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Trena Jordanoska

(b Skopje, Aug 8, 1952). Macedonian composer, pianist and scholar. He studied piano and composition at Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Music, in Skopje before attending the Faculty of Music of Belgrade (MA in composition, 1976); he defended his doctoral dissertation on the aesthetics of music at UKIM Faculty of Philosophy in 1984. He has twice been a Fulbright Scholar in the USA (1985–6 and 1999–2000).

His catalogue includes symphonies, concertos, oratorios, operas, ballets, song cycles, and sonatas for different instruments. He defines his compositional approach as polystylistic: using mainly multi-movement orchestral forms in the manner of the European music tradition from the 17th century to the 20th and incorporating elements of folk, jazz, and rock. He is among Balkan pioneers in the use of electronic music instruments – live synthesizer performances (in the ballet Vozovi [Trains], 1984); music notation software (Third Piano Sonata, ...


Keith Howard

[Hwang Pyŏnggi]

(b Seoul, May 31, 1936). Korean composer and performer of the kayagŭm, a 12-string long zither. After learning the kayagŭm with Kim Yŏngyun, Kim Yundŏk and Shim Sanggŏn, he became an instructor at Seoul National University and the National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts. In 1974 he joined the music faculty at Ewha Women’s University. He has won national prizes as both a performer and composer, and has been influential as a board member of the Cultural Properties Management Committee. He led South Korean performance troupes sent to North Korea. Abroad, he has been artist-in-residence at the universities of Hawaii and Washington, and a visiting scholar at Harvard. He has established his own school of the traditional genre sanjo, publishing a related score and CD in 1998.

He claims, with some justification, to have composed the first contemporary music for a Korean instrument in 1963. This was ...


Charles Conrad

(b Oak Park, IL, May 3, 1954). American composer, conductor, educator, and author. Camphouse is one of the leading composers of works for wind band. He has served since 2006 on the faculty of George Mason University, where he conducts the Wind Symphony and teaches conducting and composition. He holds undergraduate and graduate degrees from Northwestern University, where his teachers included John Paynter (conducting), Adolph Herseth and Vincent Cichowicz (trumpet), and Alan Stout (composition).

He has composed more than 25 band works, including A Movement for Rosa; Whatsoever Things; Watchman, Tell of the Night; The Shining City; To Build a Fire; and Symphony from Ivy Green for soprano and wind orchestra. He conceived and edited the four-volume series Composers on Composing for Band. Camphouse is a member of the American Bandmasters Association and is a frequent guest conductor and clinician. He served as director of bands at Radford University (...


Irati Antonio

(b São Paulo, June 18, 1918). Brazilian composer, pianist and teacher. The daughter of an Italian luthier, Angelo Del Vecchio, she studied the piano with Léo Peracchi and music theory with Furio Franceschini, Caldeira Filho and Oswaldo Lacerda. It was not until 1958 that she took up composition, which she studied with ...


Stan Britt

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b Dumfries, Scotland, April 21, 1933; d London, Feb 25, 2009). English trumpeter, flugelhorn player, bandleader, composer, writer, and teacher, brother of Mike Carr. His mother played ukulele and banjo. Carr grew up in northeast England, where he took piano lessons from the age of 12 and taught himself trumpet from 1950. After studying at King’s College, Newcastle upon Tyne (1952–60, degree, English literature, diploma, education) he served in the army (1956–8), then played with his brother in a band, the Emcee Five (1960 – August 1962). He briefly joined Don Rendell in November 1962 and, after recovering from illness, formed a long-lived quintet with Rendell from 1963 to July 1969; during this period he also worked with Joe Harriott (recording in 1969), Don Byas, and John McLaughlin. In September 1969 he formed his own band, Nucleus, which rapidly became recognized internationally for its experiments with jazz-rock. As a result of its performance at the Montreux International Jazz Festival in ...


Gerald R. Benjamin


(b Ahualulco, San Luis Potosí, Jan 28, 1875; d San Angél, Sept 9, 1965). Mexican composer, theorist, conductor, violinist, inventor and teacher. Born to an American family during a seemingly peaceful period of Mexico’s history, he received his early musical education at the National Conservatory in Mexico City, where he studied the violin with Pedro Manzano, composition with Melesio Morales and acoustics with Francisco Ortega y Fonseca. Between 1899 and 1905 he was in Europe, where he divided his time between the conservatories of Ghent and Leipzig; at Ghent he studied the violin with Albert Zimmer, and at Leipzig he was a pupil of Jadassohn (composition), Becker (violin) and Sitt (conducting), and led the Gewandhaus Orchestra under Nikisch. During these formative years he shaped his critical philosophy of the practical application and examination of all theoretical precepts. The results were revolutionary, and led him to a lifelong attempt at effecting greater accuracy among the discrepant postulates of physicists, mathematicians and music theorists, and at helping performers to apply, or at least understand, them (see his ...


