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Article

Mary Riemer-Weller

revised by Richard Keeling

[pakpaka]

Clappers of the Maidu people and other Indians of northern California and the San Joaquin Valley. Other names include Wintun tcakatta, Pomo tebatab, Chimariko hĕmuimektsa, Kato cun telegal, and Wailaki djin delbak. A straight piece of elder or other soft wood, about 45 cm long, is split in two for slightly more than half its length and the pith removed; the un-split portion serves as a handle. It is held one hand and the split portion is struck against the other palm. It provides a regular beat to accompany sacred and secular singing. A variant with the split part cut into many slender rods is used by the Hupa Indians of northwestern California in the ...

Article

Charles Garrett

Article

O.W. Neighbour

(b Pressburg [now Bratislava], 1882; d Vienna, 1966). Austro-Hungarian writer and librettist . She came from a prosperous Jewish family and studied medicine, qualifying as a specialist in skin diseases in 1910. She married a psychiatrist, Hermann Frischauf. A convinced socialist by 1930, she joined the outlawed Austrian communist party but emigrated to Paris before the Anschluss and escaped to Mexico in 1940. In 1947 she returned to Vienna, where she continued to practise medicine until 1952.

As early as 1906 Pappenheim had published verses in Karl Kraus’s journal Die Fackel. Her importance in music is as the librettist of Schoenberg’s monodrama Erwartung (1909). After this collaboration she remained in touch with Schoenberg’s circle. She published a novel (1946) and a volume of poetry (1962).

E. Weissweiler: ‘“Schreiben Sie mir doch einen Operntext, Fräulein!”: Marie Pappenheims Text zu Arnold Schönbergs “Erwartung”’, NZM , Jg.145 (1984), no.6, pp.4–8...

Article

Pe’xe  

J. Richard Haefer

Vessel rattle of the Omaha people of the central plains of the USA. It is a large gourd filled with coarse or fine stones as needed for the correct timbre. It is played in both tremolo and rhythmic striking styles, in the wa-wan ceremony. The mónze péxe (‘metal gourd rattle’) was made from a tin baking-soda can issued as a ration in the late 19th century, or nowadays from a large salt shaker with a wooden or fibreglass handle covered with leather and beadwork. It is used in the ...

Article

David P. McAllester

revised by J. Richard Haefer

Water drum used in meetings of the Native American (or Peyote) Church. The standard drum consists of a well-soaked buckskin head stretched over an iron kettle about 25 cm deep. The best skins are said to be ‘brain tanned’. The head symbolizes the former war shield, now a spiritual shield. It is attached by an intricate tying method that has symbolic import. Symbolism and rules may vary from fireplace to fireplace with some ideas common throughout the religion. Seven stones or marbles indicating the seven days, the seven sisters (constellations), the seven senses (orifices) of the face, or, for the Sioux, the seven council fires, are tied to the head. The rope tying the head represents the rope used to tie enemies, the reins of war horses, or blood veins. The kettle is half-filled with water, which represents rain or the water of the earth; the sound of the drum represents thunder. Live coals (four to 12 depending on the fireplace) symbolizing lightning are put in the water before the head is attached. The skin is kept moist during meetings by vigorously shaking the kettle between songs or by a quick shake during a song when the sound begins to change. At some fireplaces the drummer will suck or blow on the edge of the drum to force water onto the head, while at others this is prohibited....

