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Julian Rushton

revised by Manuel Couvreur

(b Paris, Nov 20, 1739; d Paris, Feb 11, 1803). French man of letters. He wrote several tragedies, of which Le comte de Warwick (1763) was the most successful, but he is chiefly remembered for his didactic and critical works. These include the Cours de littérature in 16 volumes (1799–1805), in which he holds a special place for French librettists of the 17th and 18th centuries, and an Eloge de Racine (1772). A dogmatic critic with little understanding of music, he joined with Marmontel to support the Italians against Gluck, and particularly favoured Sacchini; his virulent attack on Armide in the Journal de politique et de littérature (5 October 1777) was ridiculed by Gluck himself in the Journal de Paris (12 October 1777) and by La Harpe’s colleague J.B.A. Suard using the pseudonym ‘L’anonyme de Vaugirard’. His Correspondance littéraire...


John Trevitt

(b Gray, Haute-Saône, Feb 18, 1874; d Dôle, March 4, 1944). French musicologist and critic. He was a pupil at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (1893), gaining the agrégé des lettres (1896) and docteur ès lettres (1904); he also studied at the Schola Cantorum with d’Indy, Bordes and others (1899–1905). He contributed as editor-in-chief (‘without title’, as he said later) to Combarieu’s Revue musicale from 1901, and in 1905 founded, with Jean Marnold, the Mercure musical which Ecorcheville later transformed into the Bulletin français de la S.I.M. He was also co-founder of the short-lived Année musicale (1911–13) and an influential music critic of the Grande revue, the Gazette des beaux-arts and (from 1930) the Revue des deux mondes. In 1906–7 he lectured on music history at the Sorbonne while Romain Rolland was on leave. He served as secretary general of the Paris Opéra from ...



(b Oldham, Sept 23, 1942). English writer. He studied mathematics at Oxford; by profession an investment manager, he is a noted authority on the lighter forms of music theatre. He has written lucidly and extensively on musical comedy and the zarzuela as well as operetta, and has published many articles in reference works and periodicals on the American musical theatre, Sullivan, the Strausses and particularly Offenbach; he was one of the collaborators on Gänzl’s Book of the Musical Theatre (1988) and has written studies of Jerome Kern (1985) and the Waldteufels (1995).

Jerome Kern in Edwardian London (Littlehampton, 1981, enlarged 2/1985) with K. Gänzl: Gänzl’s Book of the Musical Theatre (London, 1988) ed. Unterhaltungsmusik aus Österreich: Max Schönherr in seinen Erinnerungen und Schriften/Light Music from Austria: Reminiscences and Writings of Max Schönherr (New York, 1992) Skaters’ Waltz: the Story of the Waldteufels...


Rodney H. Mill

revised by Michael von der Linn

(b Pleschen [now Pleszew], Jan 1, 1874; d Cambridge, MA, Nov 13, 1951). German musicologist, music critic and composer. At the age of 15 he was sent to the USA where he studied liberal arts at Harvard University (BA 1894) and music with John Knowles Paine; he continued his musical studies in Paris (1894–5) and at the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin (1895–8). Subsequently he studied music history and aesthetics at Berlin University under Fleischer and Friedlaender (1898–1901), taking the doctorate there in 1901 with a dissertation on Keiser's operas. While lecturing in composition, music history and aesthetics at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory, Berlin (1901–24), he taught composition privately in Berlin and wrote music criticism for several journals, including the Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung, Die Musik, Signale für die musikalische Welt and the Vossische Zeitung, and was German correspondent of the Musical Courier...


Elliot Forbes

revised by Edward Garden

(b Riga, 20 May/June 1, 1809; d St Petersburg, 7/Jan 19, 1883). Russian official and writer on music of German descent. He was educated in Riga until 1827. The next year he continued his musical studies in Paris as a pupil of Liszt, to whom he claimed to have introduced the piano music of Weber, an idea now discredited; he also met Chopin and became friendly with Berlioz. He went to London for lessons with Moscheles, and, after further travels, he was appointed an Imperial Russian Councillor of State in St Petersburg, where he developed his writing on music, particularly on Beethoven.

Lenz's most important book was Beethoven et ses trois styles, in which he severely attacked Ulïbïshev for the latter's denunciatory judgment on the late works of Beethoven, which he had expressed in the ‘Aperçu’ to his book on Mozart. More importantly, he elaborated the idea, orginally suggested by Fétis, that Beethoven's works may be divided into three periods: early, middle and late. Lenz's tripartite division is made on the arbitrary and unreliable order of opus numbers rather than solely on stylistic grounds. Lenz's biographical writing is based on Ries, Wegeler, and above all Schindler (to Schindler's disgust). His uncritical enthusiasm for Beethoven as both man and musician, along with his romantic bias towards portraying Beethoven as an artistic martyr, provides an example of the kind of writing against which Thayer reacted in his monumental biography. Less recognized, however, is the remarkable thoroughness of Lenz's ‘Kritische Katalog’ of Beethoven's collected works, including editions and revisions....


