(b Workington, Cumbria, Jan 13, 1941). English traditional singer, writer and teacher. She began singing American songs in 1957 with a band, Skiffle Group, which eventually adopted a repertory of British traditional songs. From the early 1960s Armstrong, partially sighted, combined a singing career with that of social worker. Influenced by singer Louis Killen, she studied traditional singers and analysed the synthesis of content, style and form in traditional performance. In 1964, she joined Ewan MacColl and Seeger family, §5's Critics Group. In New York in 1973 she attended a Balkan singing class run by Ethel Raim, a meeting that had a long-term influence on her both as a singer and teacher and as an activist in the Women's Movement. In 1975, Armstrong began teaching Voice Workshops which aimed to help singers and non-singers to express themselves through voice and song. Since the late 1980s, she has run joint voice workshops with her husband, Darien Pritchard, a movement and relaxation specialist. A politically committed artist, who frequently performs for women's peace and environmental groups, Armstrong has one of the most distinctive and emotive voices of the Folk Revival....
(b Alton, IL, Feb 11, 1868; d Alton, July 9, 1936). American organist and teacher. He trained in St Louis and later in Chicago under Clarence Eddy. In 1890 he returned to Alton, serving as organist of the First Baptist Church, St Paul’s and during 1894–8 at the Church of the Redeemer. Armstrong then held a decade-long appointment at the Church of the Unity in St Louis. He joined the faculty of the Forest Park University for Women in St Louis in 1891 and the following year became music director and chair of the newly founded music department of Shurtleff College and the Western Military Academy, both in Upper Alton. Although he relinquished his administrative duties in 1908 or 1909, he continued to teach there for several more years, resigning to found the Armstrong School of Music in Alton. He served as organist of the St Louis Exposition in ...
(b Tuzla, Bosnia, Aug 18, 1951). Bosnian conductor and music educator. He graduated from the Department of Music Theory and Pedagogy (1974) and from the Conducting Department in the class of Teodor Romanić (1979) at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo. He completed postgraduate studies in 1982. His conducting career started at the High School of Music in Sarajevo upon his graduation (1974). He has appeared with the Sarajevo Philharmonic Orchestra, Radio-Television Sarajevo Symphony Orchestra, Mostar Symphony Orchestra, and Radio-Television Bosnia and Herzegovina Chamber Orchestra. He has led a number of choral ensembles, including the children’s choir of Radio-Television Sarajevo, and amateur choirs in Sarajevo (‘Slobodan Princip Seljo’, ‘Vaso Miskin Crni’, ‘Miljenko Cvitković’), Mostar (‘Džemal Bijedić’, ‘Abrašević’), and Goražde (Mixed municipal choir). He successfully led the female ensemble, ‘Preporod’, and the academic female choir ‘Gaudeamus’, for which he prepared a few collections of harmonizations and stylizations of folk songs. Since ...
(b Prague, 1934). Czech double bass player. He first studied violin and trombone (1945–52), then double bass and theory (1957). In the early to mid-1960s he recorded many albums in Prague with Zdenek Bartak’s big band, Karel Vlach (1962–3), Karel Velebný’s quartet and quintet (1962–5), Jan Konopasek (1963), and the pianist Milan Dvořák (1964); in 1965 he toured and recorded with the Reduta Quintet. In West Germany and France he played with Leo Wright and Booker Ervin. He moved in 1966 to the USA, where he worked as a producer, arranger, conductor, and performer; he played with Elvin Jones, Tony Scott, Howard McGhee, and Attila Zoller, and recorded with Sonny Stitt (1966), Chico Hamilton (c1967, c1974), and Ervin (1968). As a member of Art Blakey’s Jazz Messengers (...
revised by Robert W. Oldani
(Karlovich) [Jurig von]
(b St Petersburg, 1/Nov 13, 1811; d Karakesh, nr Simferopol′, Crimea, 8/July 20, 1898). Russian writer on music, teacher and composer. His father was a state councillor. After studying political economy at the German University of Dorpat in Estonia, he served in the army during the Polish campaign (1831–8). On resigning his commission he decided to make a career in music, studying harmony with Johann Leopold Fuchs and counterpoint with Joseph Hunke. In 1839 his cantata Svetlana, to words by Vasily Zhukovsky, was awarded a Philharmonic Society prize and subsequently performed in tableaux vivants in both St Petersburg and Moscow. He was a friend of the leading Russian musicians of his day, and his memoirs, published in three volumes in 1892–3, are a valuable record of 60 years of Russian musical life. From 1841 he contributed criticisms and reviews to a number of journals (the ...
