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Article

Cvjetko Rihtman

Double-headed frame drum of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The cylindrical wooden frame is about 7 cm deep, and the heads, usually made of kidskin, are about 28 cm in diameter. The drum is held and turned by means of a handle inserted through the frame, and beaten with a wooden drumstick about 25 cm long, carved to resemble a grain of buckwheat....

Article

Buben  

Inna D. Nazina

Frame drum of Belarus. It exists in two types. The earlier, used from at least the 12th century, has a wooden or metal hoop bearing one head that is tensioned by means of a cord or, in the 20th century, screws. It is struck with a stick thickened at the end. The later type appeared by the middle of the 19th century. It has attachments: pairs of ...

Article

Bubon  

Ivan Mačak

Slovakian frame drum. It was used by town criers as they walked through the village, beating the drum and stopping at predetermined places to read out official news. This was a popular custom in villages even after World War II.

See also Buben.

Article

Budugu  

Long, open, single-headed hourglass drum of the Barma people of Chad. Its head is laced by cords to a ring surrounding the body two-thirds of the way down. The head, waxed in the centre, is struck with both hands. The drum is used as part of an instrumental ensemble to encourage canoeists and give them strength....

Article

Lucy Durán and David Font-Navarrete

Set of three or four single-headed drums of the Jola people of Senegal and the Gambia. The drums, from 65 to 140 cm long and 23 to 45 cm in diameter, are usually carved from buchelab or buyey logs into a slightly conical shape, often with a flare near the open end, and are typically decorated with simple carving or paint. The heads are made from cowhide or, less often, goatskin and attached to the shell with wood pegs and leather strips. Each drum in the set is variously tuned by heating at an open fire. They are played as a set, always by one male drummer, arranged side by side, propped at an angle, and tilted away from the drummer against a wooden stand, with the open end on the ground. The drummer plays with his bare hands and has iron jingles (...

Article

Būgnas  

Arvydas Karaška

Large double-headed drum of Lithuania. It has a cylindrical wooden or metal body with a diameter of 35 to 110 cm. The heads are fastened with metal tension-rings and screws, or with wooden rings and lacing. The būgnasis struck with two wooden beaters. The drum was first mentioned in Lithuanian chronicles dating from the 13th century. At first only a military instrument, it was later used for rituals and ceremonial, signalling, and music-making. The būgnasis still used in folk groups. Similar drums of neighbouring peoples are the ...

Article

Arvydas Karaška

Kettledrum of Lithuania. It consists of a large copper kettle, sometimes an ordinary kitchen kettle, with oxhide stretched over it and fastened with a metal tension-ring and six to eight screws. The būgnas katilasis placed on a metal frame and is struck with two beaters....

Article

Arvydas Karaška

Single-headed frame drum of Lithuania. The wooden frame is 4 to 5 cm deep, 5 mm thick, and 25 to 30 cm in diameter. The head is of dog- or goatskin, fastened with a tension-ring. The player holds the būgnelisin his left hand and beats it with the fingers and palm of the right hand, or with a wooden beater 16 to 19 cm long. The būgnelisof the tambourine type has three or four slits in the frame, each with two or three small bronze jingles. The instrument has been used by Lithuanian folk-music groups since the middle of the 19th century. Nowadays, it is widely used in village bands. Similar instruments of neighbouring peoples are the Latvian ...

Article

Buhai  

Tiberiu Alexandru

Friction drum of Romania and Moldavia. A wooden container, usually a bucket, has the bottom knocked out and one end is covered by a tightly stretched sheepskin through which a strand of horsehair is passed. The horsehair is fastened by a knot at the lower end and is rubbed alternately by wetted hands to produce a deep tuneless sound resembling the bellowing of a bull. It is used only for New Year rituals, alone or with other instruments, providing a background noise over which the ...

Article

Būkas  

Arvydas Karaška

Friction drum of Lithuania. It is made from a keg with one end covered by a stretched goatskin with a small hole in the centre. A hank of horsehair is secured through the hole. The player moistens the horsehair with water and strokes it with the palms of his hands, thus exciting the skin membrane. The muted sound produced is reminiscent of the bellowing of an ox; when the horsehair is stroked upwards from the skin, the pitch descends in a ...

