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Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson

(b London, Feb 4, 1723; d London, Aug 4, 1792). English dramatist . ‘Gentleman Johnny’ Burgoyne, the English general forced to surrender to the Americans at Saratoga (1777), was the librettist of William Jackson’s only successful opera, The Lord of the Manor (1780), in the preface to which he advocated English ‘musical comedy’. Garrick’s staging of his first dramatic piece, ...


Paul Griffiths and Jean Gribenski

(b Mons-en-Baroeul, Nord, Sept 14, 1926). French writer. His work shows a particular fascination with means of perceiving, organizing and recording periodicity and the passage of time – journals, timetables, the names of months or geological ages – and so it is not surprising that music should be among the objects of his interest; it has profoundly influenced the handling of time in his novels. He has written texts for music, and in his ‘dialogue’ with the Diabelli Variations he produced a stimulating series of ‘interventions’, part imaginative elaboration, part analytic and historical exegesis. The conception of Midi–minuit Stravinsky, with its complex structuring of a 12-hour span, its exploration of the ‘genius of place’ (Olympus, Earth, Hell, the Fair, the Arch) and its involvement of Stravinskian character-symbols (Pulcinella, Apollo, Noah etc.), is peculiarly Butorian.

Répons: music by H. Pousseur, 1965; text worked into Paysage de répons, pubd in Travaux d’approche...


John Tyrrell

(b Malé Svatoňovice, nr Trutnov, Jan 9, 1890; d Prague, Dec 25, 1938). Czech writer and dramatist. He was the best-known Czech writer between the two world wars, with works widely published in many languages. Although his final novel, incomplete at his death, was about a charlatan composer, and his detective story about the conductor Kalina may have had Janáček in mind (Fischmann, 146), he had no close relationship to music and took no hand in the adaptation of his works into operas apart from Zdeněk Folprecht’s one-act opera Lásky hra osudná (‘The Fatal Game of Love’), for which he wrote the libretto (1922) with his brother Josef.

Ze života hmyzu [From the Life of the Insects] (play, with J. Čapek, 1922): Kalmanoff, 1977, as Insect Comedy; Cikker, 1987 Věc Makropulos [The Makropulos Affair] (play, 1922): Janáček, 1926 Krakatit [invented word, from ‘Krakatoa’] (novel, 1924): Berkovec, 1961; Kašlík, 1961...


(b Le Mée-sur-Seine, July 20, 1864; d Paris, June 15, 1920). French music critic and composer. He attended Massenet’s classes at the Conservatoire, winning the Grand Prix de Rome in 1890 for his cantata Cléopâtre; after devoting some years to composition he turned to music criticism. For over 20 years he contributed to La liberté and Revue bleue and had considerable influence on French musical life of the early 20th century. His judgments were informed by open-mindedness, historical awareness and eclecticism; while he did not disguise his preference for classical structures, he was an early supporter of Debussy’s Pelléas et Mélisande.

‘La musique symphonique’, Rapport sur la musique française contemporaine, ed. P.-M. Masson (Rome, 1913), 77–101 La vie, l'oeuvre et la mort d'Albéric Magnard (1865–1914) (Paris, 1921) [incl. catalogue of works] MGG1 (A. Gauthier) [incl. list of compositions] Obituary. A. Bachelet Le courrier musical, 22 (1920), 225;...


Sergio Lattes

(b Würzburg, May 15, 1807; d Florence, Sept 24, 1881). Italian music critic and composer. He began piano lessons with Fröhlich at Würzburg, then studied at Florence, where he had settled in 1813, with Luigi Pelleschi, at the same time as he studied law. In 1825 he won a composition prize. He wrote several ballets, one opera and sacred and chamber music. At the same time he contributed to many reviews, including the Gazzetta musicale di Milano, the Rivista musicale di Firenze and the Nazione. He took part in the 1847 uprisings and wrote articles on political topics in several newspapers. When the grand duke returned to power, he retired from politics and in 1849 joined the Livorno railway. Ten years later he collaborated with Basevi in founding the Istituto Musicale of Florence (later the conservatory), which was given its charter in 1862 and of which he was president until his death. He worked with Pougin on the supplement to the ...


Manuel Valls

revised by Angel Medina

(b Barcelona, Oct 24, 1924). Catalan composer and critic. At the Barcelona Conservatory he studied the violin and composition, the latter with Taltabull. He also studied law, which he practised professionally. A former member of the Falla circle (which he joined at its foundation in 1947), he has contributed articles to several newspapers and magazines, and he collaborated with Benet Casablancas on a monograph on Taltabull (Barcelona, 1992). His music began to be performed publicly towards the end of the 1940s, for example his Violin Sonata (1949) and songs to texts by Machado and Baudelaire. In 1974 he appears to have abandoned composition.