(b Staten Island, NY, Jan 14, 1923; d Chicago, Oct 29, 2008). American dancer, choreographer, teacher, and ballet company director. He began to study dance after meeting Robert Joffrey while on military service in Seattle, and continued this study in New York at the School of American Ballet and with the modern dancers May O’Donnell and Gertrude Shurr. He became a founding member of the faculty of Joffrey’s school, the American Dance Center, and of Joffrey’s first dance group, which later became the Joffrey Ballet. He also performed on Broadway and with New York City Opera. After retiring as a performer in 1964, he focused on the choreographic work he had begun in 1961 with the ballet Ropes, to music by Charles Ives. As chief choreographer of the Joffrey Ballet, he created ballets that celebrated the company’s youthful verve and vitality, frequently utilizing scores by American contemporary composers. Among his most popular ballets were ...
[y Ansola ]
(b Tolosa, Guipúzcoa, Spain, July 25, 1847; d Oakland, CA, Jan 27, 1915). Spanish-Basque composer, pianist, organist, and music teacher. Born into a family connected to the manufacture of berets, he studied solfège with the director of the Tolosa municipal band, and began piano and organ lessons with his parish organist. Arrillaga later studied at the Real Conservatorio de Música in Madrid—solfège with Hilarión Eslava (author of the famous solfège method), harmony with Rafael Hernando, and piano with Manuel Mendizábal. After receiving gold medals at the Madrid Conservatory for harmony and piano in July 1867, presented to him by Queen Isabel II, later in 1867 he began piano studies with Antoine-François Marmontel at the Paris Conservatoire. Around 1869, he traveled throughout Latin America, performing and teaching in San José, Costa Rica from 1870 to 1875. He moved to California in 1875, first to Los Angeles, and then soon thereafter permanently to San Francisco. He was noted for his work as a piano accompanist, performing with musicians such as singer Carlotta Patti and San Francisco guitarist-composer Manuel Ferrer. Arrillaga composed numerous instrumental and vocal works, including several for piano on Spanish themes (e.g., “Zortzico” and ...
(b Oporto, Oct 4, 1861; d Colares, May 18, 1930). Portuguese composer of Spanish descent. A politician and member of the Coimbra University law faculty, he practised music as an amateur. His most significant work, the drama lírico in three acts Amore e Perdizione, is based on Camilo Castelo Branco's Portuguese novel Amor de Perdição. First performed at the S Carlos, Lisbon, in 1907, it was later translated into German as Liebe und Verderben for a Hamburg performance of 1910. The second act of Arroio's second drama lírico, the four-act Leonora Telles to his own libretto, was performed posthumously in 1941 and four years later the entire opera was staged, in a Portuguese version. Dramatically, Arroio's operas are similar to the nationalist operas of his compatriots Keil and Ferreira Veiga. At a stylistic level, however, they attempt to escape from the Italian style prevalent in Portugal through an intensive use of chromaticism (particularly in ...
Mikhail Grigor′yevich Byalik
(b nr Vorkuta, Russia, Aug 3, 1944). Russian composer . He trained in Leningrad as a violinist and composer at the Special Music School attached to the Conservatory (1958–63) and then at the Conservatory itself (1963–8; postgraduate studies 1968–71) in the composition class of V. Salmanov. He has taught in both establishments. In 1974 he moved to France where he studied composition with Messiaen at the Paris Conservatoire (1974–8), and at the musicology faculty of the Sorbonne (1984–5). Since 1991 he has been Professeur-animateur of the national music school at Notre Dame de Gravenchon and since 1994 he has also taught analysis at the Rouen Conservatoire.
A prolific composer, Arzumanov’s moral and religious quests are reflected in his continuous search for new styles and genres. He has studied the music of Mahler, Shostakovich and the Second Viennese School, the music of ancient civilizations, pop music, and the church canticles of the Orthodox tradition, and willingly uses their forms and devices in his works in his efforts to find a spiritual kinship with distant epochs and peoples. The piano cycle ...
