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(Fr. Conseil International de la Musique)

A non-governmental organization created in 1949 by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to serve musical creation, performance, education, training, research and promotion on an international scale. This aim is pursued through the exchange of music and musicians between countries and continents, all cultures being regarded as equal; the use of the audio-visual media for the dissemination of music and for musical experimentation; close cooperation with other professional organizations and with the music industry; and the support of international agreements defending the rights of creative and interpretative musicians. Like UNESCO, the International Music Council is based in Paris. It was founded with the cooperation of four leading musical organizations: the International Society for Contemporary Music, the Fédération Internationale des Jeunesses Musicales, the International Musicological Society and the International Folk Music Council (now the International Council for Traditional Music). These were represented on the founding committee by Edward Clark, Marcel Cuvelier, P.-M. Masson and Maud Karpeles respectively; other committee members were Roland-Manuel (president), Harrison Kerr, Albert di Clementi, Goffredo Petrassi, Charles Seeger and C.S. Smith. Subsequent presidents have included Steuart Wilson (...

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The University of Iowa opened in Iowa City in 1855 and early offered music instruction; the school of music, in the college of liberal arts, was formally established in 1919 under Philip Greeley Clapp, who was its director until his death in 1954. Much of the pioneering work in musical aptitude testing was done there by Carl E(mil) Seashore, who joined the psychology department in 1902 and was twice dean of the graduate college (1908–37, 1942–6). The school was one of the first in the USA to award graduate degrees for composition. In 1995 the music building was named to honour Himie Voxman, director of the school from 1954 to 1980; Voxman was succeeded by David Nelson.

The school has almost 550 students and about 50 instructors. Degrees are offered in performance, music education, theory, composition and musicology. The library holds 80,000 books and scores, 3000 microforms, 13,500 sound recordings and videos and 300 journal subscriptions. Special collections include 18th-century wind music on microforms, the Edwin Franko Goldman Band library and many English and Irish broadsides in the Piper folksong collection. In ...

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Mark Fonder

Private college in Ithaca, New York. It was founded by Grant Egbert in 1892 as the Conservatory of Music. In 1931 several affiliated institutions merged to form the comprehensive Ithaca College: Patrick Conway Military Band School, Williams’ School of Expression and Dramatic Art, Ithaca School of Physical Education, and Westminster Choir School. As of ...

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Sarah Suhadolnik

Jazz division of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York. In 1987 Lincoln Center launched Classical Jazz, its first concert series devoted solely to jazz. In 1996 JALC became an autonomous jazz division with wynton Marsalis at the helm. Marsalis has continued to work as the artistic director of JALC and the music director of the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra. This ensemble maintains an extensive repertoire of classic jazz works while continuing to commission and premiere new pieces. It tours extensively, frequently collaborating with guest artists, and participates in JALC programs, such as the annual Essentially Ellington High School Jazz Band Competition & Festival. JALC also maintains a busy schedule of concerts by visiting artists, lectures, and jazz education initiatives....

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International organization. It was initiated in Belgium in 1940 by Marcel Cuvelier to propagate live music and related arts in schools, universities and among working youth, regardless of political or doctrinaire considerations. It has established an effective international network of artistic exchanges, bringing many young performers before the public through concert tours and competitions; it also encourages performance by young people by establishing music camps and forming international orchestras directed by outstanding conductors. In keeping with its broad humanitarian aims it was a founder-member of the International Music Council in 1949. The first Jeunesses Musicales concert was in the Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, on 17 October 1940. The movement spread to France in the following year through the efforts of René Nicoly, and in 1945 the Fédération Internationale des Jeunesses Musicales (FIJM) was founded; its first international congress was in 1946. The founders included Gilles Lefèbvre, Alicia de Larrocha, Robert Mayer (who later founded Youth and Music in London on the model of the Jeunesses Musicales), Joan Miró, Pierre A. Pillet, Henryk Szeryng and Nicanor Zabaleta, in addition to the Jeunesses Musicales of France, Belgium and Canada. The movement grew rapidly; its first music camp was at Orford in Canada in ...

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Paul R. West

United States-based collective founded in 1984 by David Doty, Henry Rosenthal, and Carola Anderson. The Just Intonation Network’s membership has attracted a wide-ranging group of musicians including composers, theorists, performers, and instrument designers and builders as well as hobbyists whose work is primarily focused on just intonation. Dealing with the physical properties of sound, just intonation is an expandable tuning system in which pitches are derived from the overtone series of a specific fundamental pitch and are expressed in relation to said fundamental. As a collective, the group has served as a forum for just intonation on an international scale. In addition to providing a meeting ground for musicians, the Just Intonation Network has published several works including Doty’s The Just Intonation Primer (San Francisco: 1993, 1994, 2002) and has made available three compilation recordings of members’ compositions: Tellus 14: Just Intonation (1986, a volume of the Tellus audio cassette magazine), ...

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Francis Kayali

[K&D]

Radio show and cybercast devoted to new music. Hosted by composers Dennis Báthory-Kitsz (“Kalvos”) and David Gunn (“Damian”), the show aired weekly from 1995 to 2005 on the WGDR-FM 91.1 station at Goddard College in Plainfield, Vermont. Since 2005, new K&D shows have been made available online, albeit on an occasional and irregular basis. Kalvos & Damian’s New Music Sesquihour started on 27 May 1995 as a 90-minute weekly summer radio show. That September they expanded to a permanent two-hour slot, retitled Kalvos & Damian’s New Music Bazaar, and introduced a website (www.kalvos.org) that offered live online streaming and, eventually, archived broadcasts, which reached a much wider audience. In 2000 K&D was recognized as “a music website of singular excellence” and its hosts were awarded an ASCAP-Deems Taylor Internet Award.

