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Article

E. Bradley Strauchen-Scherer

[Jane Rogovin]

(b New York, NY, 17 March 1922; d London, England, 12 Sept 1990). American ethnomusicologist and curator. Although born and reared in the Bronx, Jenkins portrayed herself as having been brought up in rural Arkansas surrounded by Ozark folk music. As a teenager, she learnt an extensive repertoire of folksongs and became active in American folk music circles. Like many folksingers of the era, Jenkins espoused socialism. She studied anthropology and musicology in Missouri but her support of trade unions and civil rights attracted the scrutiny of the FBI.

Her move to London in 1950 placed Jenkins beyond the reach of McCarthyism. There she continued her studies and secured leave to remain in the UK by marrying Clive Jenkins, a prominent trade union leader. In 1960 she became the first Keeper of Musical Instruments of the Horniman Museum and commenced fieldwork. She traveled in the USSR, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and southern Europe to record and to build up a comparative collection of instruments for the Horniman. Jenkins organized exhibitions and published as curatorial duties permitted, but recording was her enduring legacy to ethnomusicology. She considered her banjo to be her most important piece of fieldwork equipment and she played to other musicians to encourage them to participate in recordings. Keen to capture music she perceived to be vanishing, she recorded more than 700 field tapes. Her frequent BBC broadcasts and commercially issued recordings introduced music from Asia and Africa to UK audiences and paved the way for the explosion of interest in ‘world music’. Jenkins’s original recordings and an archive of fieldwork photographs are held by the National Museums of Scotland....

Article

Almonte Howell

revised by Rui Vieira Nery

(b Vila Viçosa, March 19, 1604; d Lisbon, Nov 6, 1656). Portuguese ruler, collector of music, writer on music and composer. As heir to the dukedom of Bragança, whose ruling family was notable for its love of music, he received a thorough musical education; his first teacher was Robert Tornar (or Torgh), an English (or possibly Irish) composer who had been a disciple of Gery de Ghersem and Mathieu Rosmarin at the Royal Flemish Chapel in Madrid. After Portugal’s successful rebellion in 1640 against Spanish rule, he was chosen king. His reign was marked by intermittent war with Spain and by Portugal’s efforts to secure foreign alliances, but he was little interested in politics. He was, however, ardently devoted to music, generous in support of composers and musical establishments in his realm and constantly in touch with distinguished musicians.

João IV assembled the largest music library of his time, based on the ducal library of his father and grandfather. Its treasures unfortunately perished in the Lisbon earthquake and fire of ...

Article

Ernest H. Sanders

(d 1238–9). English monk. Since the mid-19th century the name of this monk at Reading Abbey has been associated with the so-called Reading rota Sumer is icumen in; he has been regarded as the possible scribe of the manuscript containing it (GB-Lbl Harl.978), as a direct influence on its present shape, and as the person who inspired the Latin and English words and the music. There is no evidence to support such theories, and even though his spurious fame continued to maintain itself in musical writings throughout the first half of the 20th century, John of Fornsete must be recognized as a nonentity as regards music....

Article

Jēkabs Vītoliņš

(b Ērgļi, Vidzeme, Sept 30, 1856; d Riga, Sept 28, 1922). Latvian composer and folklorist. He was one of the founders of Latvian classical music, graduating at the St Petersburg Conservatory from Lui Homilius’s organ class (1880), Rimsky-Korsakov’s composition class (1881) and F. Homilius’s horn class (1882). He then taught theory at the Russian Imperial Music Society’s music school at Kharkiv (1882–1916) and from 1920 lived in Riga. Even when not resident there, he always maintained a close association with the musical life of his native land, giving many concerts as a horn player (sometimes in the Jurjāns brothers' horn quartet) and organist; he was one of the leading conductors in the third, fourth and fifth big Latvian song festivals (1888, 1895 and 1910). He also worked assiduously in studying Latvian folksong melodies, of which he and his colleagues collected about ...

Article

Lada Brashovanova

(b Yambol, June 4, 1905; d Sofia, July 12, 1989). Bulgarian music folklorist. After graduating from the State Academy of Music in Sofia in 1938, he taught music in Bulgarian secondary schools from 1939 to 1945. He then worked until 1948 in the folk music section of the Ethnographical Museum in Sofia. From 1948 to 1956 he was junior research fellow at the Music Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Science and from 1956 senior research fellow. At the same time he taught the piano at the State Academy of Music in Sofia (1947–52). The main area of his research was Bulgarian folk music, particularly Bulgarian folk music instruments.

‘Balgarski narodni muzikalni instrumenti: tamburite v Razlozhko’ [The Tamburi in the Razlog district], IIM, 1 (1952), 97–124 [incl. Russ. and Fr. summaries] ‘Svirkarstvoto v selo Shipka’ [The restoration of the Svirki in Shipka village], IIM, 2–3 (1956), 215–48...

