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Brau  

Claudie Marcel-Dubois

Indirect friction drum, from Rouergue and the south of France. It is sounded by rubbing a cord that passes through the head. The body of the drum is of earthenware or, less commonly, wood. The cord can be rubbed internally or externally. Its sound symbolizes the roaring of bulls (hence the name) and is used to accompany rituals, especially the charivari....

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Bubanj  

Cvjetko Rihtman

Double-headed cylindrical drum of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The kidskin heads are stretched over a wooden body made of bent board 5 mm thick, the depth of which is smaller than the diameter of the head (about 35 cm). One of the heads usually has a snare. Similar, smaller drums are called bubnjić or doboš. The bubanj is beaten with a mallet or drumstick, and a cane, the wooden drumstick producing a stronger sound than the cane. The basic function of the latter is to prepare for and reinforce the intensity of expectation of the main beat (with the drumstick), and the player uses it primarily for upbeats and also for gradual intensification, acceleration, and sudden pauses, thus achieving striking rhythmical patterns.

Instruments of this type are often played with other outdoor instruments and are rarely played alone. At the courts of Bosnian feudal lords, before the arrival of the Turks, they were played with shawms and trumpets. Their main role was to draw the attention of the crowd, to emphasize the importance of an event, to transmit messages, or to mark the rhythm of movement....

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Cvjetko Rihtman

Double-headed frame drum of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The cylindrical wooden frame is about 7 cm deep, and the heads, usually made of kidskin, are about 28 cm in diameter. The drum is held and turned by means of a handle inserted through the frame, and beaten with a wooden drumstick about 25 cm long, carved to resemble a grain of buckwheat....

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Buben  

Inna D. Nazina

[baraban, ruchnoy baraban]

Frame drum of Belarus. It exists in two types. The earlier, used from at least the 12th century, has a wooden or metal hoop bearing one head that is tensioned by means of a cord or, in the 20th century, screws. It is struck with a stick thickened at the end. The later type appeared by the middle of the 19th century. It has attachments: pairs of lyaskotkas (brass jingles) on pins in the openings of the hoops, and sharkhuns (pellet bells) hung on wires stretched across the skin within the hoop. This type is played by shaking, striking the head with fingers, hand, or stick, rubbing, and combinations of these techniques, leading to a substantial enrichment of expressive capabilities. The buben is used in Belarussian folk ensembles performing dance music and wedding marches together with other instruments (violin, dulcimer, accordion), as well as in folk academic orchestras and amateur ensembles. Its function in the ensemble is rhythmic and colouristic, stimulating emotion and organizing the musical structure. The character and style of the ensemble depend on the drummer’s temperament, skill, and ease....

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Bubon  

Ivan Mačak

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Budugu  

Long, open, single-headed hourglass drum of the Barma people of Chad. Its head is laced by cords to a ring surrounding the body two-thirds of the way down. The head, waxed in the centre, is struck with both hands. The drum is used as part of an instrumental ensemble to encourage canoeists and give them strength....

Article

Lucy Durán

revised by David Font-Navarrete

[bugáar, bougarabou, bucarabu, bugorobu]

Set of three or four single-headed drums of the Jola people of Senegal and the Gambia. The drums, from 65 to 140 cm long and 23 to 45 cm in diameter, are usually carved from buchelab or buyey logs into a slightly conical shape, often with a flare near the open end, and are typically decorated with simple carving or paint. The heads are made from cowhide or, less often, goatskin and attached to the shell with wood pegs and leather strips. Each drum in the set is variously tuned by heating at an open fire. They are played as a set, always by one male drummer, arranged side by side, propped at an angle, and tilted away from the drummer against a wooden stand, with the open end on the ground. The drummer plays with his bare hands and has iron jingles (siwangas) attached to his wrists. Bugarabu drumming is usually joined by women playing palm-wood clappers (...

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Būgnas  

Arvydas Karaška

Large double-headed drum of Lithuania. It has a cylindrical wooden or metal body with a diameter of 35 to 110 cm. The heads are fastened with metal tension-rings and screws, or with wooden rings and lacing. The būgnasis struck with two wooden beaters. The drum was first mentioned in Lithuanian chronicles dating from the 13th century. At first only a military instrument, it was later used for rituals and ceremonial, signalling, and music-making. The būgnasis still used in folk groups. Similar drums of neighbouring peoples are the ...

Article

Arvydas Karaška

Kettledrum of Lithuania. It consists of a large copper kettle, sometimes an ordinary kitchen kettle, with oxhide stretched over it and fastened with a metal tension-ring and six to eight screws. The būgnas katilasis placed on a metal frame and is struck with two beaters.

The body of the drum could also be hollowed out of ash, fir, or birchwood. Three small holes are made in the base ‘for the sound to escape’. The head is made of the skin of a goat, pig, calf, dog, wolf, or roe and is fastened with a string or wooden pegs. This type ofbūgnas katilasis placed on three stones and can be played alone or with several others. The sound of the instrument was believed to ward off evil spirits or to avert showers, storms, droughts, and other disasters, and was used as a magic (apotropaic), ritual, ceremonial, or signalling instrument. In the past it was played during religious, farming, or calendar holidays and family celebrations (mostly weddings). From the 19th century to the first half of the 20th, the būgnas katilaswas used to call people to work, to prayers, to the bedside of a dying man, to a funeral feast, to fires, and to various village gatherings....

