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Nigel Fortune and Tim Carter

(b ?Milan, between c 1610 and 1615; d Florence, May 11, 1674). Italian composer and instrumentalist. He joined the court musicians of the Grand Duke of Tuscany at Florence on 16 March 1639. For several years he was also in the household (as aiutante da camera) of Cardinal Giovan Carlo de’ Medici; and in 1647 he was associated with Prince Mattias de’ Medici, governor of Siena. He failed twice (on a technicality) to gain the post of organist of Florence Cathedral in 1645 and 1649; in documents associated with the latter round of applications he is styled ‘Milanese’. He is mentioned by Atto Melani in two letters to Prince Mattias: in one of 7 September 1653 he is named as one of the musicians who had slandered Melani on his recent arrival at the court at Innsbruck; in the other, dated 27 September 1654, Melani drew attention to his contrary opinion of Act 1 of Cavalli’s ...


John Beckwith

(b Budapest, April 12, 1919; d Kingston, ON, February 24, 2012). Canadian composer, conductor and pianist of Hungarian birth. He studied with Kodály at the Budapest Academy (1937–41). As a young man he spent a period with other Jewish youths in a forced-labour contingent of the Hungarian Army; his later war experiences – escape, then concealment by friends during the winter of 1944–5 – are described in the memoirs of the novelist Theresa de Kerpely (Teresa Kay). After a season as assistant conductor at the Budapest Opera (1945–6), he went to Paris for further studies in piano (Soulima Stravinsky), conducting (Fourestier) and composition (Boulanger), remaining there for three years. He moved to Canada in 1949 (taking Canadian nationality in 1955), and for three years held a Lady Davis Fellowship and an appointment as assistant professor at McGill University. There he founded the electronic music studio and served for six years as chair of the department of theoretical music. He held grants for electronic music research from the Canada Council (...


Robert Stevenson

(b c1638; d Lisbon, Jan 19, 1709). Portuguese composer and harpist. On 6 January 1656 he professed as a Hieronymite monk at Belém Monastery, Lisbon, and he remained there until his death. His works, formerly in the monastery archive but now lost, included responsories for all important feasts, vesper psalms, masses, ...


Ronald Kinloch Anderson and James Methuen-Campbell

(b Buchwald, Silesia, Oct 15, 1862; d Berlin, Feb 13, 1930). German pianist and composer. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatory and later with Liszt in Weimar (1885–6). He toured in the USA and in 1893 returned to Weimar, where he taught the piano. From 1898 to 1903 he served as a professor at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory in Berlin, and in 1920 became head of the piano master class at the German Academy in Prague. His pupils included Eduard Erdmann, Walter Schulthess, Selim Palmgren and Wilhelm Fürtwangler. Regarded as one of the most intellectual pianists of his time, Ansorge was a noted Beethoven interpreter. In the late 1920s he recorded the sonatas op.27 no.2 and op.13 for Vox. His compositions, none of which gained a foothold in the repertory, include a piano concerto (1922), three sonatas for piano, a Requiem (for male voice, chorus and orchestra), two string quartets and a string sextet....


Linda Whitesitt, Charles Amirkhanian and Susan C. Cook

[Georg] (Carl Johann)

(b Trenton, NJ, July 8, 1900; d New York, Feb 12, 1959). American composer and pianist of German descent.

Antheil began piano lessons when he was six and from the age of 16 travelled regularly to Philadelphia for theory and composition lessons with Constantin von Sternberg. On the advice of Sternberg, Antheil went to New York in 1919 to study composition with Ernest Bloch. In 1920 while studying with Bloch, Antheil began his first major work, the Symphonie no.1 ‘Zingareska’; it is interesting for the jazz rhythms in the last movement. After leaving Bloch’s tutelage in 1921, Antheil returned to Philadelphia, where financial problems forced him to look for a patron. With Sternberg’s help he gained the support of Mary Louise Curtis Bok; although she disapproved of Antheil’s music, she continued her financial assistance for the next 19 years.

With Bok’s support, Antheil went to Europe on 30 May 1922...