K&D shows are characterized by a humorous, quirky, playful, and unpretentious tone. Their opening segment consists of a ten-minute “introductory essay,” an often zany, Dadaist narrative written and read by Damian, accompanied by sound effects and banter from Kalvos. The main portion of the show is devoted to interviews and recordings of new music. Over the years, K&D has interviewed a vast range of contemporary composers: experimental and mainstream, symphonic and electronic, prominent and emerging, Vermont natives and overseas figures. K&D also ran online mentoring programs for junior high and high school students and organized the Ought-One Festival of Non-Pop in Montpelier, Vermont. After Báthory-Kitsz and Gunn decided to pursue new projects, the final radio broadcast of K&D aired on ...

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Amra Bosnić

(b Sarajevo, 1936). Bosnian and Herzegovinian violinist. He graduated in the violin at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo in 1962, after which he completed the Masters Degree in 1964. During the period 1965–7 he had further studies at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory in the David Oistrakh Violin Department in the class of professor Olga Kaverzneva. He specialized at the Santa Cecilia Conservatory in Rome (1970, 1973).

In 1955 he was employed as a teacher of the violin at the Srednja muzička škola (‘music high school’) in Sarajevo. In 1962 he started his engagement at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo, where he remained as an assistant professor (starting in 1971), associate professor (1977), and full professor (1984) in the violin and violin pedagogy. Due to a shortage of relevant teaching staff, he was entrusted with the subjects of the viola and chamber music. From ...

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Jane Gottlieb

revised by Michael Mauskapf

Two American funding organizations established by serge Koussevitzky “to encourage contemporary composers and provide them with opportunities to create new works.” The first, the Koussevitzky Music Foundation, Inc. (founded 1942), was established by the conductor in memory of his first wife. During World War II it funded the Berkshire Music Center in Lenox, Massachusetts, which had been established by Koussevitzky in 1940. The foundation continued to pursue a variety of activities, sponsoring concerts of new music and awarding scholarships and prizes at the Berkshire center and the festival associated with it. The Serge Koussevitzky Music Foundation in the Library of Congress is a permanent endowment established by the original foundation in December 1950; it assumed responsibility for commissioning new works from composers and has continued to encourage the dissemination of this music through performance and other means. Since its inception, the foundation has served as one of the oldest and foremost commissioning initiatives, inspiring other organizations such as the Louisville Orchestra and the Rockefeller Foundation to support newly composed music. Koussevitzky himself was an ardent proponent and mentor of young composers, both in America and Europe. Through his search for the “Great American Symphony” and his role as music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, with which the foundations were closely aligned until the conductor’s death in ...

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Altman Kellner

revised by Robert N. Freeman

Benedictine abbey in Upper Austria. It was founded in 777 by Duke Tassilo of Bavaria to provide a Christian mission and to protect the area from the neighbouring Slavs and Hungarians. Plainchant was sung according to the Beneventan rite, which, along with the educational system, was modified according to the rules of Benedikt von Aniane of Aachen in 828. From that time until the 17th century there was an inner and an outer school: the latter was enlarged in 1549 into an Öffentliches Gymnasium. The abbey library has a rich collection of manuscripts, one of the most important in Europe. The Millenarius Minor Manuscript, a collection of gospels dating from the end of the 9th century, contains one of the earliest examples of neumatic notation; a number of manuscripts containing sequences and tropes give evidence of musical practice from the 11th century to the 14th. Polyphonic music found acceptance under the abbot Friedrich von Aich (abbot from ...

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J. Ryan Bodiford

A community organization and performance venue located in Berkeley, California, and dedicated to the promotion of cross-cultural understanding through the presentation of predominantly Latino-oriented cultural and educational events. A nonprofit organization, it was established in 1975 by Chilean exiles seeking asylum from the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. La Peña is modeled on the peña tradition, popularized throughout Latin America in the early 1960s, wherein small community gathering places were established to provide an alternative public platform for a diverse array of musicians, poets, artists, and political activists. Further paralleling the peña tradition, as well as the politically committed, Pan-Latin American Nueva canción (New Song) movement that emerged with it, La Peña has also been a bastion for progressive political organization and expression. Over the years its cultural and educational programming has highlighted a series of political struggles and human rights concerns, with the most attention being given to issues particularly relevant to the local and international Latino community....

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Lambach  

David Wyn Jones

Benedictine abbey in Upper Austria. It was founded in 1056 on the site of a fortress protecting the confluence of the rivers Traun and Ager, and was sanctioned by Emperor Heinrich IV in 1061. The first monks came from the monastery of Münsterschwarzach near Würzburg, and in 1089 the church was consecrated.

Situated on the main west-east trade route, the abbey's wealth grew steadily in the Middle Ages, largely based on the salt trade, but its location also made it vulnerable to attack and occupation by conquering forces from the 13th century to Napoleonic times. Abbot Pabo founded an abbey school towards the end of the 12th century by which time a musical scriptorium was already thriving. Illuminated manuscripts in the hands of two monks, Haimo and Gotschalk, are notable, including a fragment of music in neumatic notation for the Dreikönigsspiel frequently performed at the abbey. Other important medieval manuscripts are two examples of the Lambach Ritual (from the beginning and end of the 12th century), a 14th-century collection of songs (both in monody and in parts) copied by Hermann (now in ...

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