Larisa Georgievna Danko
(b St Petersburg, 17/July 29, 1884; d Moscow, Jan 27, 1949). Russian musicologist, composer and critic. He studied at the St Petersburg Conservatory from 1904 to 1910 with Rimsky-Korsakov and Lyadov, and graduated in 1908 from the faculty of history and philology of the University of St Petersburg. From 1910 he worked as a repetiteur; from 1916 edited and composed ballet music and from 1919 was a member of the board of directors and repertory consultant at the Mariinsky and Mikhaylovsky Theatres. In 1919 he became head of the Central Library for State Musical Theatres. In the same year, in association with Lyapunov and Bulich, he organized the music department at the Petrograd Institute for the History of the Arts (now the Zubov Institute for the History of the Arts); he was its director from 1921. Between 1922 and 1925 he was responsible for the organization there of concerts of contemporary music. He was made a professor at the Leningrad Conservatory in ...
Amanda M. Burt
revised by Thorkell Sigurbjörnsson
(b Ísafjörður, Oct 11, 1928). Icelandic composer, teacher and critic. He graduated in 1955 from the Reykjavík College of Music, where he studied the piano with Árni Kristjánsson and theory with Victor Urbancic. Further composition studies were undertaken at the RSAMD in Glasgow (1955–6) and at the Guildhall School of Music in London (1965). In 1961 he received a teacher's diploma from the Reykjavík College of Music. Ásgeirsson has conducted various choirs, and became the principal music critic of Morgunblaðið in 1970. Formerly president of the Icelandic Composers' Society, he has taught at various institutions and is currently professor at the Icelandic Teachers' College.
His works are mainly traditional in style though he has written a few serial compositions. He is particularly interested in reviving Icelandic folksongs and dances and has set related folk poetry found without music; he has also served as music director for productions of the ancient dances by the National Dance Company. In ...
Katherine K. Preston
revised by Barry Schrader
(b New York, May 13, 1933). American composer, jazz researcher and teacher. He studied composition with E.B. Hill and Richard Hoffmann at Oberlin College (BA 1958, BM 1958) and with Sessions, Earl Kim and Babbitt at Princeton University (MFA 1960, PhD 1971). He began his teaching career at Princeton (1961) and held positions at Oberlin (1961–5) and several other schools before joining the faculty of UCLA in 1967. In 1969 he became coordinator of the UCLA electronic music studio and in 1980 he was made a full professor. Since 1952 he has been active as a producer of New Orleans jazz recordings. His writings include contributions to Perspectives of New Music (on Schoenberg), The Music Review (on Beethoven) and The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. Ashforth has received particular notice for his electronic works. Byzantia: Two Journeys after Yeats (1971–3) is panoramic in dramatic effect, with mosaic-like juxtapositions of electronic, acoustic (voice, traditional instruments) and natural (flowing water, bird calls) sounds....
(b Durham, Dec 9, 1859; d London, April 10, 1937). English composer and teacher. He spent his childhood in Leipzig. Ashton studied music under Franz Heinig and Iwan Knorr, and subsequently at the Leipzig Conservatory, with Jadassohn, Richter and Reinecke (theory and composition) and with Papperitz and Coccius (piano). In 1879, having won the Helbig composition prize, he briefly returned to England. He became a pupil of Raff. In 1885 he was appointed to teach the piano at the RCM, where he remained for 25 years.
Ashton’s compositions cover most conventional forms except for opera, but he was best known for his piano and chamber works; they include a series of 24 string quartets (now lost) in all the major and minor keys. His published music exceeds 160 works. In 1898 Hofbauer issued a catalogue of the first 100 opus numbers (published by a variety of German and British publishers); they include works for solo piano, piano trio, piano quartet and quintet, short choral works and songs. Ashton’s orchestral music, which includes five symphonies, overtures, an orchestral suite, a Turkish March, and violin and piano concertos, made no impression. They are believed to have been lost in World War II....
(b Seattle, June 27, 1953). American composer and conductor. He studied composition with Stephen Albert, Ronald Perera and Randall McClellan at Hampshire College (BA 1975). His teachers at Yale University (MM 1977) included Druckman and MacCombie (composition), and Arthur Weisberg (conducting). He also studied composition with Schuller at the Berkshire Music Center (1979) and with Yun at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (1980). He served on the faculty of the Oberlin Conservatory from 1980 to 1986. A UK Fulbright Arts Fellowship and a Guggenheim Fellowship (1987–8) enabled him to work in London from 1986 to 1988, where he was a visiting lecturer at City University. He joined the faculty of the University of Arizona in 1988. He has conducted the university-based Arizona Contemporary Ensemble, founded and co-directed the New York contemporary music ensemble Musical Elements (1977–) and served as composer-in-residence for the Phoenix SO (...