Article

William Drabkin

(b Neustadt an der Mettau [now Nové Město na Metové], May 17, 1819; d Vienna, Oct 23, 1886). Bohemian pianist, composer and collector of music manuscripts. He won considerable popularity as a composer of light piano pieces, among them nocturnes, idylls, impromptus and rhapsodies, of which about 200 were published. He is remembered chiefly as the owner of a number of Beethoven manuscripts, including the autographs of the piano sonatas opp.28 and 53 and various sketch miscellanies and leaves. The most important manuscript from his collection (the ‘Kafka’ Sketchbook), which contains sketches and autographs of many of Beethoven's earliest works, was acquired by the British Museum in 1875 (part of Add.29801). Another miscellany of sketches in the British Library (Add.29997) contains material for works written between 1799 and 1826; it was purchased from Kafka in 1876.

FétisBRiemannL12J.S. Shedlock: ‘Beethoven’s Sketch Books’, MT, 33 (1892), 331–4, 394–7, 461–5, 523–5, 589–92, 649–52, 717; xxxiv (1893), 14–16, 530–33; xxxv (1894), 13–16, 449–52, 596–600; l (1909), 712–4...

Article

Nicoletta Demetriou

(b Lefkonoiko, May 5, 1904; d Nicosia, May 10, 2004). Cypriot church cantor, Byzantine music scholar, and folk song collector and singer. He studied Byzantine music with Stylianos Hourmouzios in Nicosia (1921–4). He continued his studies in Byzantine music with Ioannis Sakellarides and Spyros Kapsaskis at the National Conservatoire of Athens, where he also studied Western music (1933–4). In 1935 he was appointed chief cantor (protopsaltis) at Agios Ioannis, the archiepiscopal cathedral in Nicosia, where he remained until the end of his life. In 1934 he became the first person to make commercial recordings of Cypriot folk songs. The ten songs he recorded were issued by HMV in Athens. In 1951 he published Kypriaki Laïki Mousa (Cypriot Popular Muse), the largest collection of Cypriot folk songs up to that time, which contained 83 transcriptions in both Byzantine and staff notation.

As a Byzantine music scholar he published 13 books, which covered different aspects of liturgical chanting. He was also the founder of a Byzantine music school in Nicosia (...

Article

Georgina Boyes

(b London, Nov 12, 1885; d London, Oct 1, 1976). English authority on folksong and folk dance and folksong collector. In 1909, intending to acquire teaching materials for her social work with children, she attended Morris dance competitions adjudicated by Cecil Sharp at the Shakespeare Festival, Stratford-on-Avon. Fascinated, she joined his first school of Morris dancing at South Western Polytechnic, London, and began a career devoted to promoting his vision of an English folk revival. With Sharpe’s encouragement, she recruited friends and in 1910 formed the Folk Dance Club; its membership became the nucleus of the English Folk Dance Society, founded by Sharp in 1911. Karpeles was a committee member of the new society and a key figure in the group which provided demonstrations for Sharp’s lectures and trained folk dancers (her dancing was particularly admired). Following Sharp’s illness in 1913, she also assisted increasingly with his duties as the director. Sharp transferred his acitivites to North America at the outbreak of World War I, and Karpeles joined him in ...

Article

David Brown

(b Moscow, 1769; d Moscow, Dec 1841). Russian folksong collector and composer. Son of one of General Bibikov’s serfs, he was a pupil of Sarti in Bessarabia (1788), and in 1790 performed two of his own pieces (including a piano concerto) at a public concert given in Moscow by Bibikov’s serf orchestra, of which Kashin was director in the 1790s. It is possible that he also visited Italy during this period. Freed from serfdom in 1798, he established himself as an important figure in Moscow’s musical life from 1799, and, in addition to his activities as a composer, pianist, singer, opera conductor, teacher and folksong collector, he organized and conducted mammoth concerts sometimes involving a choir of 300 and an orchestra of 200. In 1800 (or perhaps 1805) he appeared as an opera composer with Natal′ya, boyarskaya doch′ (‘Natal′ya, the Boyar’s Daughter’), which enjoyed great success, holding the stage until ...

Article

(b Moscow, 16/Nov 28, 1856; d Moscow, Dec 17, 1926). Russian composer and folklorist. The son of a priest, he acquired his musical education at the Moscow Conservatory (1876–78), where he studied music theory, composition and the piano. In 1887 he joined the Moscow Synodal School of Church Singing as a piano teacher on the recommendation of his teacher, Tchaikovsky. In later years he taught musical and theoretical disciplines and folklore at the schools of the Synod and the Philharmonia, as well as at the People's Conservatory. He was also active as a conductor (from 1891 he was assistant to the precentor, and from 1903 precentor of the Synodal Choir), and in studying folksongs and Russian music of the Middle Ages. From 1910 to 1918 Kastal′sky was the director of the Synodal School of Church Singing and did much work in transforming it into a higher educational establishment for choral training....

