591-600 of 661 results  for:

  • Peoples and Music Cultures x
Clear all

Article

J. Richard Haefer

Percussion plaque of the Aztec people of pre-Contact Mexico. The disc-shaped instrument, commonly made of copper (gold, clay, and stone were also used), was suspended by ropes and played reportedly sometimes in pairs, with metal or wood beaters, for royal dances. It was also called a caililiztli (chililitli) and reportedly played with the ...

Article

Peter Holman

In 

Article

Peter Holman

In 

Article

Florinela Popa

(b Sighet, Aug 20, 1922; d July 29, 2014). Romanian composer and conductor. He began his study of music at the Lyra Conservatory in Bucharest (1940–42), but was forced to suspend his studies due to restrictions imposed on Jews and to study in private with Alfred Mendelsohn (harmony) and Eduard Lindenberg (orchestral conducting). After the war, he studied at the Bucharest Conservatory (1949–53) with Leo Klepper (composition), Constantin Silvestri (orchestral conducting), and Theodor Rogalski (orchestration). He worked as, among other jobs, artistic adviser to the Bucharest Philharmonic (1971–7) and instructor of choral ensemble performance and conducting at the People’s School of Art in Bucharest (1978–83). He worked as a conductor for several Romanian Philharmonics (Bacău, Ploiești, and Botoșani). He wrote choral, chamber, and symphonic music and concertos in a ‘moderate modern’ style. If his choral writing is characterised by the employment of tonal-modal consonant sounds, his instrumental writing often draws on such techniques as the ison, heterophony, and controlled aleatoricism, as well as elements of dodecaphony and electronic music. He was awarded the composition prize of the ...

Article

Tito  

Carl B. Schmidt

(‘Titus’)

Melodramma in three acts by Antonio Cesti to a libretto by Nicolò Beregan ; Venice, Teatro di SS Giovanni e Paolo, 13 February 1666.

Beregan probably formed the outline of his plot from Flavius Josephus’s account of the Jewish War and C. Suetonius Tranquillus’s account of Emperor Titus in The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. The opera deals with the future Roman emperor’s conquering of Jerusalem in ad 70, and his subsequent love for the conquered Palestinian princess Berenice. After numerous complications, woven into the plot by a cast of 15 characters, Polemone, whom Berenice has claimed as her brother, is revealed to be her husband, and Titus abandons his quest for love in favour of his former militaristic ways. Three characters, Titus (soprano castrato), Berenice (soprano) and Domitian (soprano castrato), are drawn from history and another, Polemone (tenor), portrayed as the King of Licea, is probably the equivalent of Polemon, the priest-king of Olba in Cilicia. The fictional character Martia Fulvia (soprano) may have been inspired by the historical Marcia Furnilla, daughter of a noble Roman family, whom Titus married but subsequently divorced. The remaining cast of generals, servants, pages and sorceresses remind us of Racine’s famous dictum ‘Toute l’invention consiste à faire quelque chose de rien’....

Article

Tolowa  

Article

Tonto  

Article

Hugh Davies

This term is used both of simplified or scaled-down versions of conventional instruments, mostly wind and percussion, and of special instruments and sound devices made by and for children. Toy instruments have existed since the earliest times, and until recently were often made from local plant and animal materials and stones; the knowledge of the construction and use of such home-made instruments still to some extent forms part of children’s private lore.

A number of toy instruments from the second half of the 18th century have become well known because they were used as a concertante group, with a chamber orchestra, in several anonymous ‘toy symphonies’ composed at Berchtesgaden near Salzburg (a manufacturing centre for toy instruments at that time); these works include a cassation, three movements from which are better known as the Toy Symphony attributed to, among others, Leopold Mozart and Michael Haydn. The instruments themselves, cuckoo and quail calls, small duct flutes, wooden trumpet, toy bugle and french horn, ratchets, rattle, triangle and drum, are now in the Museum Carolino Augusteum in Salzburg. Toy instruments similar to most of these continue to be made, and have been featured in many subsequent toy symphonies, including those by A.J. Romberg, Ignaz Lachner, Carl Reinecke, Malcolm Arnold and Joseph Horovitz....

Article

Andrew C. McGraw

[trompong misi bruk]

Rare xylophone of Bali. It has bars of wood or bamboo suspended over individual resonators made of coconut shell (beruk). The instrument typically has eight bars tuned to either the slendro or pelog tuning system, although slendro appears to be the more common. It is played by a single player with two unpadded wooden mallets in the manner of the more common bronze ...

Article

David P. McAllester

revised by Charlotte J. Frisbie and J. Richard Haefer

[‘atsázooł cisǫ́•s]

Whistle used to represent bird calls in ceremonies of the Diné (Navajo) people of the southwestern USA. It is made from a reed stalk or the femur of an eagle and is about 15 cm long. A notch is cut into the upper side of the tube about 3 cm from the top. The tube is blocked at the notch with pitch and a rolled section of corn husk is placed over the opening to direct the air into the lower section. Some sources say the distal end is closed with pitch, but more often the whistle is played with the distal end underwater so that bird-like trills are produced. In the Shootingway ceremony, songs of the last four days are accompanied by the whistle with a beaver- or otter-skin collar attached to it, together with a basket drum (ts’aa’ náhideesh ghał). The whistle is also used in Lightningway, Mountainway, and Nightway ceremonies and those of the Native American Church....