(b Lemberg, July 10, 1896; d Cologne, Oct 18, 1985). Belgian pianist and teacher of Polish birth. His first lessons were with his mother, who had studied with Chopin's pupil, Mikuli, after which his teacher was Mme Zacharjasiewicz, a former pupil of Mozart's son, Franz Xaver. Another teacher was Teodor Pollak. In 1914–15 he was a pupil of Sauer at the Vienna Music Academy, and he resumed studies with him in 1919 after serving in the Austrian army. Askenase made his début in Vienna in 1919. He moved to Cairo in 1922 to take up a post at the conservatory, but three years later returned to Europe, settling in Brussels and later becoming a Belgian citizen. Askenase toured widely during a career that spanned six decades. Although chiefly remembered for his elegant and poetic interpretations of Chopin, many of which were recorded, the priorities of clarity and simplicity in his approach were equally well suited to the sonatas of Mozart and Haydn....
Michael B. Bakan
(b Kaliungu Kaja, Denpasar, 1955). Balinese composer, performer, teacher and musicologist. Born into a musical family, he is the brother of I Komang Astita and the cousin of Wayan Sadra and I Wayan Yudana, all well-known composers. He has taught composition and gamelan performance at the Sekolah Menengah Karawitan Indonesia and Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia in Bali since 1981. He is a graduate of these same institutions (1974 and 1980 respectively) and also holds a graduate degree (SSKar) from the Institut Seni Indonesia in Yogyakarta, as well as an MA in ethnomusicology from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, where he wrote his thesis on Balinese gambuh drumming under the direction of Mantle Hood (1991). He directed the Balinese gamelan programme at the University of Maryland while a student there (1988–91), and since that time has taught gamelan at the University of Montreal (...
(b Birmingham, Oct 5, 1938). English composer and teacher. He studied at the Birmingham School of Music, at the University of York as a postgraduate, and privately with Mellers for composition. He was appointed lecturer in music at York in 1964 and became professor of music at the University of East Anglia in 1974. While pursuing his academic career he has directed the Tudor Consort (which he founded), the English Baroque Ensemble, the York University Choir and Chamber Choir, and the Aldeburgh Festival Singers (1975–88). He has appeared as a guest conductor at several choral festivals in the USA and Italy.
Aston's compositional output is dominated by his church music. However, it was with Five Songs of Crazy Jane (1960) that he first attracted attention. During the following decade he set secular texts for chorus and composed a children's opera, Sacrapant the Sorcerer (...
revised by Henrik Karlsson
(b Bredaryd, Feb 5, 1925). Swedish music administrator, writer and lexicographer. He studied the double bass, cello, organ and music theory privately and romance languages at Lund University (graduated 1958). He taught French and Spanish at the Malmö Gymnasium (1959–74), and has pursued various musical activities, including posts as music critic of the Malmö newspaper Kvällsposten (1950–80), founder and leader of Chamber Choir ’53 (1953–62), founder (1960) and director (1965–71) of the Ars Nova society for new music and programme director of Sal. Smith Chamber Music Society (1966–73). He has also taught music history at the Malmö National School of Drama (1963–71), and served as a board member of the Malmö Musikhögskola (from 1964) and the Swedish Royal Academy of Music (1966–73; general secretary from 1973–90), and as vice-chairman of the board of the Stockholm Elektronmusikstudion (...
(b Pazardzhik, Bulgaria, Oct 27, 1952). Bulgarian composer, pianist, harpsichord player, and pedagogue. He graduated in piano (under Prof. Sturshenov) in 1977 and in composition under Prof. Hadzhiev. He continued with postgraduate studies under Yvonne Lefébure, Zuzana Růžičková (1983), and Milan Schlechta (1977). He is a prize winner from the A. Casagrande International Piano Competition in Terni, Italy (1976), and holder of the third prize in the piano duo category (1980). He is a keen performer of 17th- and 18th-century music as well as of 20th-century works.
He is a professor of composition (2000) and has also served as Dean of the Faculty of Instrumental Music at the National Music Academy in Sofia (1993–9). He is a composer with an individual style in the sphere of tonal and modal experimentation that combines folklore and features of the contemporary instrumental score. His Piano Concerto no.2 was awarded a prize at the New Music Festival in St Petersburg (...