Article

‘Spirit drum’ of the Acholi people of northern Uganda. It has one pegged head. The ends of the drum are of approximately the same width, while the body curves outwards from the skin, then inwards until near the open base, where it curves outwards again....

Article

Bulá  

Single-headed log drum of Haitians in Cuba. It is played, for instance, in the tumba francesa ensemble (tumba is a generic term for ‘drum’), a set of three cylindrical drums with heads of goatskin, struck by the hands. The head is attached to a hoop that is laced in a V-pattern to pegs inserted lower in the hardwood body; the pegs are hammered to tune the head. The body is often colourfully painted and carved with geometric and symbolic designs, and it stands upright on the ground or occasionally is laid sideways and straddled. The drums are named after their functions in the ensemble; the largest, lead drum is called ...

Article

Friction drum of Austria, made of a clay pot with a membrane of pig’s bladder or thin skin and a friction cord. It was formerly used during Carnival.

Article

Single-headed, footed conical drum of the Digo, Giryama, and other peoples of Kenya. On some examples the head, made of cow or antelope hide or goatskin, is secured by a thick ring and a small number of cords; on others it is pegged to the body, which is typically about 48 cm tall and 28 cm in head diameter. The Digo use their ...

Article

Natalie M. Webber

Clay drum of Sri Lanka. It is shaped as a bulbous pot with a short neck that flares to make a wide mouth which is covered by a skin from the spotted iguana (talagoya). At the base of the pot another short neck is left open. The total length varies from 38 to 51 cm. The drum hangs diagonally from a hemp sling secured around both necks and across the player’s shoulder. One hand beats the skin head; the other covers and uncovers the aperture at the base, altering the tone and pitch....

Article

Bungas  

Valdis Muktupāvels

Term for various cylindrical drums of Latvia. Though the name appears in written sources since the 17th century and quite frequently in folklore, there is little evidence of the drums’ shapes before the 20th century. The earlier drums were sounded at weddings and other occasions and were played by town and military musicians. Iconography and a few museum specimens show a cylindrical one- or two-headed drum, about 40 cm in diameter and 50–60 cm tall, played with two wooden sticks....

Article

Burburi  

Double-headed cylindrical drum of Karnataka and Andhra, south India. It is played by the mendicant devotees of the goddess Mariamman and is struck with a stick on one side and rubbed with a curved stick on the other.

Article

Jan Stęszewski and Zbigniew J. Przerembski

Friction drum used in the Pomerania and Warmia regions of Poland. Formerly it was used in magic and annual folk rituals, mainly during Christmas and Shrovetide. Nowadays many folk ensembles use it to provide a rhythmic bass, and as a musical attribute of Kashubian cultural identity. The barrel-shaped body is about 25–30 cm tall and made of wooden staves, or sometimes a hollowed log. The bottom of the barrel is made of leather or wood with a centrally attached strand of horsehair or a metal chain that is rubbed rhythmically with wetted or rosined hands. A smaller version called the ...

Article

Idiophone of the Basque region, known also as a palanka or satai. It is an iron bar, about 1 metre long, which is struck with small iron or wooden beaters, creating a bell-like sound. It used to be played in the lobera (or burdinbarra) serenade, performed to a couple at dusk on the day their marriage banns were called....

Article

Buzzers  

Jeremy Montagu

Vibrating elements added to instruments to ‘sweeten’, distort, amplify, enrich, or extend their sound. These accessories take many forms. For example, a buzzing membrane, usually made of the internal skin of a bamboo stem, covers an extra hole between the embouchure and the fingerholes of many Chinese and southeast Asian flutes. Some Chinese notched flutes have holes covered by a vibrating membrane in the almost-closed upper end. A vibrating membrane covers a hole in the side of resonators of many African and Latin American xylophones. Some drums, especially in Central Africa, have a hole in the side of the body in which is inserted a short section of gourd with a membrane covering the outer end. A vibrating membrane over one end or over a hole in the side of a tube that is sung into is widely used to disguise a singer’s voice, in some cultures turning it into the voice of a spirit or a god. Artificial membrane materials used nowadays include cigarette papers and scraps of plastic bags....