Article

(b Piotrków Trybunalski, Poland, 1910; d New York, Aug 27, 2010). American musician, instrument collector, bow maker, and jeweller. Kaston studied the violin with his father and grandfather before taking lessons with Enescu in Paris from 1937. After World War II he came with his wife to New York; their son was born during the passage. He played briefly with the Cleveland Orchestra before joining the Metropolitan Opera orchestra in 1943. In the 1960s he worked part-time for Wurlitzer as a bow maker and repairer, honing his skills as a copyist especially of Tourte bows, which he imitated so successfully that some have passed in the market as authentic. His knowledge of Tourte’s work was summarized in the book François-Xavier Tourte: Bow Maker (New York, 2001). Along with fine bows, Kaston created jewellery, including pieces commissioned by Salvador Dalí. Some of his bows incorporated jewels in their fittings. Kaston also invented a rubber mute, marketed as the ‘Heifetz’ mute....

Article

Lada Brashovanova

(b Ruse, Sept 23, 1925). Bulgarian folklorist and composer. He graduated in 1952 in both theory and performance at the State Academy of Music in Sofia and worked at the Music Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, as junior research fellow (1953–66) and senior research fellow (1966–89). He received the doctorate at the institute in 1973 with a dissertation on Bulgarian polyphonic folksong; in 1979 he was appointed professor of ethnomusicology at the State Academy of Music and in 1989, senior research fellow at the Institute for Folklore of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. His areas of research include various aspects of Bulgarian and Jewish folk music and he has been a member of the Union of Bulgarian Composers' executive committee since 1965. Much of his work in the 1960s on the folksong from particular regions in Bulgaria was published in Izvestiya na Instituta z muzika...

Article

H.C. Colles

revised by Frank Howes

[née Kennedy]

(b Perth, Oct 1857; d Edinburgh, Nov 22, 1930). Scottish singer, folksong collector and editor. Her father, David Kennedy, was her first teacher, and she completed her studies under Mathilde Marchesi in Milan and Paris. From the age of 12 she acted as her father’s accompanist. This background, together with her striking musical abilities, brought her to a leading position in promoting interest in the Gaelic songs of the Hebrides, although she was neither the first nor the most highly qualified collector in this area. Her published arrangements were criticized as being too free, but she defended them on the ground of the variability of the songs according to time, place and singer. This she had learnt from her experience as a collector in the Outer Hebrides, which she visited first in 1905. She was married to A.J. Fraser, and her daughter Patuffa became a player of the cláirseach. In addition to her publications, her lecture-recitals – given with her daughter and with her sister Margaret – were of prime importance in introducing Hebridean song to scholars, singers and the general public. She took the title role in Bantock’s Celtic folk opera ...

Article

Herbert Thompson, William C. Smith, Frank Howes and Rosemary Williamson

(b Leeds, Nov 15, 1855; d Leeds, Nov 7, 1926). English musical antiquary and folksong collector. Although of the school of William Chappell, he differed from it in accepting the validity of the oral tradition of folksong. He was a founder member of the Folk-Song Society in 1898 and one of the editors of its early journals; in 1906 he also contributed 30 songs and folk tales which he had himself collected in Yorkshire. Moreover, he anticipated Cecil Sharp’s rediscovery of the English folkdance tradition, for as early as 1890 he published a volume, Old English Country Dances (tunes only), and in 1915 he wrote, in association with Mary Neal, English Folk Song and Dance. He was also an accomplished amateur painter and expert on old Leeds pottery – on which, with his brother, he wrote the standard book, Historical Notes of the Leeds Old Pottery (1892). He contributed about 400 articles on a wide variety of subjects to ...

Article

Ludwik Bielawski

( b Przysucha, Opoczno district, Feb 22, 1814; d Kraków, June 3, 1890). Polish folklorist and composer . He was educated at the Warsaw Lyceum (1823–30) and studied the piano with Franciszek Vetter. He then worked in a bank, continuing his musical studies with Józef Elsner and I.F. Dobrzyński and later in Berlin (1835–6) with Girschner and Karol Rungenhagen. After returning from Berlin he taught the piano in Warsaw, Mitau (now Jelgava, Latvia) and Homel (Belarus). He was also active as a composer, chiefly of songs and dances whose inspiration he drew from folk music; most of these were published. His cycles of kujawiak proved the most popular of his works. Kolberg also composed the music for three one-act stage entertainments on rural themes, J.K. Gregorowicz's Janek spod Ojcowa (‘Johnny from Ojców’; Warsaw, 1853), Teofil Lenartowicz's Król pasterzy (‘The Shepherd King’; Warsaw, 1859) and Seweryna Pruszakowa’s ...