Article

Charles Garrett

Article

David P. McAllester

revised by J. Richard Haefer

Small vessel rattle used by singers during ceremonies of the Native American (or Peyote) Church. It is a gourd about 8 to 9 cm in diameter containing pebbles, pierced by a straight wooden handle about 25 to 30 cm long that passes through the gourd and projects slightly. A circular stopper on the handle prevents the stones from falling out. A tuft of dyed horsehair, representing the peyote cactus blossom, is tied to the projecting end. The handle, which may be carved or beaded at the base, symbolizes the arrow or the riding crop used in war but now used in peace. The beadwork may show various symbolic designs: rainbow for beauty of life, red–white–blue for war veterans, fire, or water. 12 tassels cut from a bow string (so it can never be used on a bow again) decorate the end of the handle to symbolize the months or yearly cycle. The user shakes the rattle with one hand and holds the peyote staff (symbolic of the broken bow) in his other hand. The stopper can be of wood or even a coin; it does not touch the edge of the gourd. Friction of the end of the handle projecting at the top (symbolic of the arrow head) holds the handle to the gourd. The rattle pebbles may have individual significance such as turquoise for an Apache, salt, ant, or ocean pebbles, and so on. The outer surface of the rattle may be decorated in patterns related to the peyote ceremony or patterns important to the owner such as stars, moon, fire, eagle; older rattles often had patterns scratched into the surface....

Article

Phloy  

Trân Quang Hai

revised by Terry E. Miller

Free-reed mouth organ of minority upland peoples in Cambodia. It has five or six bamboo pipes with free reeds, mounted in a circle, the lower ends (including the reeds) inserted into a gourd windchest. A similar instrument is called khim by the Samrê people and m’boat by the tribal peoples of northeastern Cambodia near the Central Highlands of Vietnam, where such instruments abound. Other similar types appear in neighbouring areas of southern Laos and elsewhere in mainland Southeast Asia....

Article

J. Richard Haefer

Generic term for Anglo instruments used by the Tohono O’odham (Papago) Indians of Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora, Mexico. Piastakuḍ (‘fiesta thing’) refers to those instruments used to perform waila (social dance music; from the Spanish bailar, called ‘chicken scratch’ by Anglos) and pascola dance tunes. They include the gi:dal (guitar), kuikud (flute, saxophone, trumpet, or clarinet), wi:olin (violin), a:lpa (harp), wañamdam (accordian), and tamblo (drum). In the mid-19th century the O’odham began to borrow polka, schottische, and two-step tunes played by guitar, saxophone, accordion, and drums from nearby Anglo communities and incorporate them within their all-night keihina social dance, imparting to them the O’odham concepts of traditional ñe’i (song), that is, assigning specific songs to certain portions of the dance cycle: sundown songs, midnight songs, sunrise songs. O’odham distinctly consider these songs and instruments as their own and not as Anglo music. In like manner, pascola, with harp and violin, was borrowed from their neighbouring Yaqui Indians....

Article

Bradford R. Devos

(b Constantinople [now Istanbul], Jan 6, 1903; d Long Island City, ny , Feb 28, 1974). American composer of Austrian descent. He studied at the Vienna Conservatory and later in Berlin with Schreker before emigrating to the USA in 1940. Settling in New York, he taught at the School of Sacred Music at Hebrew Union College and served as music director of the Free Synagogue in Flushing. He composed orchestral, chamber and vocal music, including three one-act operas. Isaac Levi, to a libretto by Ray Smolover, was first performed on 11 Dec 1956 in White Plains, New York. In a declamatory style with Romantic elements, it deals with problems facing contemporary Jewry, such as renunciation of faith, intermarriage and the Creator’s goodness. Satan’s Trap, to a libretto by Charles Levy after Gottfried Keller’s novel Romeo und Julia auf dem Dorfe, had its première in New York on 26 November 1961...

Article

Czech underground band formed in Prague in 1968. Its principal members were Milan (Mejla) Hlavsa (1950–2002; founder, lead vocal, bass, composer), Vratislav Brabenec (b 1943; saxophone, clarinet), Josef Janíček (b 1947; guitar, keyboards, vocals), Jiří Kabeš (b 1946; violin, viola), and Martin (Ivan) Jirous [Magor (‘Loony’)] (1944–2011; artistic director/manager). Their main influences included The Velvet Underground, Frank Zappa, and The Fugs. With psychedelic stagecraft that included fires built in urn-like receptacles, flickering flying saucers, painted faces, and togas, the PPU started performing weekly shows in February 1969. These props served the band’s concept of a mythological world of sun and planets and what they called the ‘great nation’ that ‘lives in velvet underground’. This early repertoire was sung mostly in English with Czech recitatives in between. Their innovative approach and charisma helped them attract a devoted audience and win the national competition of amateur bands in ...

