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Luise Marretta-Schär

(b Schnait, Württemberg, June 27, 1789; d Tübingen, Aug 26, 1860). German composer and folksong collector. He was taught music first by his father and later by N.F. Auberlen, the organist at Fellbach (near Stuttgart), who trained him to be a teacher and gave him a thorough musical education. In 1806 he became a private tutor in Schorndorf and from 1809 he taught at a girls' school in Ludwigsburg. A meeting with Weber decided him on a career in music. He settled in Stuttgart in 1815, giving private lessons and continuing to study the piano and composition with Konradin Kreutzer and Hummel. After composing a cantata for the University of Tübingen (celebrating the tercentenary of the Reformation) Silcher became the university's director in 1817 and a teacher at the Evangelical College. He founded the Akademische Liedertafel in 1829 and the Oratorienchor in 1839. The university conferred an honorary doctorate on him in ...

Article

Jennifer Spencer

(b Kharkiv, 14/Sept 26, 1832; d Odessa, 30 March/April 11, 1887). Ukrainian composer, critic and folksong collector. His early interest in science and music was encouraged by his family, for his father was a professor of economic science and his grandfather had been a conductor. Sokal′s′ky originally intended to make a career as a scientist: in 1852 he graduated in natural sciences from Kharkiv University, and gained the degree of Master of Chemistry three years later. He was then a secondary school teacher, before going to New York in 1857 as secretary to the Russian consulate. Returning to Russia in 1859 he turned to journalism, writing (often under the pen name Fagot) articles on science and economics for the Moskovskiye vedomosti, the St Petersburg Golos and the Odessa press; he also wrote often outspoken but perceptive reviews of concerts and new music, edited the ...

Article

Danica Petrović

(b Buda, [now Budapest], 18/August 30, 1831; d Buda, 5/April 17, 1865). Serbian composer and folksong collector. He studied in Vienna with Simon Sechter (harmony and counterpoint) and Rudolf Willmers (the piano), and was directly influenced by the Slovenian circle of intellectuals in Vienna at that time. In Serbia, church chant and folk singing, the basic forms of musical practice, survived hitherto mainly through oral tradition, and while still a student Stanković began to write down and harmonize secular music. He published his first adaptations of Serbian folksongs for voice and piano or four-part choir in Vienna between 1851 and 1854. Shortly afterwards he published a further four collections of folksongs and a series of virtuoso piano miniatures and variations. Three collections of church chant were dedicated to the ‘Serb nation’. Stanković’s collected Serbian folk melodies were used by Rimsky-Korsakov, Tchaikovsky, and others in their compositions....

Article

Taisiya Shcherbakova

(b Romanovo, Minsk Province, 11/23 Nov 1871; d Minsk, Nov 10, 1938). Belarusian folklorist and composer. A prominent figure in the Belarusian national renaissance of the early 20th century, he was the son of a priest, studied at the spiritual college in Slutsk, and in the Minsk Seminary or, supposedly, at the choristers' cappella in St Petersburg (around 1889). He taught singing in Russian high schools and music clubs, and in the 1890s was invited to join the Slavyanskaya kappella (‘Slavic cappella’), organized by D. Agrenev-Slavyansky in Moscow, as chorus master and singer. With the cappella he went on concert tours to England, France and Switzerland. According to the reminiscences of contemporaries, during the first decade of the 20th century he was one of the most respected musicians in Minsk. He directed one of the choirs of the Minsk Orthodox Eparchy, worked with poets, pamphleteers and playwrights in the ‘Belorusskaya khatka’ club, and also with the Association of Art Workers in Minsk....

Article

Marie Cornaz

(b Liège, July 20, 1902; d Liège, Sept 16, 1989). Belgian composer and folklorist. Born into a family of musicians and singers, she studied at the Liège Conservatory, where the composer Sylvain Dupuis was among her teachers, and won several prizes, including those for piano, chamber music, harmony and fugue; she later became a professor of solfège at the conservatory. She was awarded second prize in the Prix de Rome contest in 1929. Her output is dominated by vocal music, whether for the stage, solo voice or choir, in a style that is influenced by Walloon popular folk music; some pieces are in Walloon dialect and describe the people of her region. As a folklorist, she transcribed the music of many dances and songs and wrote several books and articles about her country’s folk traditions.

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Article

(b Melur, Mýrasýsla, Oct 14, 1861; d Reykjavík, Aug 2, 1938). Icelandic composer and folksong collector. Apart from early studies in harmony with Jónas Helgason, organist of Reykjavík Cathedral, he was self-taught as a musician. He studied theology at Reykjavík and from 1888 to 1935 was a priest at Siglufjörður. Early in the 1880s he became interested in Icelandic folk music, made study trips to Copenhagen and Stockholm (...