Article

Jonathan Katz

(b Kapasan, between Udaipur and Chittaurgarh, Rajasthan, India, March 4, 1929). Indian folklorist and scholar of traditional music. His early education was in Udaipur and Jodhpur. Having taken a degree in Hindi at the University of Rajasthan, he first pursued scholarly interests in Hindi literature. In 1961 he founded the Rupayan Sansthan, the Rajasthan Institute of Folklore, at the village of Borunda about 112 km from Jodhpur, and became its director. Here he initiated his life's work of collecting, documenting and preserving the oral traditions of Rajasthani performing arts. The Institute now houses a huge and unparalleled documentary collection of folktales, songs, proverbs and riddles of Rajasthan. For several years Kothari has been a leading force in introducing traditional Rajasthani professional musicians and folksingers such as the Langas and Manganiyars to Indian and Western audiences, travelling with groups of them to Europe. In 1960 he published a volume of criticism in Hindi, ...

Article

Thomas F. Heck

(b Germany, 1872; d St. Louis, MO, April 3, 1962). American guitarist, music collector, and teacher. He immigrated to the United States at age 15 and settled in St. Louis. He played banjo and mandolin as well as guitar, and was largely self-taught, although the guitarist William Foden, whom he met in 1904, was his teacher before becoming his duet partner. Krick moved to Philadelphia in 1906, where he founded the Germantown Conservatory and was its director until the early 1940s. While there he edited a column on fretted instruments for The Etude magazine, and led the Mandoliers, a fretted-instrument quartet. The last two decades of his life were spent in St. Louis, where he taught privately. Krick met the Spanish guitarist Andrés Segovia when both were on concert tours of Germany in 1924, and was influential in arranging Segovia’s first tour of the United States in 1928...

Article

John Tyrrell

(b Poděbrady, Bohemia, April 16, 1863; d Prague, Nov 30, 1956). Czech folksong collector, writer and painter. After studying at the Prague Organ School under Skuherský (1877–9) and at a teachers' training college in Kutná Hora (1879–83), he became a village schoolmaster for a few years. He abandoned this in 1885 to devote himself wholly to his life-work, the assembly of a vast collection of Slavonic folk music (Slovanstvo ve svých zpěvech), which he had begun to publish privately in 1884. His research took him all over the Slavonic world: particularly valuable for instance are his notations of Russian folk polyphony and of the south Slav duets. He was equally gifted as a painter; his works blend impressionism with realism, taking much of their subject matter from his travels. When discouraged by lack of interest in his folksong research, Kuba returned to painting and studied further in Prague (...

Article

Sarah Adams Hoover

(b Deadwood, SD, Nov 9, 1955). American curator and organologist. He studied cabinet making at Western Dakota Vocational-Technical Institute (1978) and harpsichord (BM 1982) and the history of musical instruments (MM 1986) at the University of South Dakota. While an undergraduate, he served as research assistant at the National Music Museum. Since 1986 he has worked at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, as assistant curator (1986–1995) and subsequently curator of musical instruments (from 1995); in 2010 he was named the first Pappalardo Curator of Music Instruments. His tenure has included the exhibitions “Dangerous Curves: Art of the Guitar” (2000), and “Sounds of the Silk Road: Musical Instruments of Asia” (2005). Kuronen’s research on the history of musical instrument manufacturing in the United States has focused particularly on pianos, violins, guitars, and free reeds. He has also created an inventory of musical instruments in museums and historical societies throughout New England. His article “The Musical Instruments of Benjamin Crehore” was awarded the Frances Densmore Prize in ...

Article

(b Antwerp, Belgium, 13 Feb 1928). Belgian organologist and museum curator. She studied at the University of Ghent from 1948 to 1952 and received the PhD (1957) with a dissertation on music at the Burgundian-Habsburg court in the Netherlands. She started her career in 1953 at the Vlees-huis museum (Antwerp), where she cared for a small collection of historical instruments including Ruckers harpsichords in intact condition. Specialist visitors to the museum, including Raymond Russell and Frank Hubbard, encouraged Lambrechts-Douillez to undertake archival research on the Ruckers family, resulting in seminal publications. For guidance in the preservation of historical harpsichords she sought advice from John Henry van der Meer and members of the Galpin Society, with whom she built strong connections that helped bring the Vleeshuis collection to international attention, especially among instrument builders and early-music performers.

Lambrechts-Douillez was a founding member in 1960 of the International Committee of Musical Instrument Museums and Collections (CIMCIM), serving as its president from ...