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Ferenc Bónis

(b Székesfehérvár, Feb 4, 1898; d Budapest, Oct 18, 1968). Hungarian music critic and aesthetician, husband of Annie Fischer. After learning the piano and composition in Székesfehérvár, he studied in the philosophy faculty of the Budapest Scientific University (1920–24), where he took the doctorate in 1925 with a dissertation on the aesthetics of Mozart’s dramatic music. While working as a music critic of the daily newspapers Új nemzedék (1920–23) and Pesti napló (1923–39) and the literary periodical Nyugat (1923–40), he was also on the editorial board of the Hungarian musicological journal Zenei szemle (1926–9) and co-editor, with Szabolcsi, of the Hungarian music dictionary Zenei lexikon (1930–31). During the 1930s his criticism and studies began to appear in such foreign periodicals as the Musical Courier, Revue musicale, Melos and Pult und Taktstock. In 1937 he married the pianist Annie Fischer and they emigrated to Sweden in ...


Allen Hughes


(b Bangor, WI, Aug 29, 1923; d New York, Dec 31, 1986). American composer and music critic. Encouraged by Schoenberg, who had seen some of his scores, Trimble entered the Carnegie Institute of Technology (BFA in violin and composition, 1948; MFA in composition), where he studied with Lopatnikoff and Dorian. At the Berkshire Music Center he studied with Milhaud and Copland and, in 1950 in Paris, with Boulanger, Milhaud and Honegger. He returned from Paris in 1952 and settled in New York, where he was managing editor of Musical America (1960–61) and executive director of the American Music Center (1961–3). From 1963 to 1968 he was professor of composition at the University of Maryland and then was appointed composer-in-residence with the New York PO by Bernstein (1967–8). In 1971 he joined the faculty of the Juilliard School and in 1973 he became the first composer-in-residence at Wolf Trap Farm Park....


Bernarr Rainbow

(fl 1833–56). English organist and pioneer of school music. Music in schools, virtually dead in England since the abolition of the song and monastic schools at the Reformation, began its long period of recovery during the decade immediately following the passing of the first Reform Act (1832). Turner's Manual of Instruction in Vocal Music (1833) was the earliest music textbook published for use in English schools. Ostensibly designed to bring about the improvement of congregational psalmody, it was also meant to exert a wider civilizing effect on the industrial population.

Little is known of Turner’s life; but he wrote as an experienced teacher whose book was presented to the public ‘not as an experiment for the first time tried, but as the result of long experience’. Music master at the Westminster Day Training College for Teachers, Turner was also organist and choirmaster at St Stephen’s Church, Avenue Road, St John’s Wood (since demolished), where one of his choristers, L.C. Venables (...


Jorge Luis Acevedo Vargas

(b San José, April 15, 1928). Costa Rican composer, critic and painter. He studied piano at the National Conservatory of Music with Guillermo Aguilar Machado, and took private lessons with Carlos Enrique Vargas. In 1953 he went to Madrid, where he studied painting and aesthetics, and attended the Madrid Royal Conservatory where he obtained the Higher Diploma in Piano Studies.

On his return to Costa Rica he taught piano, harmony and analysis for many years at the Castella Conservatory, taught the piano at the Autonomous University of Central America, and lectured at the University of Costa Rica. At the same time he worked as an art critic for the most important newspapers and reviews in Costa Rica, among them La nación and La república. As a painter his work has achieved international recognition. He has won numerous awards for his paintings, poetry and compositions, and is the author of ...


Yannis Belonis

(b Brussels, Dec 10, 1885; d Athens, July 30, 1967). Greek composer, music educator, and critic. One of the leaders of the Greek National Music School, he was born in Brussels during a business trip of his father (a professor in the Army Cadet’s School), though he claimed Athens as his birthplace. Varvoglēs’ artistic nature emerged from a very early age, specifically in the field of painting. He attended the School of Fine Arts where he apprenticed with Nikēphoros Lytras and Giōrgos Roilos (1900–02) while at the same time he took music lessons. In 1902 he went to Paris to study law, but despite disapproval from his family, he decided to pursue a musical career.

