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Romanian conservatory founded in 1919 in Cluj-Napoca in central Transylvania. It comprises today three main faculties: musical performance, music theory, and musical theatre. Since 1998, a fourth branch has been founded in the city of Piatra Neamţ, situated in a different region in northeast Romania. Initially founded as the Conservatory for Music and Dramatic Arts, the institution was also named the Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts (from 1931) and the Gheorghe Dima Music Conservatory (from 1950); since 1990 it has regained its title of academy in its current form—the Gheorghe Dima Music Academy. The institution has borne for 60 years the name of its first rector, the composer Gheorghe Dima, who is praised for his role in the founding of musical higher-education in Transylvania.

The history of the institution begins in an effervescent social and cultural period, shortly after the Union of Transylvania with Romania (1918...

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Jonas Westover

Originally called the “Gramophone Awards,” the Grammy Awards serves to honor achievement in the recording industry across a wide range of artistic and technical categories. The National academy of recording arts and sciences bestows these honors on an annual basis, and the televised production, broadcast internationally, is one of the music industry’s most prestigious occasions.

The award was first discussed in the late 1950s as part of the Hollywood Walk of Fame project, when organizers realized that there was no music equivalent for the major honors in film (Oscars) and television (Emmys). The initial broadcast show occurred on 4 May 1959 as part of the NBC anthology series Sunday Showcase, as musicians were presented with statues of Thomas Edison’s invention, the gramophone (a practice that continues to the present). NARAS seeks to recognize figures involved with different aspects of the recording process—from star performers to certain figures behind the scenes—relying on peer involvement to assign and designate awards. NARAS periodically makes changes by adding, merging, or deleting award categories; for the ...

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Grätz  

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French organization devoted to electro-acoustic music production, concert-giving, research and teaching. Its foundation dates back to 1948 when Pierre Schaeffer invented musique concrète, which emerged out of his work on experimental approaches to radiophonic arts. This work was carried out under the auspices of the Club d'Essai, a group within Radiodiffusion Française, which had originally been established in 1942 as the Studio d’Essai. Schaeffer was joined by Pierre Henry in 1949 and the two embarked on a fruitful period of collaboration. With the formation of the Groupe de Recherches de Musique Concrète under Schaeffer’s direction in 1951, musique concrète was accorded official status, with its own specially equipped studio; the first trainees included Boulez and Stockhausen, and later Messiaen and Barraqué. In 1954 Schaeffer left the group for three years in order to found the Radiodiffusion de la France d’Outre-Mer, and after his return the Groupe de Recherches Musicales (GRM) was created in ...

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Carlos de Pontes Leça

(Port. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian)

Portuguese organization for supporting the arts, charity, education and sciences. It was founded on 18 July 1956, in accordance with the will of Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian (b Istanbul, 29 March 1869; d Lisbon, 20 July 1955), a pioneer of the Middle Eastern oil industry, an enlightened amateur of the arts and philanthropist. The foundation's headquarters are in Lisbon, but its activities, though centred in Portugal, extend to many other countries.

The foundation supports music chiefly by granting subsidies or financing projects of its own to promote four main concerns: the musical education and professional improvement of musicians, the encouragement of contemporary music and musicians, the study and performance of lesser-known works including important musicological projects, and the growth of public interest in music and the creation of new audiences through its own resident groups: an orchestra, a choir and a dance company. Scholarships are granted for training professional musicians; conservatories and academies of music, concert societies, choral groups and other organizations have been subsidized....

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American music research institute. Founded in 1971 as The Institute for Studies in American Music, the Institute was renamed in 2008 to honor its founding director. It is a research center at Brooklyn College, CUNY, New York, and is also affiliated with CUNY’s Graduate Center. As Hitchcock stated, the Institute was established “to provide a suitable academic framework in which to encourage, support, propagate, and evaluate research projects in American music.” Hitchcock led the Institute until his retirement in 1993; during this time the center also functioned as the world headquarters of the Charles Ives Society. The Institute has been directed by Carol J. Oja (1993–7), Ellie M. Hisama (1997–2005), and Jeffrey Taylor (2007–present). Hitchcock’s extensive files at the Institute and materials related to Henry Cowell were bequeathed to the Performing Arts Division of the New York Public Library upon his death in December 2007...

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Paula J. Bishop

Hawaiian hula school in Hilo, Hawaii. Founded in 1953 by Edith Kanaka’ole, the school has been instrumental in the preservation and dissemination of hula and chant practices associated with Pele, the goddess of fire. Knowledge about these traditions was passed down to Kanaka’ole through matrilineal descent for at least seven generations, and she in turn instructed her own daughters, Pualani Kanaka’ole Kanahele and Nalani Kanaka’ole, who inherited the school in 1979 upon their mother’s death.

The style of hula taught and performed by the school, ’aiha’a, is characterized by a bent-knee posture and vigorous movements, a reflection of the energy and power of the volcano goddess. In addition to learning hula, dancers at the school become fully immersed in the culture of Hawaii and hula. They learn the Hawaiian language and how to play the ipu (gourd) and pahu (sharkskin drum), and create their own costumes and props using the traditional materials and practices....

Article

Michael Broyles

One of the oldest continuing concert societies in the United States. It was founded in Boston in 1815, with the original purpose to improve the performance level of sacred music. Thomas Webb, Gottlieb Graupner, and Asa Peabody issued the original invitation for a meeting in which the society was formed, with 46 original members. Webb was elected its first president. The society gave its first public concert on 25 December 1815. It quickly evolved into a major choral concert organization, presenting the first complete performances in America of Handel’s Messiah (1818), Haydn’s The Creation (1819), Verdi’s Requiem (1878), and Bach’s St. Matthew Passion (1879). The society has performed Messiah annually since 1854.