Article

Mary Riemer-Weller

revised by J. Richard Haefer

[pò’owìyè, poewiye]

Vessel rattle of the Tewa Indians of New Mexico. It is made by scraping the outside of a po (gourd) clean, removing the fibrous material from inside the gourd by shaking large pebbles in it (a job often done by children), boring a hole with an awl at both ends, inserting small pebbles from an anthill as rattle elements, and carving a cottonwood handle that extends through the two holes. The handle is fastened by a rawhide strap passing through a slit in its protruding upper end. A rawhide loop attached to the bottom of the handle serves for hanging the rattle when not in use. Shot pellets or corn kernels can be substituted as rattle elements. The rattle is used in the pogonshare (Corn Maiden or gourd dance) ceremony.

A. Garcia: ‘The Construction of Dance Instruments’, Music and Dance of the Twea Pueblos, ed. G.P. Kurath and A. Garcia...

Article

Susan M. Taffe Reed and Glen Jacobs

Generic term for an ‘object that is blown into’, used by the Munsee Indians of the Eastern Woodlands in North America; their relatives the Unami use the word ahpikòn. Known historically as the Lenape or Delaware Indians, the Unami and Munsee have bone flutes (waxkanii-pootaatiikanushal), reed flutes (kweenaskwii-pootaatiikanushal), and wooden flutes (xwusii-pootaatiikanushal), all of which are personal instruments.

The waxkanii-pootaatiikanushal is made of bird bones, though other animal bones can be used. It is a small, very high-pitched whistle without fingerholes. Sometimes called a war dance whistle, it is worn on a necklace by a man who blows into it while dancing. Larger types might have fingerholes. Little is known about the historical kweenaskwii-pootaatiikanushal though it was probably similar in construction.

The xwusii-pootaatiikanushal is a double-chambered duct flute made from eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana), a lightweight, fragrant, pinkish to brownish-red softwood that has sacred associations in Delaware cultures. Before harvesting the wood, the maker offers tobacco to the tree. A piece of cedar approximately 5 cm in diameter and 45 to 60 cm long, roughly measured from the player’s elbow to his fingertips, is selected and the bark is removed and the wood split in half. Hickory or other hardwood coals are placed on the inner side of the split pieces and blown on to begin hollowing each half. Mud is smeared on the edges of the wood to protect it from being burnt. The charred wood is scraped away and this process is repeated until both halves are sufficiently concave to make a wide, open chamber. The two halves are glued together by a mixture of resinous pine tree sap with bear grease, traditionally heated in a mussel shell. Leather strips are tied at intervals around the assembled body to reinforce it and serve as decoration....

Article

Mary Riemer-Weller

revised by Susan M. Taffe Reed and Glen Jacobs

[pokhanii’kan]

Generic term for drums of the Munsee Indians of the Eastern Woodlands in North America; their relatives the Unami use the word puhënikàn. Their drums include the deerskin drum, water drum, hand drum, and powwow drum, all of which are played by one or more drummers each using one beater.

The deerskin drum, also called the skin drum or hide drum, is an idiophone made by folding a deer hide into a bundle; it appears in several forms. The atoh-xayii-powuniikan (Munsee: ‘deer skin drum’) is made from a single skin of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), preferably a buck. The animal is skinned and its hide fleshed, a process of removing most of the muscle and fat. At this point the hide can be salted, dried, and stored until needed. To make the drum, the hide is soaked for several days in an alkaline solution, such as hardwood ash mixed with water, which opens the pores and helps break down the hair follicles. Next, the hide is laid over a fleshing beam and a scraper is used to remove all remaining muscle, fat, and membrane. Then the hide is turned over and scraped to remove the hair and several layers of epidermis, a process called graining. Finally, the hide is cleaned by soaking overnight in fast-moving water. The rawhide is then folded and bound into a packet approximately 43 cm square....