Barry Kernfeld and Gary W. Kennedy

(Noah )

(b Berkeley, CA, Aug 21, 1960). American bandleader, tenor saxophonist, composer, percussionist, and pianist. He played percussion and piano from an early age, took up drums while in elementary school, and began piano lessons when he was nine. In 1975 he formed his own improvisation group, the Berkeley Arts Company, and in 1977 he founded the Hieroglyphics Ensemble, which initially consisted of 16 reed and brass players and himself on drums; the following year he added other instruments to form a rhythm section. Having moved to New York state (c1979) he played percussion and drums in Karl Berger’s Woodstock Workshop Orchestra, and he toured and recorded with the group in Europe with Don Cherry as guest soloist (1979). Under Warren Smith (ii) he performed in the Composer’s Workshop Ensemble, and he played keyboards in Carla Bley’s Burning Sensations and worked briefly with Eddie Jefferson. In ...


Helen Metzelaar

[Christina Adriana Arendina]

(b Rotterdam, Dec 26, 1884; d The Hague, Dec 5, 1938). Dutch composer and pianist. After studying at the Royal Conservatory in The Hague (1899–1906), she began her career as a piano accompanist for various choirs in The Hague, but increasingly turned to composition. She studied composition with F.E.A. Koeberg and later with Johan Wagenaar, whom she often consulted throughout her life. Together with the soprano Lena van Diggelen she founded a quintet, which gave first performances of many of her songs. Her first major work, the symphonic poem Pêcheurs d’Islande, was first performed in 1912 by the Utrecht City Orchestra, as was her Noordzee-symfonie in 1925. In 1923 Jubileum-lied, written for Queen Wilhelmina’s 25th anniversary, was awarded a prize by the Nederlandsche Volkszang-bond in Utrecht. In the 1920s Appeldoorn wrote choral works for the popular community singing evenings in The Hague of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor den Volkszang, conducted by Arnold Spoel. Her choral works, including ...


James Bash

(b Chicago, IL, Oct 13, 1967). American composer, pianist, and educator. Applebaum grew up in a musical family in Chicago. His father, Bob Applebaum, a high school physics teacher, studied classical music and composes. Applebaum graduated from Carleton College (BM 1989); his senior thesis took him to Mexico City to interview Conlon Nancarrow. He received his Masters (1992) and his Doctorate (1996) in composition from the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), studying with Brian Ferneyhough, Joji Yuasa, RAND STEIGER, and ROGER REYNOLDS. He taught at USCD, Mississippi State University, and Carleton College before his current faculty position at Stanford University, where he also serves as the founding director of the Stanford Improvisation Collective.

Applebaum’s solo, chamber, choral, orchestral, operatic, and electro-acoustic work has been performed throughout the United States, Europe, South America, Africa, and Asia at numerous new music festivals. His music is mercurial, highly detailed, disciplined, and exacting, but it also features improvisational and whimsical aspects. As such, he is considered as much in the experimentalist camp exemplified by composers such as Cage and Zappa as part of the European modernist lineage represented by his principal teacher Brian Ferneyhough. He has drawn inspiration from jazz pioneers and maverick composers such as Nancarrow and Partch, who found it necessary to use or invent unusual instruments to realize their artistic visions....


Doris Evans McGinty

(b Philadelphia, c1808; d New York State, after 1871). American composer, horn player and conductor. One of the earliest black American composers, he worked in New York, as teacher and performer, and Philadelphia, where he played with the Walnut Street Theater Orchestra (1826) and was a member of the Frank Johnson band (1830s), with which he toured England. He conducted the first performance of instrumental music in the African Methodist Episcopal Church (1848) and was described by Bishop Alexander Payne as ‘the most learned musician of the race’. His best-known compositions are an anthem, Sing unto God, and John Tyler’s Lamentation, commissioned by the Utica (New York) Glee Club, probably with reference to the presidential election campaign of 1844.

SouthernB J. Trotter: Music and Some Highly Musical People (Boston, 1881/R) D.A. Payne: Recollections of Seventy Years (Nashville, TN, 1888) E. Southern...