Boris Schwarz, Michelle Garnier-Butel and Michelle Garnier-Panafieu

(b Avignon, May 28, 1765; d Paris, 1841). French violinist and composer. The son of a dancing-master, he studied with the Abbé Walraef. In 1783 he went to Paris, where he joined the select circle of students of Viotti. Two years later, Viotti recommended him for the post of accompanist to Queen Marie Antoinette. From 1791 to 1821 he was assistant leader of the Paris Opéra orchestra. In addition, he was a member of the court orchestra from 1804 to 1830, serving under both Napoleon and the Bourbon regime. He died in comparative obscurity.

In spite of his brilliant technique, Cartier did not aim to be a soloist and seemed satisfied with his career as an orchestral musician. He had many private students but never belonged to the faculty of the Paris Conservatoire, even though the Conservatoire accepted the dedication of his major work L’art du violon (Paris, ...


Valdemar Axel Roldan

(b ?Córdoba, before ?1945). Argentine composer and teacher. After study at Córdoba University and Conservatory, she studied with César Franchisena, Zlatko Topolsky, Nicolás Alfredo Alessio, Alfredo Luis Nihoul, Ornella Devoto and Francisco Kroepfl. Castillo has dedicated herself primarily to composition and to the dissemination of 20th-century music. Considered a pioneer in the production of electro-acoustic music in Argentina, her works have been performed in many national and international festivals and congresses. She began to create musique concrète and electronic music at the centre for experimental music at Córdoba University, of which she was a founding member. Later, she used computers to combine electro-acoustic music with traditional instruments. She is a founding member of the Córdoba Composers' Association, the Córdoba Argentine Federation of Electro-Acoustic Music and the Agrupación Nueva Música of Córdoba, of which she is president. Her works have been performed in Argentina and abroad. She is professor of composition and musical analysis at Córdoba University....


Gerald R. Benjamin

(b Nazas, Durango State, Feb 7, 1864; d Mexico City, Nov 28, 1907). Mexican pianist, composer and teacher. In 1877 his family moved to Mexico City and he enrolled in the conservatory, studying composition with Melesio Morales and the piano with Julio Ituarte. Castro represented his government while still a student in 1883 (the year of his graduation) at the Bolívar centenary in Venezuela as a pianist and composer, performing his Aires nacionales mexicanos (subtitled Caprichos); in 1885 he made his first international tour, representing Mexico at the New Orleans Cotton Festival and performing in Philadelphia, Washington and New York. From 1885 to 1902 he played chamber music and formed societies (Sociedad Filarmónica Mexicana) for its promotion; he also completed his opera Atzimba and much of his typically Schumannesque piano music. After giving a number of concerts in Mexico, he travelled to Paris, studying the piano with Eugen d’Albert, playing at the Salle Erard, composing new works (the première of the Cello Concerto was given on ...


Octavian Cosma

revised by Antigona Rădulescu

(b Iaşi, 22 May/June 3, 1841; d Iaşi, April 15, 1924). Romanian composer, violinist, and teacher. After studying the violin in Berlin with Hubert Ries, in Frankfurt with Vieuxtemps, and in Paris with Massart and Alard, he worked as a violinist at the court of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza in Iaşi. During the early part of his career he was a concert violinist in Romania and abroad. He established himself in Iaşi as a violin teacher (1861–1901) and director at the Conservatory (1893–1901), director of the National Theatre, and teacher of musical aesthetics at the university (1875–7), working in parallel as a music critic. He played an important part in the development of the young George Enescu. He produced a series of salon music anthologies, arrangements of folk music, and symphonic and choral music.