Casanovas's output consists almost entirely of chamber works for piano, voice or ensemble. He wrote in a terse, atonal style characterized by clear textures, with a predilection for counterpoint derived from Taltabull. Nevertheless he preferred ‘harmonic refinement to contrapuntal density’ (Marco). In the 1960s he began to write aleatory music. One of his best-known works, ...


John C.G. Waterhouse

(b Modugno, Bari, July 13, 1891; d Bari, July 7, 1955). Italian composer and critic. He studied in Bari, in Milan and with Respighi in Rome. In 1920 he became involved in the futurist movement, and during the next seven years he wrote (or contributed to) several manifestos, published in the Milan newspaper L'ambrosiano and the periodicals NOI: rivista d'arte futurista (Rome) and Il futurismo: rivista sintetica illustrata (no.10, Rome, 1924). He also wrote a futurist ‘novel’, Avviamento alla pazzzzia (Milan, 1924), futurist dramatic sketches and music employing Luigi Russolo's ‘intonarumori’. His most ambitious futurist scores were the ballets (all later repudiated), among which La danza dell'elica (with parts for wind machine and internal combustion engine) and Il cabaret epilettico had scenarios by Marinetti. At the same time Casavola showed a marked interest in mixed-media experiments. After 1927 he reverted to a more traditional outlook, winning his biggest public success with the gently parodistic, mildly exotic ...


Cormac Newark

[Blaze, François-Henri-Joseph]

(b Cavaillon, Vaucluse, Dec 1, 1784; d Paris, Dec 11, 1857). French critic, translator, librettist and arranger. He first studied music with his father, Henri-Sébastien Blaze, a novelist and amateur composer who wrote (under the pseudonym Hans Werner) music and literary criticism for several journals, among them the Revue des deux mondes. In 1799 he went to Paris to study law and was among the first generation of students of the new Conservatoire, where he studied harmony and solfège and played several instruments including the bassoon. Returning to his native Provence, he became Inspecteur de la Librarie in the Vaucluse, but by 1820 he was back in Paris and embarked upon a musical career. From this period date his early songs and also his De l’opéra en France and Dictionnaire de musique moderne, which were well received and established him as a respected writer on music. Throughout the 1820s he contributed music criticism to the anti-monarchist ...


Craig H. Russell

(c fl 1700–10). Spanish playwright. He was the most important Spanish dramatist of the early 18th century to work in the musical theatre, and may have collaborated on several productions with the composer Santiago de Murcia. It is uncertain whether he was the actor Francisco de Castro who was a member of Isabel Gertrudis’s theatre troupe in Mexico City in 1673. Many of Castro’s works were published in the collection Alegría cómica (Zaragoza, 1702) and in the Libro nuevo de entremeses intitulado ‘Cómico festejo’ (Madrid, 1742).

E.Cotarelo y Mori: Colección de entremeses, loas, bailes, jácaras y mojigangas (Madrid, 1911)C.H. Russell: Santiago de Murcia: Spanish Theorist and Guitarist of the Early Eighteenth Century (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1980), 1, 208–10M. Esses: Dance and Instrumental ‘Diferencias’ in Spain During the 17th and Early 18th Centuries, i: History and Background, Music and Dance (Stuyvesant, NY, 1992)...


Richard Taruskin

[née Sophie Auguste Fredericke von Anhalt-Zerbst]

(b Stettin [now Szczecin], 21 April/May 2, 1729; d Tsarskoye Selo, 6/Nov 17, 1796). Empress of Russia. She acceded in 1762 following a palace coup against her husband Peter III, and became known as ‘Catherine the Great’. Continuing the policy of her predecessors, the empresses Anna (reigned 1730–40) and Elizabeth (1741–61), she maintained a court opera theatre staffed by Italians, personally patronizing Cimarosa, Paisiello, Galuppi and Sarti, as well as her special favourite, the italianized Spaniard Martín y Soler. She also patronized comic opera in the vernacular and encouraged native talent to apply itself to this genre. Among the talents she nurtured was her own very modest one as a dramatist, which she exercised, as she put it to a friend, for the sake of relaxation and distraction from affairs of state. With the assistance of two literary secretaries, Ivan Yelagin and Alexander Khrapovitsky, she wrote three volumes of Russian plays and a fourth in French....