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Bonnie Elizabeth Fleming

(b Koblenz, Germany, Feb 1813; d New York, NY, 30 Dec, 1870). American conductor and composer of German birth. He studied with his father in Koblenz and Frederick Schneider in Dessau. He conducted in Koblenz at the Royal Musical Institution before moving to Nuremberg in 1848 to conduct its orchestra. He took a position in 1849 conducting the German opera at Amsterdam and traveled to London with a German opera troupe the same year. By 1857 Anschütz had become a conductor of great renown throughout the British Isles, and he traveled with Bernard Ullman’s Italian opera troupe to the United States. He conducted this group from 1857 through 1860, bringing Italian opera to American audiences while establishing himself as the most respected conductor in America during this era. In 1862 he founded the German Opera Company in New York. He also played an active role in establishing the New York Conservatory of Music. In addition to his conducting career, Anschütz composed noteworthy music of his own and transcribed Beethoven’s nine symphonies into arrangements for brass band....


Philip L. Scowcroft

(b March 26, 1874; d Marlow, Bucks., Dec 14, 1948). English composer and conductor. He studied composition at the GSM with MacCunn and then pursued a career in London's West End, latterly as a musical director, especially at the Playhouse, Winter Garden, Alhambra, Shaftesbury and Adelphi theatres. He subsequently worked for the BBC from 1926 to 1930. Drawing on his theatrical background he composed incidental music and also operettas, of which The King's Bride, Violette and especially the well-characterized Medorah achieved modest success.

He was also adept at writing colourful, attractively scored and melodious suites and single movements. Some of these showed a fondness for Ireland, the country which also inspired his Overture to an Irish Comedy. Others sought to explore fresh ideas in the light concert suite, a common genre in the first half of the 20th century, as in his Mediterranean Suite (three dance movements representing Spain, Italy and France) and ...


Noël Goodwin

(b Vevey, Nov 11, 1883; d Geneva, Feb 20, 1969). Swiss conductor. He first followed his father’s profession of mathematician, graduating from Lausanne University in 1903 and returning there as professor of mathematics, 1905–9. By then he had become more keenly interested in music, taking lessons in composition with Ernest Bloch and watching local conductors carefully. He decided to make music his career, and after a year in Berlin (where he sought advice from Nikisch and Weingartner) he conducted his first concerts at Lausanne and Montreux in 1910. In the following year he took over the Kursaal concerts at Montreux from Francisco de Lacerda (whom he acknowledged as the model for his mainly self-taught conducting technique), and in 1915 he became conductor of the Geneva SO.

During this time he formed friendships with several composers, including Debussy, Ravel and Stravinsky (then living in Switzerland). In 1915, on Stravinsky’s recommendation, Ansermet became principal conductor for Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, with whom he made his North American début at New York in ...


Wayne Schneider

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b Bentleyville, PA, Jan 20, 1922). Trumpeter and bandleader. He first played professionally in the late 1930s, then worked with bands led by Glenn Miller (1940–41) and Jimmy Dorsey (1942). During World War II he led a navy band for two years. After being discharged he formed a band in 1946 which had a hit single, Bunny Hop, in 1952. This started a national dance craze that contributed considerably to Anthony’s success. As well as continuing to record he performed with his band on television (1953–5) and in several films. He also appeared without the band in other films, including The Five Pennies (1959), a biography of Red Nichols in which he portrayed Jimmy Dorsey, and later in Story of the Big Band Era (1963), in which the jazz element of his studio big band’s performance is enhanced by the participation of such soloists as Frank Rosolino, Dave Pell, and Joe Maini, with Nick Ceroli on drums. After ...


Emanuele Senici

(b Palermo, June 25, 1801; d Trieste, Aug 18, 1859). Italian composer and conductor. His grandfather and father, both composers and conductors, gave him his first instruction in music, and at the age of 12 he conducted his own mass for St Cecilia's Day. In 1817 he made his début in Palermo, as both conductor and composer, with the dramma giocoso Un duello per equivoco, ossia Gli amanti in disturbo. He subsequently travelled for a number of years, as a conductor and an impresario, in Italy, France and England, and was in Venice as conductor of a regimental band in the Austrian army. In 1824 he moved to Trieste to conduct another military band; there his opera semiseria Amina, ovvero L'innocenza perseguitata was successfully given the following year. The libretto, written in 1824 by Felice Romani for Giuseppe Rastrelli, is not the same as that of Bellini's La sonnambula...