In Paris he enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire where he apprenticed, under the instruction of Xavier Leroux and Georges Caussade. He stayed in Paris until 1920, with a short break between the years ...


Marina Moiseyevna Mazur

(b Orenburg, 13/Dec 25, 1878/Jan 6, 1879 or Dec 25, 1879/Jan 6, 1880; d Leningrad, March 1, 1942). Russian composer and critic. On her graduation from the St Petersburg Gymnasium (1895), Veysberg became a student at the historico-philological faculty of the Women's University, and simultaneously (from 1899) gave private lessons in music theory under the auspices of I.I. Krïzhanovsky, a pupil of Rimsky-Korsakov. From around 1902 to 1905 she studied at the St Petersburg Conservatory, where she was taught composition by Rimsky-Korsakov, orchestration by Glazunov and singing by Tsvantsiger [Zwanziger]. She was expelled from the Conservatory in 1905 for her participation in the revolutionary events of that year, but was later allowed to return; she eventually graduated in 1912, after returning from Berlin, where she had studied with Humperdinck and Reger. Back in Russia she married Andrey Rimsky-Korsakov in ...


Miloš Velimirović

(b Voznesensk, Kostroma province, 5/Sept 17, 1838; d Kostroma, 8/Dec 21, 1910). Russian writer on church music . Voznesensky graduated from the Kostroma Seminary in 1860 and from the Moscow Theological Academy in 1864. He served as teacher of chant in the Kostroma Seminary until 1883, when he became an inspector of the Riga Seminary until 1894; he then served as head priest of the cathedral of the Trinity, Kostroma. In the late 1880s and in the 1890s he published several volumes of studies dealing with the different varieties of chant in Russian churches. His works are basically compilations, and eclectic in nature. He did only a minimal amount of original research on the historical evolution of Russian chant, but he was among the first in Russia to investigate the melodic traditions of south-western Russian provenance from the 17th and 18th centuries preserved in Western staff notation. He translated into Russian a treatise of the ‘method’ of the Greco-Slavonic chanting originally written in Latin by Ioan de Castro (Rome, ...


William Osborne

(b Livingstone Town[ship], Columbia County, NY, June 2, 1839; d San Francisco, CA, April 14, 1921). American composer, teacher, and critic of German-Jewish parentage. Weil was first educated at a private school in Albany and later studied in Leipzig and Paris. His New York début on 21 May 1863 was conducted by Theodore Thomas. In 1868 Weil settled in San Francisco, where some of his compositions were published as early as 1874. He co-founded the San Francisco Institute of Music and organized the city’s first series of chamber music concerts. He also became general director of the Bush Street Theater, but left in 1881; he settled for a period in Boston, where for four years he served as music director of the Bostonians. He returned to San Francisco in 1898 to teach and write music criticism for the Argonaut.

Many of his works remain unpublished, including some of significant proportions. He wrote solo songs on both English and German lyrics, partsongs, a set of seven vocal waltzes issued by Breitkopf und Härtel in ...


Clement A. Miller

[Jobst ]

(b Resel, Värmland, c1486; d Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 12, 1552). German humanist, physician, writer and musician . The generally accepted birthdate for him is about 1486, but according to Pietzsch it is 1501. In 1516 he entered the University of Frankfurt an der Oder, where he probably studied music under Johann Volckmar. After graduating he taught music from 1522 to 1539. In 1524 Willich became professor of Greek and in 1540 professor of medicine. Although he retained his connection with the university until his death, he was frequently called to other countries (such as Poland and Hungary) because of his renown as a physician. He corresponded with Erasmus and was personally acquainted with Luther, Melanchthon and Glarean. More than 60 writings on philology, antiquity, philosophy, theology, law, medicine, mathematics and music, some of which remained current into the 18th century, gave Willich a position as one of the outstanding German humanists of his time. An ardent lutenist, he founded about ...


David Scott

(b Northwich, Cheshire, May 17, 1912; d York, May 9, 2004). English writer on music and music educationist . He was educated at Christ’s Hospital (1924–30) and read English, music and history as an organ scholar at Selwyn College, Cambridge (1930–34; MusB 1933). He was director of music at Stranmillis Teachers Training College, Belfast, from 1934 until 1937, when he took the MusD at Trinity College, Dublin. From 1937 to 1944 he was music adviser to the city of Stoke on Trent. In 1944 he became director of music at Wolverhampton College of Technology; there he also formed a choir which gave many performances, particularly of lesser-known works by Handel. Since 1970 he has been a visiting scholar and lecturer at numerous colleges in the USA.

