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(b nr Kharkiv, 27 Sept/Oct 9, 1863; d New York, Dec 8, 1945). Ukrainian pianist and conductor . He studied the piano at the Moscow Conservatory with Zverev from 1871 and with Nikolay Rubinstein, Taneyev, Tchaikovsky and Hubert from 1875, graduating with a gold medal in ...

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Boris Schwarz

(b Rostov-na-Donu, April 9, 1890; d Reno, NV, Feb 22, 1985). American violinist, composer and teacher of Russian birth . His father, a professional violinist and conductor of the Rostov Opera, taught him for the first few years. In 1901 Zimbalist joined Auer's class at the St Petersburg Conservatory, and received the Gold Medal and the Rubinstein Prize on his graduation in ...

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Durrell Bowman

(b Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Sept 12, 1957). German film composer, keyboardist, and producer, active in the United States. Hans Zimmer moved to London in his teens and later wrote jingles there for commercials. He briefly played synthesizers with the British New Wave rock band the Buggles (appearing in the video for “Video Killed the Radio Star” in ...

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(b Wauneta, KA, June 20, 1923). American musicologist . He attended the University of Southern California, where he took the BA in 1949 and the MA in 1952. He earned the BLitt at Oxford in 1956, then returned to USC to complete the doctorate on Purcell in ...

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K. Thomas Brantley

(b Canton, OH, March 1, 1866; d Englewood, NJ, Dec 18, 1935). American Trombonist. Zimmerman grew up in Canton, Ohio. He left for New York City in 1896, accepting a position with the Frederick Neil Innes Band. Largely self-taught, Zimmerman became a highly sought-after soloist. In ...

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Shelly C. Cooper

(b Peoria, IL, March 15, 1929; d Urbana, IL, Feb 15, 1995). American music educator and scholar. She earned degrees from Illinois Wesleyan University (BA 1951) and the University of Illinois (MS 1955, EdD 1963). She taught for three years in the Illinois public schools before joining the music faculties at Illinois Wesleyan University (...

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G.J. Cederquist

(b Lincoln, NE, Aug 23, 1960). American Director, adapter, and educator. From a family of academics, Zimmerman received her BS, MA, and PhD at Northwestern University in Performance Studies under the mentorship of Frank Galati. The program focused on how to adapt works of literature for the stage; much of Zimmerman’s later work would reflect such scholarly and text-based influences. Based in Chicago, her career began at Lookingglass Theatre Company, a troupe whose founding members also attended Northwestern. The company’s aesthetic focused on storytelling through strong physicality and breathtaking aerobatics within a highly presentational style, as seen in Zimmerman’s ...

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(b Morgenroethe, Saxony, Germany, Sept 4, 1817; d Philadelphia, PA, Oct 20, 1898). Instrument maker of German birth. He immigrated to the United States in 1864 and settled in Philadelphia. His work with and improvements to the accordion led him to devise a complex “tone numbering” system of musical notation that used numbers in place of notes; he wrote articles describing this as early as ...

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Elizabeth Forbes

(b Buenos Aires, Aug 1942). Argentine mezzo-soprano. She studied in Buenos Aires, making her début in 1977 at the Teatro Colón as Gluck’s Orpheus, then singing Carmen and Ulrica at the Landestheater, Salzburg. She made her American début at Miami in 1979 as Delilah and her Covent Garden début in ...

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Charles Barber

(b New York, July 10, 1936). American conductor. After early violin studies at the Oberlin Conservatory he studied theory and composition at the University of Minnesota and took up conducting at Tanglewood. He then worked in Maine with Monteux (1958–62), serving as his assistant from ...

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Robert Stevenson

(b Prato, 16/Oct 17, 1688; d Santa Catalina, nr Córdoba, Argentina, Jan 2, 1726). Italian organist and composer. He was the sixth child born to Sabatino Zipoli and Eugenia Varrochi. The Prato Cathedral organist-choirmasters in his youth were both Florentines: Ottavio Termini (from ...

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Kyle Gann

(b Chicago, 1959). American composer and clarinettist. He took the BA at Yale (1981) and the MA and doctorate at the University of California, Berkeley. His composition teachers included Bresnick, Imbrie, Grisey, Lewin, Schwantner, Felciano and Anthony Davis. He also studied the clarinet (with Keith Wilson), Balinese drumming and jazz performance. After graduating from Yale, Ziporyn spent a year in Bali studying under I Made Lebah. From ...

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Gregg Miner

Musical instrument. Generic term for an American or European zither that has only nonfretted (open) strings, as opposed to a concert or “Alpine” zither, which utilizes a fretted fingerboard. (See also Zither, fretted .) Fretless zithers were commercially developed and widely distributed in many forms beginning in the late 19th century, especially in the United States. The earliest such invention is the ...

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David J. Kyger

Musical string instrument. The fretted zither is a resonating body with strings extending across the width of the instrument. A modern zither has five fretboard strings and up to 37 open strings. It is placed on a flat surface with the player seated behind the instrument. Frets are set into the fretboard, indicating where the fingers of the left hand need to stop the strings in order to play melodies. A ring with a projecting thorn is placed on the tip of the right-hand thumb to strike the fretboard strings, while the remaining fingers act upon the open strings for the accompaniment....

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Mireya Obregón

(b Guadalajara, Mexico, May 8, 1962). American Composer. Zohn-Muldoon’s teenage years were devoted to training as a classical guitarist and to developing, performing with, and composing for a rock band that included composer Carlos Sánchez-Gutiérrez and other young musicians in Guadalajara. After pursuing a career in architecture, he decided to study music in the United States. He received an undergraduate degree from the University of California, San Diego, and a master’s and doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania, where he studied under ...

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Claude Conyers

(b Kansas City, MO, Dec 21, 1950). American modern dancer, choreographer, and company director. She was trained in various styles of show dancing by Joseph Stevenson, who had been a student of the famed dance anthropologist Katherine Dunham. Zollar followed in Dunham’s scholarly footsteps, eventually earning a master’s degree in fine arts at Florida State University, where she also studied ballet and modern dance. In ...

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A term applied to a rhythm in which the second quaver in a bar of 2/4 time is accentuated, typical of some Hungarian dances, and of American ragtime.

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Juan María Veniard

(b Buenos Aires, Nov 11, 1935; d Buenos Aires, Aug 25, 1999). Argentine and Italian composer and conductor. He studied in Buenos Aires at the Municipal Conservatory (1947–51), composition with Gilardi at the National Conservatory (1952–7) and conducting with Mariano Drago at the National University of La Plata (...

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Zouk  

Jan Fairley

A popular music genre of the Creole-speaking Caribbean, particularly Guadeloupe, Martinique, St Lucia and Dominica, but also Haiti and French Guiana. These regions share a similar French and British colonial past and are populated mainly by the descendants of African slaves. The term ‘zouk...

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Robert Stevenson

(b Salinas de Oro, nr Pamplona, Dec 6, 1888; d Hermosillo, Sonora, May 26, 1987). Mexican composer and pianist of Spanish birth. At the age of eight she entered the Pamplona Academia Municipal de Música, studying the piano with Joaquín Maya, and at 15 the Madrid Real Conservatorio, completing her course there in ...