Rreze Kryeziu

(b Skopje, Macedonia, Sept 23, 1909; d Pristina, Kosovo, Oct 21, 1991). Albanian composer, music pedagogue, conductor, and ethnomusicologist. He learned music by analysing the works of other composers and by attending private lessons with professors in Belgrade. During his secondary education he learned to play the violin, the cello, and the piano. He arrived in Kosovo to pursue a career as a music pedagogue. He spent a decade in Prizren (1946–56), which was typified by intense musical activity and during which time he directed the choir SH.K.A. ‘Agimi’ (1944) and was a professor and director of the School of Music (1948). (See E. Berisha: Studime dhe vështrime për muzikën, Pristina, 2004, 209–14).

His familiarity with folk music is evidenced by his analyses of Albanian folk songs, which he summarized in a seven volume work called Albanian Folk Music. As a result of this work, he became known as the first ethnomusicologist specializing in Albanian folklore....


Barry Kernfeld and Gary W. Kennedy

(Noah )

(b Berkeley, CA, Aug 21, 1960). American bandleader, tenor saxophonist, composer, percussionist, and pianist. He played percussion and piano from an early age, took up drums while in elementary school, and began piano lessons when he was nine. In 1975 he formed his own improvisation group, the Berkeley Arts Company, and in 1977 he founded the Hieroglyphics Ensemble, which initially consisted of 16 reed and brass players and himself on drums; the following year he added other instruments to form a rhythm section. Having moved to New York state (c1979) he played percussion and drums in Karl Berger’s Woodstock Workshop Orchestra, and he toured and recorded with the group in Europe with Don Cherry as guest soloist (1979). Under Warren Smith (ii) he performed in the Composer’s Workshop Ensemble, and he played keyboards in Carla Bley’s Burning Sensations and worked briefly with Eddie Jefferson. In ...


Jürg Stenzl

(b Turin, May 7, 1894; d Geneva, Feb 12, 1961). Swiss conductor. He studied the violin with Marteau in Geneva, Rémy and Capet in Paris (1908–13) and César Thomson at the Brussels Conservatory (1920), gaining a premier prix. He became leader of the Geneva Opera House orchestra, and made his début as an international soloist. From 1928 to 1943 he held masterclasses at the conservatories of Lausanne and La Chaux-de-Fonds. While leader of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (1932–5) he also began, in 1935, to conduct. In 1938 Geneva radio engaged him as permanent conductor; in addition to contemporary music, he championed French and Italian music of the 17th and 18th centuries, particularly the operas of Lully and Rameau, of which he was considered a stylish and elegant interpreter. He also introduced the Jeunesses Musicales into Switzerland. In 1952 he was appointed Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur. His writings include a number of essays on French Classical music (mainly in ...


Matteo Sansone

[Aspri, Orsola]

(b Rome, c1807; d Rome, Sept 30, 1884). Italian composer, singer and conductor. After her father’s death, her mother married the violinist Andrea Aspri and Appignani adopted her stepfather’s surname and used Orsola as her first name. She studied with Valentino Fioravanti. In 1833 she sang Smeton in a performance of Donizetti’s Anna Bolena, given by the Roman Accademia Filarmonica at Palazzo Lancellotti; already a member of that academy, she was offered honorary membership of the Accademia di S Cecilia, Rome, in 1842. As a conductor she was active in Rome and Florence (1839). She was also a singing teacher and had among her pupils the tenor Settimio Malvezzi. She married Count Girolamo Cenci-Bolognetti. Her melodrammi include Le avventure di una giornata (1827), I pirati (1843) and Clara di Clevers (1876); she also wrote a Sinfonia, a cantata La redenzione di Roma...


John Cowley and Howard Rye

(b Jamaica, c1900; d after 1954). Jamaican tenor saxophonist, clarinetist, and bandleader. He moved to Great Britain around 1924 and performed in dance bands there and in Europe until the early 1930s. He played in London with West Indian jazz musicians, including Leslie Thompson’s Emperors of Jazz (...


Doris Evans McGinty

(b Philadelphia, c1808; d New York State, after 1871). American composer, horn player and conductor. One of the earliest black American composers, he worked in New York, as teacher and performer, and Philadelphia, where he played with the Walnut Street Theater Orchestra (1826) and was a member of the Frank Johnson band (1830s), with which he toured England. He conducted the first performance of instrumental music in the African Methodist Episcopal Church (1848) and was described by Bishop Alexander Payne as ‘the most learned musician of the race’. His best-known compositions are an anthem, Sing unto God, and John Tyler’s Lamentation, commissioned by the Utica (New York) Glee Club, probably with reference to the presidential election campaign of 1844.