Although influenced by the German romantic tradition, Caudella along with contemporaries such as George Stephănescu, Gavriil Musicescu, Constantin Dimitrescu, and Gheorghe Dima struggled to found a Romanian school of composition. The national character is limited to the level of quotation or imitating folk music, or employing certain modal scales (considered by Caudella to be ‘national scales’); these elements permeate, from a colour perspective, the Western technical and style parameters. In his own compositions he made use of liberal, rhapsodic structures, which he called fantasias. Among his many eclectic works, Petru Rareș distinguishes itself through the pronounced use of Romanian folk elements, for the unified character of its form and expressive dramatism....


Claude V. Palisca

(b Rome, c1550; d Rome, March 11, 1602). Italian composer, organist, singing teacher, dancer, choreographer, administrator and diplomat. He was the composer of the first surviving play set entirely to music, the Rappresentatione di Anima, et di Corpo (Rome, 1600), the score of which is the earliest one printed with a figured bass.

Cavalieri was the son of Lavinia della Valle and Tommaso Cavalieri (1512–87), an architect and intimate friend of Michelangelo Buonarotti. His brother, Mario (d 1580), coordinated the Lenten music in the Oratorio del SS Crocifisso in S Marcello, Rome, between 1568 and 1579. He himself also participated in this Oratorio both as an organist and as a coordinator of Lenten music from 1578 until at least 1584 (the account books are missing for 1584–94); during his administration the yearly expenditure on music rose from 51 to 140 scudi....


Steven Ledbetter and Victor Fell Yellin

(b Lowell, MA, Nov 13, 1854; d Boston, MA, April 4, 1931). American composer, teacher, conductor, pianist and organist. He was a leading figure of the Second School of New England composers. Highly regarded in his lifetime as a composer, he was also largely responsible for the effective reorganization of the New England Conservatory and was one of the most influential teachers in American music.

Steven Ledbetter and Victor Fell Yellin

Because of his mother’s early death and his father’s remarriage, Chadwick was left to his own resources at an early age. He thus developed the self-reliance and independence that were to characterize his music as well as his academic life. He learned music from his older brother and by the age of 15 was active as an organist. From this time on he had to pay for his own musical instruction, as his father, a businessman, was opposed to his pursuing a career in music. He did not complete high school, but went to work as a clerk in his father's insurance office. By ...


Mikhail Grigor′yevich Byalik

(b Khosrekh, Daghestan, Russia, Nov 16, 1936). Russian composer and singer. Chalayev is a Lak, one of the many tribes inhabiting Daghestan, a mountainous republic on the Caspian Sea. As a boy, he was occupied with traditional peasant labours, but nonetheless mastered the method of throat singing peculiar to Daghestan; because of his penetrating and vibrant voice, he became a favourite participant in festivities in the mountain village of Khosrekh. He later studied foreign languages at the University of Daghestan, and at the age of 18 started taking piano lessons and studying music theory with G.A. Gasanov, who is credited with the foundation of professional Western music in the republic. From 1959 to 1968 he studied at the composition faculty of the Moscow Conservatory under V.G. Fere. He lives in Moscow, spending long periods in Daghestan. He is a People’s Artist of Daghestan (1971) and a People’s Artist of Russia (...


Marcia J. Citron

(Louise Stéphanie)

(b Paris, Aug 8, 1857; d Monte Carlo, April 13, 1944). French composer and pianist. While it is striking that nearly all of Chaminade’s approximately 400 compositions were published, even more striking is the sharp decline in her reputation as the 20th century progressed. This is partly attributable to modernism and a general disparagement of late Romantic French music, but it is also due to the socio-aesthetic conditions affecting women and their music.

The third of four surviving children, Chaminade received her earliest musical instruction from her mother, a pianist and singer; her first pieces date from the mid-1860s. Because of paternal opposition to her enrolling at the Paris Conservatoire, she studied privately with members of its faculty: Félix Le Couppey, A.-F. Marmontel, M.-G.-A. Savard and Benjamin Godard. In the early 1880s Chaminade began to compose in earnest, and works such as the first piano trio op.11 (...


Scott Alan Southard

[Josef Horymír Capek]

(b Jestrebice, Bohemia, March 12, 1860; d Chicago, Aug 1, 1932). Czech violinist, teacher, conductor, and composer active chiefly in the USA. In 1867, Chapek’s father, a violinist and conductor, moved the family to Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Following education there, Chapek entered the Prague Conservatory, studying violin with Bennewitz, theory and composition with Foerster, and meeting Dvorák. Upon graduation, he toured Europe (1882–3). Returning to America, Chapek continued to concertize widely (1883–93). In Milwaukee, he joined the Mendelssohn Quintet Club (1883–5) and later formed the Chapek String Quartet (1885–7). He was also concertmaster of Milwaukee’s Bach Symphony Orchestra (1885–8) and musical director of the Capital Theatre, Little Rock, Arkansas (1887–8).