Kathleen Dale

revised by Axel Helmer

(b Trosa, March 14, 1846; d Stockholm, Feb 8, 1905). Swedish music critic and historian. He studied philosophy and music theory at Uppsala from 1863, graduating in 1873, and from 1874 until his death was music critic to the newspaper Aftonbladet. With Vult von Steijern he founded the Svensk musiktidning (1881–1913), which became the most important music journal in Sweden, and was its editor until 1884. He wrote articles for numerous Scandinavian journals and newspapers and was music correspondent for several music journals in Germany. Lindgren’s writings on music, of which the most important are the sections on music in the first edition of the encyclopedia Nordisk familjebok (1875–99), are discerning and competent. They are regarded as one of the bases for the development of Swedish musicology.

(selective list)

Musikens katekes (Stockholm, 1877) [trans. of J.C. Lobe: Katechismus der Musik, Leipzig, 1851]...


Hanspeter Krellmann

revised by Dietrich Kaemper

(b Bergisch Gladbach, Aug 6, 1912). German musicologist and critic. He studied music in Cologne (1932–5) and musicology at the universities of Cologne, Bonn and Berlin with Schering and Bücken (1935–9). He took the doctorate at Cologne in 1939 with a dissertation on Pfitzner’s songs with piano accompaniment. After war service and a period as a POW until 1949, he was a lecturer in the Cologne Tonkünstlerseminar (1949–57) and subsequently at the Cologne Musikhochschule (1957–87), where he specialized in new music. From 1949 he was also music critic for various daily newspapers and periodicals. In 1965 he was given an additional lectureship at the Musikhochschule in Freiburg, and in 1969 he was made head of the Rheinische Musikschule in Cologne, a position he held until 1976. Lindlar has consistently championed contemporary music, notably in his writings and in his work as editor of ...


Andrew Hughes

revised by Randall Rosenfeld

[Ramón [Lull, Raymond; Lullus, Raymondus]

(b c1232; d c1316). Mallorcan theologian and mystic. According to his Vida, Llull became seneschal to the king of Mallorca, and was a devotee of troubadour lyrics before his ‘conversion to penitence’. He did not leave an extended discussion of music as a liberal art, however, there are brief references to music among his many theological and literary works.

In his Ars brevis Llull defined music as ‘the art devised to arrange many voices so that they may be concordant in a single song’, a definition he used in other works. The treatment of his Ars generalis ultima considers music from the standpoint of his unusal theory of cognition. More typical of his writing is the passage in his Libre de doctrina pueril, ‘De les vii arts’, which compares the clergy singing in praise of God with minstrels expressing worldly vanity in songs and on instruments. He put great stress on reforming worldly entertainment into morally improving works, and proposed the idea of divine troubadours in two works, ...


Alfred Grant Goodman

revised by K.M. Knittel

(b Schwetzingen, Jan 30, 1870; d Munich, Nov 15, 1914). German writer on music. He studied philosophy in Geneva and Vienna where he received a doctorate in 1893 with a dissertation on conflict in music; he then studied composition with Klose and conducting with Mottl in Karlsruhe. He was appointed conductor in Lübeck and Landshut and before moving to Munich in 1897. In 1900 he succeeded Porges as chief music critic for the important Bavarian newspaper the Münchner neuesten Nachrichten. Louis's reviews for that paper, as well as his writings on individual composers reveal his bias towards the Wagnerian school, and his nationalistic and anti-Semitic book, Die deutsche Musik der Gegenwart (1909), inspired the work of both Storck and Moser. His Harmonielehre, written in collaboration with Thuille, is a practical textbook of harmonic structure and analyses up to Richard Strauss. His symphonic poem Proteus, was performed at the ...


Patrick J. Smith

(b New York, Aug 19, 1916; d Baltimore, Nov 14, 1983). American musicologist, critic and librarian. He attended Columbia University (BS 1939) and the University of Maryland (MA 1957). He contributed music criticism to the Washington Star from 1953, and was its chief music critic from 1960 to 1978. He was assistant head of the reference section of the music division of the Library of Congress (1962–6). He was president of the Music Library Association (1965–6), executive board member of the AMS (1964–5), and was founder-member of the Music Critics Association, of which he was also president (1971–5). In 1975 he founded the American Sonneck Society, serving as its first president (until 1981) and initiating its official journal American Music (in 1983). After working as visiting professor at Brooklyn College, CUNY (1975–6), he taught at the Peabody Conservatory, Baltimore, from ...