SouthernB J. Trotter: Music and Some Highly Musical People (Boston, 1881/R) D.A. Payne: Recollections of Seventy Years (Nashville, TN, 1888) E. Southern...


(b Bilbao, April 13, 1902; d Madrid, July 11, 1960). Spanish conductor and composer. He studied at the Vizcaíno Conservatory in Bilbao, and in Paris with Paul Le Flem and Dukas (composition), and with Vladimir Golschmann (conducting). He also worked with Weingartner at Basle in 1932. On his return to Spain in 1933 he took charge of the part-time Bilbao SO, which he steadily developed and improved and which, in 1938, became the first civic orchestra in Spain on a regular basis. Arámbarri helped to organize musical activities throughout Spain, and performed large-scale choral works with the vocally distinctive Basque choirs of northern Spain. He also introduced several works by Britten, Vaughan Williams and Walton. In 1953 he was appointed a professor at the Madrid Conservatory, and became conductor of the Madrid SO and president of the Spanish conductors' association. His compositions include Viento del sur, a zarzuela in two acts (...


Edward H. Tarr


(b Lyons, Feb 28, 1825; d Paris, April 9, 1889). French cornet player and conductor. He studied the trumpet with Dauverné at the Paris Conservatoire from 1841 to 1845. He acquired renown for conducting salon orchestras, an activity that he took up in 1856, and later conducted at the Opéra. In 1857 he became professor of saxhorn at the Ecole Militaire, and in 1869, after an unsuccessful attempt seven years earlier, established a cornet class at the Conservatoire. He and Cerclier, who taught the trumpet, both succeeded Dauverné, thus originating a separation of the trumpet class into sections for cornet and for trumpet, a practice that has continued. In the summer seasons from 1873 to 1875 and in 1876, he conducted a French orchestra in St Petersburg and Pavlovsk, respectively, the reason for which he resigned his Conservatoire post in 1874. When the position became vacant again in ...


Arthur Jacobs

revised by Tully Potter

(b Madrid, Dec 24, 1863; dSan Sebastián, June 2, 1939). Spanish violinist, conductor and composer. He studied the violin with Jesús Monasterio at the Madrid Conservatory, with Vieuxtemps at the Brussels Conservatory and with Joachim in Berlin. He travelled extensively both as a soloist and, together with Albéniz and Augustín Rubio, as a member of a celebrated piano trio, for which he composed three works. He appeared in London in 1891, playing works for violin and piano with Albéniz, and Bach’s Double Concerto with Joachim, and from 1894 to 1915 served with distinction as a professor of the violin and viola at the RCM.

In 1904 Arbós was appointed conductor of the Madrid SO and he was a leading influence in Spanish musical life until he resigned the conductorship on the outbreak of the Civil War in 1936. He was a guest conductor with the Boston SO and other American orchestras from ...


Frank J. Cipolla

(b Lochside, Scotland, 1828; d New York, May 23, 1883). American bandmaster and cornetist of Scottish origin. He joined the 26th Regiment of the British Army, known as the Cameronians, at 13; he served in India and China, returned to Britain, then went to Canada with a military band. He reportedly deserted his regiment to assume the leadership of a band in Troy, New York, where he remained for six months before accepting a similar position in Worcester, Massachusetts. Three years later, in 1860, he joined the Gilmore Band, which in 1861 became attached to the 24th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment; he served with the band during the Civil War. Arbuckle was an outstanding cornet soloist, who was admired for his beautiful, cantabile style of playing. He was a soloist at the National Peace Jubilee of 1869 and the World Peace Jubilee of 1872, both of which were organized by Gilmore. In ...


Alexis Chitty

revised by Bruce Carr


(b Oxford, June 16, 1838; d Pittsburgh, Oct 22, 1901). English-American organist, conductor and composer. He became organist of Merton College, Oxford, and in 1873 was appointed to Alexandra Palace in London, where he afterwards became conductor, a post he held until 1880. In 1881 he visited the USA, giving organ recitals in several cities, and later the same year returned to become organist first at Henry Ward Beecher’s church in Brooklyn and then at the Church of the Incarnation in New York. In 1883 he founded the illustrated weekly The Keynote, which he edited for a year. He moved to Boston in 1887 to become conductor of the Boston Oratorio Society, and subsequently to Chicago where he was organist of St James’s Church.

