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David Fallows

(fl early 15th century). ?French composer. He shares his name with two villages, one just north of Chartres, the other west of Cambrai. His sole surviving work is the Credo which opens the eighth gathering of GB-Ob Can misc.213 (ascribed ‘Chierisy’ but listed in the index as ‘Chierisi’, and with the characterization ‘...

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Andrew Hughes

(fl early 15th century). English theorist. His name is found in connection with a treatise in GB-Lbl Lansdowne 763, which dates, on palaeographical evidence, from c1450. (The date of 1460 given by the catalogue of Lansdowne MSS has no apparent evidence to support it.)...

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Chipre  

Gilbert Reaney

Designation appearing at the head of a three-voice Kyrie from the Avignon repertory (edn in CMM, xxix, 20, and in PMFC, xxiii a, p.64). The work, dating from the 14th century, is in simultaneous style, and is noteworthy for its use of the archaic third rhythmic mode and its fluctuations between major and minor prolation. This latter peculiarity occurs in only one of the three sources of the piece (...

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Margaret Bent

(fl c1400). English composer. Several identities have been suggested but nothing certain is known of his life. His four known works are all contained in the original layer of the Old Hall Manuscript. All are in score notation, although only one is based on plainchant. They are straightforward and rather archaic in style and include some minor notational anomalies (syllable change within a note or ligature, disregard of the ...

Article

In medieval music, the word used to denote the second-time ending (punctum clausum), the first being labelled Aperto .

Article

(b Troyes; fl c1160–90). French trouvère, writer and poet. He was the author of the Arthurian romances and the earliest lyric poet in Old French. Although best known as the author of Perceval and Lancelot, he is also the earliest of the trouvère poet-composers whose name has come down to us. Some scholars have speculated that he was a converted Jew, owing to his unusual name and taking into account the presence of a large Jewish community in Troyes in the 12th century. He received a clerical education in Troyes, and later spent at least some time at the court of Henry I, Count of Champagne, where his presence is documented in the year ...

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Margaret Bent, David Fallows, Giuliano Di Bacco and John Nádas

(b Liège, c1370; d Padua, between 10 June and July 12, 1412). Franco-Flemish composer, active principally in Italy. More music by him survives, with more stylistic variety, than by any other composer active around 1400.

In two Paduan documents Ciconia identified himself as the son of a Johannes Ciconia of Liège, but although his Paduan career has been extensively researched, first by Suzanne Clercx and more recently by Anne Hallmark, his pre-Paduan years are less well documented. The existence of several clerics from Liège with the same name has given rise to various hypotheses explaining his whereabouts and early training. The composer's career was first conflated by Clercx with that of his father, owing to the identity of their names. The possible error was first pointed out by Fallows (...

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David Fallows

(fl 1430–50). ?South Netherlandish composer. He is known for a Gloria–Credo pair and a matching Agnus Dei immediately preceding them in the same manuscript. Possibly also belonging to the cycle is a Sanctus elsewhere ascribed to Sweikl. All four movements are similar in their part-ranges, their melodic material, their manner of using a gentle and largely homophonic triple metre, and in the inclusion of monophonic intonations in mensural notation. The contrary ascription of the Gloria to Binchois seems improbable in view of the unity of the cycle and the lack of other Binchois music in a similar style; however it does suggest an identification of the composer with the Jacobus de Clibano, succentor at St Donatian, Bruges, ...

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Tom R. Ward

(fl c1430). Composer. His name was recorded in the manuscript F-Sm 222 (now destroyed) as the composer of a two-voice canon. It is labelled ‘Fuga trium temporum’ in Coussemaker’s copy of the manuscript. A ‘J. Cornelius’ added a tenor to this duo. Climen is possibly identifiable with ...