Luis Robledo

(b Mallorca, c1510; d Besançon, Jan 12, 1582). Spanish grammarian, rhetorician and theologian. A descendant of Ramón Llull, he settled at an early age in the Franche-Comté, where he was private tutor to Claude de Baumes. The latter, on his later appointment as Bishop of Besançon, made Lull curate of the diocese. An expert in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, Lull also taught theology at Dôle University. Four of his works survive (two on rhetoric, one on grammar and one on ecclesiastical matters), of which one, Sobre el decoro de la poética, is available in a modern edition (ed. A. Sancho Royo, Madrid, 1994).

In his most important work, De oratione libri septem (Basle, c1558), Lull attached great importance to various musical questions, perhaps because he himself had written a treatise on music (now lost). He explained the relationship between rhetoric and music in terms of the ...


Robin A. Leaver

(b Eisleben, Nov 10, 1483; d Eisleben, Feb 18, 1546). German theologian and founder of the Lutheran Church. He influenced all 16th-century church reformers to a greater or lesser extent by his writings and activities but, unlike some of them, Luther gave an important place to music.

Luther was the son of a fairly prosperous Thuringian miner, who wanted his son to become a lawyer. He was sent to appropriate Latin schools in Mansfeld and Magdeburg, and to the Georgschule in Eisenach. In 1501 he entered the University of Erfurt, where he took the bachelor’s and master’s degrees. Then, following his father’s wishes, he began to study law, but unexpectedly entered the local Augustinian monastery and in 1505 became a monk. In April 1507 he was ordained priest and celebrated his first Mass a month later. Three years later he was commissioned to visit Rome to plead the cause of the reorganization of the Augustinian order. While there he was shocked by the commercialism and worldliness of the Italian clergy....


Daniel Zager

[Leonard S. ]

(b Albany, NY, July 24, 1942). American writer. He studied philosophy at the University of Rochester (BA 1964) and Brown University (MA 1966, PhD 1969) and from 1969 taught philosophy at the University of Santa Clara; he also studied piano with Lennie Tristano. Among his published writings are The Great Jazz Pianists (1983), a collection of interviews with 27 jazz pianists that includes biographical material and discographies, and articles for Down Beat, Keyboard, and Guitar Player. He received the first Ralph J. Gleason Memorial Fund Award for Jazz Criticism at the Monterey Jazz Festival in 1976. In the early 1980s he moved from Berkeley, California, to Lexington, Massachusetts.

(selective list)

The 101 Best Jazz Albums: a History of Jazz on Records (New York, 1980) [listeners’ guide] The Great Jazz Pianists, Speaking of their Lives and Music (New York, 1983) with D. Perlo: Jazz Portraits: the Lives and Music of the Jazz Masters...


( b Cartagena, Oct 24, 1863; d St Blasien, Baden, Feb 27, 1929). Spanish composer, folklorist and music critic . His father was a captain of a marine infantry battalion, and he began his musical training under a military bandsman in his father's regiment. In the early 1880s, while stationed in Madrid as a second lieutenant, he began to study harmony, counterpoint, fugue and composition with Ruperto Chapí, remaining his sole disciple until Chapí's death in 1909. During these years he devoted most of his spare time to composition. He was a member of the Sociedad Filarmónica Madrileña (1901–11) and a founder-member of La Asociación Wagneriana Madrileña (inaugurated 4 May 1911). He was music critic for the periodical El mundo (1907–15) and also contributed articles to ABC. He also conducted numerous concerts of the Sociedad de Conciertos, Madrid, and the S Cecilia choral society. In ...


Howard Serwer

(b Seehof, nr Wendemark, Brandenburg, Nov 21, 1718; d Berlin, May 22, 1795). German critic, journalist, theorist and composer. Gerber claimed that Marpurg had told him that he lived in Paris around 1746; Carl Spazier confirmed this, adding that Marpurg was friendly with Voltaire, D'Alembert and others when he was secretary to a ‘General Bodenburg’. This is generally assumed to refer to Generallieutenant Friedrich Rudolph Graf von Rothenburg, a favourite of Frederick the Great and Prussian emissary to Paris in 1744–5, and the dedicatee of Marpurg's Der critische Musicus an der Spree (1749–50).

From 1749 to 1763 Marpurg devoted himself almost exclusively to writing and editing books and periodicals about music and to composing and editing lieder and works for keyboard. In 1752, at the request of the heirs of J.S. Bach, he wrote a notable preface for a new edition of Die Kunst der Fuge...