When Andrew Carnegie established the Carnegie Institute and Library in Pittsburgh, he instituted weekly free organ recitals there; Archer was engaged as organist and inaugurated the series on ...


Victoria Eli Rodríguez

(b Barcelona, March 13, 1911; d Havana, Jan 9, 1981). Cuban composer and conductor of Spanish origin. He studied the piano, conducting and composition with his father, and when only 12 he composed the Sonatina and Capricho for piano. He graduated from the Instituto Musical de Barcelona in 1929, and the following year studied orchestral conducting with Scherchen in Paris. In 1930 he completed the degree in humanities at Barcelona University, and formed the Beethoven Trio, which was short-lived as he moved to Havana the same year. In Cuba he became the friend and colleague of Amadeo Roldán and Alejandro García Caturla, and quickly involved himself in musical life. He founded and conducted the Orquesta de Cámara de La Habana (1934–52) with whom he performed a wide range of music, from 17th- and 18th-century works to contemporary compositions, including a number by Cuban composers. He was musical director of the Ballet de la Sociedad Pro-Arte Musical (...


Keith Horner

revised by R. Allen Lott and E. Douglas Bomberger

(b Crescentino, Italy, July 16, 1822; d Hove, England, May 1, 1903). Italian conductor and composer. After studying and working in Milan until 1846, he went with Giovanni Bottesini to Havana, where he conducted the Havana Italian Opera Company and produced his own one-act opera, Il corsaro. In the summer months he performed in the United States and conducted the Havana company in New York in 1847 and 1850. From 1851 to 1856 he was the conductor for various opera troupes in New York, including Maretzek’s company (1851), and toured with Marietta Alboni. He conducted the concert for the opening of the Academy of Music (2 October 1854), where his opera La spia, based on James Fenimore Cooper’s novel The Spy, was given its first performance on 24 March 1856. The New York Courier and Enquirer opined:

Written by an Italian, to Italian words, in the Italian style, for Italian singers, there is not even the shadow of a ground for calling La Spia an American work. Let us not deceive ourselves. It is well for the arts to flourish here; but it is not well for us to be deluded with the idea that we have American Art, when we have no such thing, but are cultivating an exotic… . But when music in this country does assume a character of its own, we can only wish the composer of the first American opera the good fortune to meet with a manager so ready to encourage him and bring him advantageously before the public as the present director of the affairs of the Academy of Music....


Nigel Burton and Keith Horner

(b Crescentino, Piedmont, July 22, 1822; d Hove, Sussex, May 1, 1903). Italian conductor and composer. He studied the violin and composition at Milan Conservatory with Bernardo Ferrara for violin and Nicola Vaccai for composition. From this period come many of his chamber and orchestral works today found at the Milan Conservatory. His first opera, I briganti, was given there in 1841. Arditi began to work as first violin-conductor in Vercelli and in Milan, 1842–46, in minor opera houses like Teatro Re and Teatro Carcano. After working in Vercelli and Milan, 1842–6, he went with Bottesini to Havana, where he worked at the Teatro Imperial and directed a one-act opera, Il corsaro, at the Teatro de Tacón in 1847. He later conducted in Canada (1853) and the USA (1854–6), and his opera La spia was produced in New York in 1856. His later compositions were mostly occasional orchestral pieces and songs, notably the famous vocal waltz, ...


E. Douglas Bomberger

(b Neef, Rheinland, Oct 28, 1856; d Los Angeles, Jan 28, 1932). American conductor, composer, and voice teacher of German birth. He was brought to America at age eleven, received his first musical training from his father, Clemens Arens, and later studied with John Singenberger at the Normal College in St. Francis, Wisconsin. After further studies with Joseph Rheinberger in Munich 1881–3 and with Franz Wüllner in Dresden 1883–4, where he earned a Preiszeugnis (one of six in a student body of 734), he settled in Cleveland as conductor of the Cleveland Philharmonic Society and the Cleveland Gesangverein.

He returned to Europe around 1890 to study vocal pedagogy with Julius Hey in Berlin. In 1891 and 1892 he conducted American Composers’ Concerts with orchestras in Berlin, Dresden, Leipzig, Weimar, Hamburg, and Sondershausen, concluding his tour with an appearance at the Vienna Musical and Theatrical Exhibition on 5 July 1892...