In 1888, Chapek moved to Chicago to direct the violin department of the Chicago Conservatory (1888–1902); he would later head the violin departments of the Apollo (also until ...


Shaena B. Weitz

(b Paris, 21 Dec, 1788; d London, 1849). French pianist, teacher and composer. He entered the Paris Conservatoire in June 1797 and studied with Catel (harmony and counterpoint) and Louis Adam (piano). He received a premier prix for both harmony and piano in 1805. With the exception of his opéra comique Le bouquet, all of his works were written for the piano. They include five sonatas, transcriptions of opera airs, and numerous chansons and character pieces, all published in Paris. Chaulieu was known especially for his didactic works, in particular L'indispensable op.100 (1830) and 63 études spéciales op.130 (1832). L'indispensable is a comprehensive manual of exercises for young pianists which was so successful that a revised version was published five years later. The études touch upon the fundamental difficulties encountered in pianistic writing: trills, repeated notes, scales, arpeggios, 3rds and 6ths, chords and octaves. They are arranged in order of increasing technical difficulty and are designed to bridge the gap between the exercises in the style of Cramer and Clementi and the virtuostic études of Moscheles, Kalkbrenner, Herz and Bertini. Chaulieu's series of ...


Robert Parker

(Antonio de Padua)

(b Mexico City, June 13, 1899; d Mexico City, Aug 2, 1978). Mexican composer, conductor, teacher, writer on music and government official. His role in the musical and cultural life of Mexico was decisive during the second and third quarters of the 20th century. In a career spanning more than 50 years, he composed more than 200 musical works, conducted numerous orchestras in the USA, Latin America and Europe, held important government positions in the arts in Mexico, and lectured and wrote extensively about music and its place in the social milieu. Three broad stylistic tendencies pervade his music: Mexicanism, both pre-Conquest and modern; a mélange of brittle dissonance, angular melody, atonality and polytonality; and a conservative leaning toward classical forms, moderation of dissonance, and tonality.

Chávez was the grandson of the lawyer, writer and poet Manuel Ramírez Aparicio on his mother's side; his paternal grandfather José María Chávez, governor of the state of Aguascalientes, was executed by Emperor Maximilian's forces in ...


Dale Cockrell

(b Meredith, NH, April 18, 1818; d Franklin, MA, May 10, 1890).

American singer, singing-school teacher, and composer. He was the son of Moses Cheney (1776–1853), a well-known local musician. As a young man he was a member, with his three brothers, Nathaniel, Moses Ela, and Joseph Young, and his sister Elizabeth Ela, of the Cheney Singers, a family group that toured throughout New England performing glees, ballads, and hymns (1845–7). He taught singing-schools in Vermont for much of his life, and compiled The American Singing Book (1879/R), a volume containing biographies of earlier American composers and examples of their work, as well as 33 original hymn tunes and three anthems. At the time of his death he was preparing a catalogue of birdsong, Wood Notes Wild: Notations of Bird Music (published posthumously in 1892); he was also one of the first to transcribe field recordings made of Native American music. His brother Moses Ela Cheney (...


Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...


Sam Di Bonaventura

(b London, Sept 25, 1898; d Baltimore, July 19, 1981). American composer, violinist and writer on music. He came to the USA as a child and acquired citizenship through his father’s naturalization. He graduated from the Peabody Conservatory in the violin (1917), harmony (1919) and composition (1921) and was appointed to the theory and composition faculty in 1922, having been a violin instructor in the school’s preparatory department for six years; he remained there until his retirement in 1976. In 1964 he was awarded the DMus by the Peabody Institute. For 21 years (1916–37) he was a violinist in the Baltimore SO, serving for five years as assistant concertmaster and conducting his own works on a number of occasions. He participated in H.L. Mencken’s Saturday Night Club from 1928 to 1950.

Cheslock’s compositions have been widely performed. Neo-romantic in style, they contain a rich and varied harmonic language, expansive melodic lines and distinctive rhythms and meters. Although he preferred traditional forms and procedures, from the 1940s Cheslock’s works incorporated jazz elements, whole-tone and polytonal sonorities and aleatory and dodecaphonic techniques. He wrote an ...