The society nearly foundered soon after its creation because of financial difficulties. It was rescued, however, through the publication of a collection of church music by an obscure bank teller in Savannah, Georgia, Lowell Mason. The ...

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Anthony Hicks

Two kinds of societies have been founded under such a title as ‘Handel Society’ (or its equivalent in another language), some with the object of publishing Handel’s works, others to perform his music. The first publishing society was the Handel Society founded in London ‘for the production of a superior and standard edition of the works of Handel’ (according to its prospectus, issued on 16 June 1843); its council for the first year included G.A. Macfarren (secretary), William Sterndale Bennett, Sir Henry Bishop, William Crotch, Ignaz Moscheles, E.F. Rimbault and Sir George Smart. By January 1848 the society had dissolved for lack of subscribers, but its publishers, Cramer, Beale & Co., sustained the production of editions until 1858, by which time 12 major works (mostly oratorios) and two collections had appeared. Mendelssohn was among the editors (Israel in Egypt, 1846). The next Handel Society devoted to publication was the Deutsche Händel-Gesellschaft, founded in Leipzig in ...

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Richard D. Wetzel

[Harmonie Gesellschaft]

American Separatist group founded by George Rapp (b Iptingen, Württemberg, 1 Nov 1757; d Economy [now Ambridge], PA, 7 Aug 1847). Rapp and several hundred followers emigrated from Germany to the USA in 1804, and formed a communal society near Pittsburgh; they chose their name to reflect the intense religious spirit that bound them together. They built three towns (Harmony and Economy, Pennsylvania, and Harmony, Indiana) and grew wealthy through agricultural and industrial enterprises, but the practice of celibacy gradually reduced their membership and the society disbanded in 1906.

Harmonist musical activities were extensive, and were encouraged by Rapp, who was perhaps a flautist. Between 1825 and 1831 the society's physician, Johann Christoph Mueller (1777–1845), led an orchestra with a repertory of over 300 marches, dances, overtures and symphonies by Vanhal, Sterkel, Pleyel, Jommelli, Rossini, Mozart, Joseph Haydn and others. The orchestra and Harmonist choirs performed works by Haydn, Cherubini and J.G. Schade. Much of the music was arranged by Mueller and by the music publisher William C. Peters, a non-member engaged in ...

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Mary Wallace Davidson

[HMA]

Private charitable corporation in Boston, MA. The General Association of Past and Present Members of the Pierian Sodality (a student organization formed in 1808 at Harvard University) was founded in 1837 and changed its name to the Harvard Musical Association in 1840. The Association soon realized that it could not effect one of its original purposes, “to have regular musical instruction introduced in the College.” Under the leadership of John Sullivan Dwight (1873–93), the HMA then concentrated on its other two original goals, directed toward Boston rather than Harvard: to create a library for the musical public and to foster higher standards of musical taste. From 1844 to 1849 the Association presented Boston’s first public series of chamber music concerts. In 1850 members raised $100,000 in 60 days to build Boston’s Music Hall; in 1863, they raised an additional $60,000 for the installation there of what was then the largest organ in the USA. From ...

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Sarah Deters Richardson

[HBS]

International organization founded in New York in 1988 to offer a forum for the exchange of ideas about the history of brass instruments and their music. Organized by participants in the annual Early Brass Festival (first held in 1985), the HBS is composed of amateur and professional brass musicians and scholars and is concerned with the complete range of brass instruments from ancient times to the present, with a focus on history, the musical literature, and performance practice. The society also aims to bridge the cultural gap between the scholarly music community and musicians who are primarily performers. Since 1989 HBS has published the Historic Brass Society Journal. From 1989 through 2005 it published the Historic Brass Society Newsletter, which was then supplanted by articles published on the society’s website (<www.historicbrass.org>). It also publishes a book series, BUCINA: The Historic Brass Society Series, in collaboration with Pendragon Press....

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English choral society. It is the most famous, though not the oldest, of the Yorkshire choral societies. It was founded in 1836 by 16 local musicians, recruiting its members mainly from the mixed choirs of nonconformist churches. The original group of about 70 singers and instrumentalists gave quarterly performances for friends and subscribers. From 1881 the choir gave regular concerts in Huddersfield Town Hall. It employed professional orchestras regularly from 1942 and in 1993 began a collaboration with the BBC PO. It became well known for its performances of Handel’s Messiah. Membership of the choir reached a peak of 400 in the 1930s; the beginning the 21st century it was around 200. It supports the Huddersfield Choral Society Youth Choir and Children’s Choir. Under distinguished conductors including Henry Coward, Malcolm Sargent, John Pritchard, Owain Arwel Hughes, Jane Glover and Martyn Brabbins, the choir developed an international reputation. It made the first of its regular visits to London in ...

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Organization founded in 1922 as the Hymn Society of America to encourage the singing of hymns in congregations of all faiths, foster research in the field of hymnology and promote the writing of new hymn words and music. By 1995 the society had approved, copyrighted and made available to publishers and individuals more than 400 hymns. It publishes a scholarly and practical quarterly, ...

Article

Henry Raynor

revised by Neil Hoyle

[ISM]

British organization founded in 1882 by James Dawber of Wigan and Henry Hiles of Manchester. Its objectives were ‘the union of the musical profession in a representative society; the provision of opportunities for the discussion of matters connected with the culture and practice of the art; the improvement of musical education; the organization of musicians in a manner similar to that in which allied professions were organized; and the obtaining of legal recognition by means of the registration of qualified teachers of music as a distinctive body’. At first the society grew mainly in the north of England, but in 1886 it held a conference in London to recruit members from the rest of the country, gaining the membership of a number of influential London musicians. In 1892 it was incorporated as an artistic association and took its present title; in 1893 groups were formed in Scotland and Ireland. The society was reconstituted in ...