[Samuel Moses]

(b Halle, May 15, 1795; d Berlin, May 17, 1866). German music theorist, critic and pedagogue. One of the most influential theorists of the 19th century, Marx named and codified sonata form. As a critic he awakened and cultivated early appreciation for the symphonies of Beethoven; as a pedagogue he worked to make music an integral part of the education of the individual and of the development of the German nation.

Marx was the son of a Jewish doctor in Halle. He entered the university there in 1812, studying law, and together with Carl Loewe also studied composition with Türk. He practised law in Naumberg from 1815 to 1821, and in 1819 converted to Protestantism, changing his forenames from Samuel Moses to Friedrich Heinrich Adolf Bernhard. In 1821 he moved to Berlin, where he increasingly gave himself over to music and studied for a short period with C.F. Zelter. The music publisher A.M. Schlesinger made him editor of the ...


George J. Buelow

(b Hamburg, Sept 28, 1681; d Hamburg, April 17, 1764). German composer, critic, music journalist, lexicographer and theorist.

Mattheson was the third and only surviving son of Johann Mattheson, a Hamburg tax collector, and Margaretha Höling of Rendsburg (Holstein). Details of Mattheson’s life come largely from his autobiography published in the Grundlage einer Ehren-Pforte. His education was exceptionally broad, perhaps because his parents hoped he would gain a position in Hamburg society. At the Johanneum he received a substantial background in the liberal arts, including musical instruction from Kantor Joachim Gerstenbüttel. He also had private instruction in dancing, drawing, arithmetic, riding, fencing, and English, French and Italian. At six he began private music lessons, studying the keyboard and composition for four years with J.N. Hanff (later organist at Schleswig Cathedral), taking singing lessons from a local musician named Woldag and instruction on the gamba, violin, flute, oboe and lute. At nine Mattheson was a child prodigy, performing on the organ and singing in Hamburg churches. His voice was of such quality that Gerhard Schott, manager of the Hamburg opera, invited him to join the company, and he sang in J.W. Franck’s opera ...


( b Lyons, March 9, 1631; d Paris, Jan 21, 1705). French writer . Menestrier studied at the Jesuit Collège de la Trinité in Lyons and subsequently taught rhetoric there, having joined the Jesuit order in 1646. He later taught at Chambéry, Vienne (Isère) and Grenoble before being recalled to the college at Lyons. It was during this latter stay there that he developed the special interest in the history and organization of public festivals and ceremonies that occupied him for most of his life. This interest resulted not only in his organizing such events (for example on the occasion of the visit of Louis XIV to Lyons in 1658, an event which is known to have included student performances of ballets devised by Menestrier, and for the beatification of François de Sales at Annecy in 1662), but also in his publishing a series of works dealing with their details. His studies in heraldry, in imagery and decoration, in stage design and construction, in the writing of occasional poetry and ballets, and in the theatrical use of music and dance are all notable. In ...


M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet

revised by Dorothea Baumann

( b Basle, Sept 18, 1889; d Basle, Nov 15, 1952). Swiss musicologist and critic . He studied classical philology, and then musicology with Karl Nef at the University of Basle and with Rezniček, Kretzschmar and Johannes Wolf in Berlin. In 1915 he took the doctorate with a dissertation on Hans Kotter’s organ tablature. He became a critic and later music editor (1920–51) of Basler Nachrichten. In 1921 he completed the Habilitation with a study of the keyboard music of the German colourists and was appointed lecturer at the University of Basle; he was subsequently appointed reader (1930) and full professor (1935). He was the first secretary of the IMS (1927–48) and, after having organized its first international congress in Basle in 1924, president of the Schweizerische Musikforschende Gesellschaft (1935–46); later he became an honorary member of both societies. In ...


Thomas M. Langner

revised by Pamela M. Potter

( b Potsdam, Oct 6, 1891; d Cologne, June 24, 1971). German musicologist and journalist . He studied musicology with Sandberger and Kroyer at Munich University (1910–12), with Riemann and Schering for one term in Leipzig, and with Kretzschmar and Wolf in Berlin (1912–14); he also had some practical training at the Stern Conservatory. He took the doctorate in 1914 with a dissertation on Christian Boxberg and the music history of Ansbach, and then as assistant to Kretzschmar at the musicology institute of Berlin University he catalogued old music in archives and libraries in Germany and Italy (1915–17); he was subsequently the first director of the Musikarchiv Deutscher Volkslieder (1917–34). In 1921 he completed the Habilitation at the Berlin Technische Hochschule with a study of new musical methods of research into folksong, and in 1927 he became a reader at the Technische Hochschule. During his years (...