl 1586; d 1634). Italian harpsichord and virginal maker. Originally from Venice, he worked in Florence. 19 of his known surviving instruments are virginals, many of them unsigned; two harpsichords have also been identified as his work. His early instruments, dating from 1586 to 1603, are polygonal, thin-cased instruments; thereafter he preferred a thick-cased, rectangular design. Poggi’s work is of organological interest because of the large number of instruments, which permits a detailed study of instrument making practices. Four of his surviving unsigned virginals have split sharps (...