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Cloch  

Peter Crossley-Holland

Clapper-bell of ancient and medieval Wales. Several types were known, all with suspension loops. They include one quadrangular and one circular bell of Romano-British (La Tène) type, found in the Vale of Neath, and Celtic ‘saints’ bells’, including a long quadrangular bell now in the National Museum of Wales. Historical references to the cloch date from the 12th century, but the traditional performing practice has not survived....

Article

Manuel Pedro Ferreira

(fl c1240–70). Galician jongleur. Six of the seven songs attributed to him survive with music in the Vindel Manuscript, a single folded leaf probably written in the late 13th century, found in 1913 by the Madrid bookseller Pedro Vindel and since 1977...

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Theodore Karp

(fl 1240–60). French trouvère. His period of activity may be dated by reference to the trouvères with whom he was associated. The coat of arms in F-Pn fr.12615 suggests that he was a member of the Boutillier family belonging to the lesser nobility of Arras; since these arms are lacking in ...

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(b c1160; d Dec 17, 1219 or 1220). French trouvère. He was the fifth son of Robert V (‘le Roux’), seigneur of Béthune, and Alix de Saint-Pol; his birthplace was presumably Béthune. As a young man he is known to have spent time at the French court. His name may be traced in documents from ...

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Ursula Günther

(fl early 15th century). Italian composer. He was an Augustinian friar (‘frater ordinis heremitarum’) and probably the Curradus Ser Gualandi de Bracilionis de Pistorio who became a singer at S Reparata in Florence in December 1410. Before that date Conradus may, like Matteo da Perugia and Bartholomeus de Bononia, have belonged to the French-orientated court of Pope Alexander V and his successor John XXIII. Soon after his election, in Pisa in ...

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Christian Troelsgård

(b 905; d 959). Byzantine emperor and poet-composer. He was co-emperor from 908 until 945, and thereafter reigned solely until his death. According to Byzantine music manuscripts he was the composer of the 11 exaposteilaria anastasima of Sunday Orthros and three other stichēra...

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Margaret Bent and Roger Bowers

(b c1385, d 1442). English church musician and composer. Nine compositions in the Old Hall Manuscript are attributed to ‘Cooke’ and one piece preserved anonymously there may also be assigned to him; a further, unclear attribution may read ‘J. Cooke’. The name Cooke was common, and it is possible that this music includes works by more than one composer so named. Most if not all, however, is probably attributable to the John Cooke who, as almost certainly a former chorister of the Chapel Royal, was sent from a very junior clerkship there to study at King’s Hall, Cambridge, in ...

Article

Gilbert Reaney

(b Reims; fl early 15th century). French composer. The only undisputed biographical facts associated directly with his name are contained in the composer's own words in the elegantly notated rondeau Tout par compas suy composés. The third of four rondeau texts accompanying this circle canon proclaims that the composer's music is known from Reims, his birthplace, to Rome. In it, Cordier is called ‘Maistre’, indicating that he was a master of arts. The work also suggests Italian influence in being a two-voice canon at the unison over an independent tenor, like the caccia. Both this piece and the rondeau ...

Article

Tom R. Ward

(fl c1430). Composer. He added a tenor to a canon by J. de Climen that was recorded in F-Sm 222 (now lost). The work, however, survives in the copy of the manuscript made by Coussemaker.

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Robert Falck

(d 1294). French trouvère. He acted as a clerc to Count Robert of Artois. In this capacity his activities, which often included delicate diplomatic missions, were documented from 1270 until his death in 1294. His will, registered in June of that year, provided for the maintenance of his mistress and two illegitimate daughters in addition to his widow and her three children. In the documents he is referred to as Odon de Paris and Odon de Saint-Germain; this indicates that although he spent most of his working life in Artois he was probably born in the Ile-de-France....

Article

(d ?Bruges, 1432). South Netherlandish composer. He was active as singer, succentor, organist and scribe at the cathedral of St Donatian, Bruges, in 1417–22 and 1427–32. Only one composition survives with an ascription to him: this is the May song Vaylle, que vaylle il faut … au moys de may...