Article

Israel J. Katz

[Tomás Parés, Juan]

(b Barcelona, April 6, 1896; d Barcelona, Nov 7, 1967). Catalan choral director, composer and folklorist. From the age of 11 he studied solfège with Lluís Millet, the piano with María R. Canals and Juan Battista Pellicer and composition with Antonio Nicolau and Enrique Morera at the Barcelona Municipal School of Music. In 1908 Millet gave him a place in the children’s section of Orfeó Català, and later he joined the main chorus, becoming one of its deputy directors in 1946. In the same year he joined the newly founded Instituto Español de Musicología under Anglès. As a prominent choral director he conducted such choirs as the Chor Infantil Mossèn Cinto, la Escuela Coral de Tarrasa, Parroquia de S Paciano and Orfeó Lluis Millet; he taught music and was organist at the Colegio de S Ignacio de los PP Jesuítas de Sarriá and for the student group Pere Vila. In the early 1950s he became director of the schola cantorum of the Barcelona Seminary. His main area of research was Spanish folk music; having participated in many field trips throughout Catalonia, Castile and León, he began to prepare a systematic study of regional Spanish cancioneros, which is fundamental to the study of Spanish traditional folk music. His compositions include several choral works, including ...

Article

Elizabeth Kinder

(b Enfield, May 5, 1949). English composer, musician, writer and curator. He studied at Hornsey College of Art (1967–8) and, following a brief period at Watford College of Art and Design, returned to Hornsey to study painting, where he met Max Eastley. Due to lack of funding Toop secured a job at the Roundhouse, where he met the percussionist Paul Burwell. Together, Burwell and Toop, along with Steve Beresford and sound artist Peter Cusack, set up the London Musicians Collective in 1975. With Burwell, Toop established the band Rain in the Face, in which he played guitar and flute. Eager to explore mixed media, they collaborated with various musicians, dancers and the sound poet Bob Cobbing. Toop later worked with Brian Eno, John Zorn, Prince Far I, Jon Hassell, Derek Bailey, Talvin Singh, Evan Parker, Scanner, Ivor Cutler, Akio Suzuki, Haco and Jin Hi Kim, Steven Berkoff, Mitsutaka Ishii and John Latham amongst others....

Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Oviedo, April 8, 1888; d London, Feb 17, 1955). Spanish folklorist, writer on music and literature, teacher, choral conductor and composer . He began his musical education in Oviedo, studied the piano and composition at the Madrid Conservatory (1907–10), and, after two years in Oviedo conducting research on traditional Asturian music, went to the Schola Cantorum in Paris (1912–14), where he studied composition with d’Indy; he also went to lectures by Tiersot (who had influenced him earlier) at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales. He was invited by Ramón Menéndez Pidal to work at the Madrid Centro de Estudios Históricos in 1916, and was one of the remarkable group of artists living at the Residencia de Estudiantes which included Bal y Gay, Falla, Turina, Adolfo Salazar, Sainz de la Maza, Lorca, J. Ramón Jiménez, Buñuel and Dali. Later he dedicated to the institution his ...

Article

Margarita Mazo

(b Ivanovskaya Sloboda, nr Belgorod, c1740; d St Petersburg, c1810). Ukrainian folksong collector and composer, resident in Russia. In 1761 he entered the Russian Imperial court as a singer and gusli player. Apparently by 1792 he left the court and continued to pursue his musical activities under the patronage of the Russian aristocracy. His Sobraniye russkikh prostïkh pesen s notami (‘Collection of Simple Russian Songs with Music’) was the first printed collection of Russian folksongs with melodies. Parts i-iii were published anonymously with texted melodies and a single bass line. In part iv and the 1796 edition of part i, Trutovsky added a fuller harmonic texture. The collection contained songs popular in St Petersburg at the time; parts iii–iv also contained Ukrainian songs. The melodies were mostly transcribed by Trutovsky himself although he used some materials from manuscript songbooks, previously published collections of songs texts, music by Russian composers and, in part iv, his arrangement of a Ukrainian song by Józef Kozłowski. Trutovsky did not organize the songs into categories; the ordering is based only on alternation between fast and slow songs. In his foreword he complains about the songs not written ‘according to the rules’ and, accordingly, he made them match the European system of keys, harmony and metre, adding instrumental lines for those wanting to play the songs on instruments or to sing them with instrumental accompaniment. The collection has considerable interest as a document of musical practices and repertory of the time. L′vov and Pratsch published 46 of the songs in their collection and several were used by the Russian composers Pashkevich, Serov, Musorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov. Few of Trutovsky’s own compositions have survived. His song ...