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Arvydas Karaška

Single-headed frame drum of Lithuania. The wooden frame is 4 to 5 cm deep, 5 mm thick, and 25 to 30 cm in diameter. The head is of dog- or goatskin, fastened with a tension-ring. The player holds the būgnelisin his left hand and beats it with the fingers and palm of the right hand, or with a wooden beater 16 to 19 cm long. The būgnelisof the tambourine type has three or four slits in the frame, each with two or three small bronze jingles. The instrument has been used by Lithuanian folk-music groups since the middle of the 19th century. Nowadays, it is widely used in village bands. Similar instruments of neighbouring peoples are the Latvian ...

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Buhai  

Tiberiu Alexandru

(‘bull’)

Friction drum of Romania and Moldavia. A wooden container, usually a bucket, has the bottom knocked out and one end is covered by a tightly stretched sheepskin through which a strand of horsehair is passed. The horsehair is fastened by a knot at the lower end and is rubbed alternately by wetted hands to produce a deep tuneless sound resembling the bellowing of a bull. It is used only for New Year rituals, alone or with other instruments, providing a background noise over which the ...

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Būkas  

Arvydas Karaška

Friction drum of Lithuania. It is made from a keg with one end covered by a stretched goatskin with a small hole in the centre. A hank of horsehair is secured through the hole. The player moistens the horsehair with water and strokes it with the palms of his hands, thus exciting the skin membrane. The muted sound produced is reminiscent of the bellowing of an ox; when the horsehair is stroked upwards from the skin, the pitch descends in a ...

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‘Spirit drum’ of the Acholi people of northern Uganda. It has one pegged head. The ends of the drum are of approximately the same width, while the body curves outwards from the skin, then inwards until near the open base, where it curves outwards again.

K.P. Wachsmann and M. Trowell...

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Bulá  

[boula]

Single-headed log drum of Haitians in Cuba. It is played, for instance, in the tumba francesa ensemble (tumba is a generic term for ‘drum’), a set of three cylindrical drums with heads of goatskin, struck by the hands. The head is attached to a hoop that is laced in a V-pattern to pegs inserted lower in the hardwood body; the pegs are hammered to tune the head. The body is often colourfully painted and carved with geometric and symbolic designs, and it stands upright on the ground or occasionally is laid sideways and straddled. The drums are named after their functions in the ensemble; the largest, lead drum is called manmanor manma(‘mother’), quinto, or premier; the mid-size is the bulá (called segon in Haiti); and the smallest is the bulá-segón or segón (boula in Haiti); individual drums might also be given personal names. Cuban tumbas are roughly the same height, about 77 to 81 cm, but of different diameters, about 46 to 51 cm. The higher-pitched drums are also called ‘first’ and ‘second’...

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Single-headed, footed conical drum of the Digo, Giryama, and other peoples of Kenya. On some examples the head, made of cow or antelope hide or goatskin, is secured by a thick ring and a small number of cords; on others it is pegged to the body, which is typically about 48 cm tall and 28 cm in head diameter. The Digo use their ...

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Natalie M. Webber

[bummändiya]

Clay drum of Sri Lanka. It is shaped as a bulbous pot with a short neck that flares to make a wide mouth which is covered by a skin from the spotted iguana (talagoya). At the base of the pot another short neck is left open. The total length varies from 38 to 51 cm. The drum hangs diagonally from a hemp sling secured around both necks and across the player’s shoulder. One hand beats the skin head; the other covers and uncovers the aperture at the base, altering the tone and pitch.

The bummädiya appears to have ritualistic origins, because it was made before sowing paddy, probably to propitiate the earth goddess. Superb examples, often engraved and painted, exist in Sinhalese museums and temple treasure-houses. It is now comparatively rare but in the 1980s was still used occasionally in the hill-country villages around Kandy, to accompany songs for sowing and harvesting....

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Bungas  

Valdis Muktupāvels

[celma bungas]

Term for various cylindrical drums of Latvia. Though the name appears in written sources since the 17th century and quite frequently in folklore, there is little evidence of the drums’ shapes before the 20th century. The earlier drums were sounded at weddings and other occasions and were played by town and military musicians. Iconography and a few museum specimens show a cylindrical one- or two-headed drum, about 40 cm in diameter and 50–60 cm tall, played with two wooden sticks.

At the end of the 19th century a significantly bigger cylindrical drum was used. It was double-headed, 60–80 cm in diameter and 30–40 cm tall. The dog-skin heads were attached with wooden or metal hoops held by metal hooks. The instrument was placed on the ground, and the player used one beater having a soft head. The bungas was used with other instruments to play dance music at weddings and outdoor dance parties....

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Burburi