Young was an exceptionally fluent and prolific writer. His books include short popular biographies and several volumes for younger readers. Many of his more substantial writings are based on a lively, fresh and industrious, if not always highly discriminating, examination of source material; these include original research on Elgar and useful surveys of the British choral tradition and British music generally. As a composer Young was equally prolific: his works include a Fugal Concerto for two pianos and strings (...


Leah G. Weinberg

(b Exeter, NH, Nov 8, 1961). American Musician, songwriter, record company founder, and author. Zanes was raised near Concord, New Hampshire, and after attending Oberlin College for one year, moved to Boston. There, Zanes, his brother Warren, the bass player Tom Lloyd, and the drummer Steve Morrell formed the Del Fuegos. The roots-rock band produced five albums between 1984 and 1989, with singles “Don’t Run Wild,” “I still want you,” “Name Names,” and “Move with me Sister.” After the Del Fuegos disbanded and Zanes’s solo album Cool Down Time failed to sell, he began to listen to banjo songs, cowboy tunes, and traditional songs that he remembered from childhood. After his daughter Anna was born, Zanes’s dissatisfaction with the American children’s music market led him to form a family-oriented band that merged folk and rock styles and instrumentation. Initially known as the Wonderland String Band, the New York based-group underwent changes in title and personnel, first to the Rocket Ship Revue, and then to Dan Zanes & Friends. The seven-member band has produced nine albums on Zanes’s label, Festival Five Records, which include original songs as well as folk, traditional, and gospel songs from the United States, Jamaica, Africa, and Mexico. ...


Mikhail Mishchenko

(b Kursk, 6/Oct 18, 1881; d Jan 20, 1938). Russian critic, composer and teacher. A member of the London Geographic Society. Zhilyayev first studied with Taneyev (1896–1900) and was one of his favourite pupils; he later studied with Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory, graduating in 1905. His activity as a composer was limited to the period 1905–9, and several of his works were published by Jurgenson. After a round-the-world trip during which he visited Grieg at his house in Troldhaugen (1907), he appeared as a pianist with the singer M. Deysha-Sionitskaya at the Muzïkal′nïye vïstavki (‘Musical Exhibitions’) in Moscow. He was active as a music critic and wrote for the journals Zolotoye runo (‘The Golden Fleece’), Moskovskiy yezhenedel′nik (‘Moscow Weekly’), Muzïka (‘Music’) and for the newspaper Rul′ (‘The Rudder’) (in which he used the pseudonym Peer Gynt). One of Skryabin’s close friends, Zhilyayev made editorial corrections to a number of his works during the composer’s final years, including the piano sonatas nos.8, 9 and 10. Not long before World War I Zhilyayev began teaching; among his first pupils were Stanchinsky, Feinberg and Anatoly Aleksandrov; as a member of the editorial board of the Music Sector of Gosizdat during the 1920s and 30s, he edited Skryabin’s complete works (in ...


Ian Mikyska

(b Brno, 13 March 1966). Czech composer, pedagogue, and writer on music, son of zdeněk zouhar. He studied composition at the Janáček Academy of Music and Performing Arts (JAMU) in Brno (with Miloš Ištván and alois piňos) and musicology at the Masaryk University, followed by post-graduate studies at the Hochschule für Musik und darstellende Kunst Graz (with Herman Markus Preßl and younghi pagh-paan) and JAMU. He remains an external pedagogue at both these institutions, as well as being active as a researcher at the Palacký University Olomouc (vice-dean starting in 2010), Ostrava University, and Masaryk University.

His brand of postmodernism is surprisingly respectful, using disparate materials in a serious manner, and generally staying with a few pieces of material for the duration of a piece or movement. Often composed in an additive, evolutionary structure, his works are sonically reminiscent of New York post-minimalism, but are very European in their approach to expressivity and emotional intensity. This approach includes both the intense rhythms of ...