Article

Watkins Shaw

In a general sense, one who leads the singing in church (the cantor in a synagogue). More specifically, in the English dissenting churches and in Scottish Presbyterianism, the minister or layman who strikes up the tune for the congregation in the absence of an instrument; in cathedrals, an important musical officer among the clergy: ...

Article

Pumín  

Mary Riemer-Weller

revised by J. Richard Haefer

Generic term for drum of the Flathead Indians of Montana, USA. The kwtunt pumín is the large war drum or ‘big drum’ nowadays used to accompany powwow. Traditionally it is a double-headed drum made from a hollowed log and covered with bison or deer hides laced together from top to bottom; a modern substitute is a marching band bass drum with Mylar heads. It is played with a padded stick (spełce) about 48 cm long, now often a fibreglass rod.

More common is the łppumin or chelshpumin (chelsh: ‘hand’; łppumin: ‘drum’), a single-headed frame drum. Traditionally the frame was made from thin strips of wood, preferably fir, soaked and bent into a circle, or from part of a hollowed tree stump, but it can be made from a circular cheese crate or a metal wheel rim. The frame varies from 30 to 40 cm in diameter and 5 to 10 cm in depth. The ...

Article

Chad Stephen Hamill

[kiwkiwíl’ec]

Frame drum of the Native Americans of the Columbia Plateau. It is traditionally made of deer or elk hide stretched over a wooden circular hoop typically 5.5 to 10 cm deep and 25 to 38 cm in diameter, and struck by a stick with one hand. The hide is perforated at the perimeter with an awl or deer antler to form a series of holes 4 to 5 cm apart, then soaked, stretched over the frame, and tied through the holes across the open back, creating a knot in the center for a grip. Called pumíntn by Salish speakers and kiwkiwíl’ec by Sahaptin speakers, it is particularly important in the context of the Washat (Seven Drum Religion), a complex ceremony of drumming, dancing, and singing that honours indigenous foods and natural cycles that sustain the community. The drum is also used in communal ceremonies, as an accompaniment for personal songs, and during healings conducted by a medicine person....

Article

Article

Qilílu  

Chad Stephen Hamill

Idiophone of the Native Americans of the Columbia Plateau. Literally ‘rawhide’ in the Sahaptin language, it is made of a bison hide wrapped fur-side in around itself as a bundle 50 to 80 cm long and allowed to dry and harden. It is held with one hand by several singers who use the other hand to strike it either with an open palm or a stick. A possible precursor to the drum, it formerly was used in a tradition known as ...

Article

Raberi  

J. Richard Haefer

[raveli]

Violin of the Rarámuri (Tarahumara) people of Chihuahua, Mexico. The instruments have the basic European violin shape although the size and proportions vary; some are as large as a viola. Traditionally, the four strings were made from goat gut, but nowadays nylon and metal strings are normal. The bridge might be handmade or commercially mass-produced. Local woods such as ash, maple, pine, and willow are used for the top and back, and fresh, green wood that bends easily is used for the bouts, which can have a distinctly squared shape. Traditionally, the woods are glued with gum from the roots of the ŕako plant.

Typically, the fingerboard, of inóko (a local hardwood), extends to the top of the C- or f-shaped soundholes. The soundholes often end in a small circle or a cluster of two or three small circles. The tailpiece is attached with cord or wire to an extension of the back; there is no endpin. The nut is part of the one-piece neck and pegbox. The pegbox might terminate in a carved scroll but usually does not. The bow, made from ...