Álvaro Torrente

(b ?Salamanca, c1710; d Salamanca, May 28, 1793). Spanish composer, organist and harpist. From about 1735 (there is documentary evidence from 1738) he was a performer in the Capilla de S Jerónimo of the University of Salamanca. From January 1741 he occupied the chair of music at the university, following Antonio Yanguas’s retirement in 1740. He was appointed professor of music in 1754, a post he held until 3 July 1771.

MSS in E-SAu unless otherwise stated; other anonymous compositions in SAu may also be by Aragüés

E. Esperabé de Arteaga: Historia pragmática é interna de la universidad de Salamanca (Salamanca, 1914–17) C. Gómez Amat...


Ardian Ahmedaja

(b Moscow, Russia, April 15, 1911; d New Hartford, NY, USA, Sept 3, 1963). Russian composer, writer, and organist. He went to school in Prague and Berlin and studied composition in Leipzig. In 1933 he was appointed organist and choirmaster of the catholic Cathedral of Belgrade, working later as director of the Belgrade-Radio Choir. At the same time, he was teaching, collecting local music in the Balkans, and writing about it. In 1942 he was appointed as assistant at the Slavonic institute in Prague and in 1944 he completed his dissertation on drum playing in the Central Balkans, a result of a collaboration with an Albanian folk musician from the Prizren area in Kosovo.

After World War II he was based in a Displaced Persons Camp in Regensburg. In 1950 he moved to Chicago as organist of Salem Lutheran Church, and later to New York, where he taught at Syracuse University. He continued to compose and to write about music, mostly on Russian issues, including the Soviet party’s endeavours to create propaganda around local traditions, e.g. ‘proving’ that the legends and narratives about Lenin, Stalin, et al. had their origin in the folk tradition, an example being the teaching of ‘new’ (fabricated) folk epics to folk singers by Soviet collectors, who were urged by the party to ‘find’ such songs (...


Arthur Jacobs

revised by Tully Potter

(b Madrid, Dec 24, 1863; dSan Sebastián, June 2, 1939). Spanish violinist, conductor and composer. He studied the violin with Jesús Monasterio at the Madrid Conservatory, with Vieuxtemps at the Brussels Conservatory and with Joachim in Berlin. He travelled extensively both as a soloist and, together with Albéniz and Augustín Rubio, as a member of a celebrated piano trio, for which he composed three works. He appeared in London in 1891, playing works for violin and piano with Albéniz, and Bach’s Double Concerto with Joachim, and from 1894 to 1915 served with distinction as a professor of the violin and viola at the RCM.

In 1904 Arbós was appointed conductor of the Madrid SO and he was a leading influence in Spanish musical life until he resigned the conductorship on the outbreak of the Civil War in 1936. He was a guest conductor with the Boston SO and other American orchestras from ...


Nigel Fortune

revised by Tim Carter

[‘Antonio di S Fiore’]

(b Albano, late 1541 or 1542; d Florence, bur. Nov 14, 1612). Italian singer, lutenist and ?composer, husband of Vittoria Archilei . He was in the service in Rome of Cardinal Alessandro Sforza dei Conti di S Fiora, who died on 16 May 1581, after which he entered the service of Cardinal Ferdinando de’ Medici. The latter became Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1587, and Archilei, with his wife, followed him to Florence, where he became a musician at court, with a salary of 18 scudi a month from 1 September 1588; his salary was reduced to 11 scudi on 30 November 1589 (though he continued to receive a monthly pension of 12 scudi granted for life by Cardinal Ferdinando in 1582). He participated in the spectacular intermedi marking Ferdinando’s wedding in 1589: he is known to have played one of two chitarroni accompanying his wife’s singing of the florid solo song ‘Dalle più alte sfere’ (ed. D.P. Walker, ...


Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl ?650 bce). Greek iambic and elegiac poet. He was a native of the Ionian island of Paros. ‘I am the squire of lord Ares’, he sang, ‘and skilled in the lovely gift of the Muses’ (Edmonds, frag.1). More artist than military man, he expressed both the external world and his responses to it in a remarkably personal tone.

His surviving poems contain no certain references to string instruments. The first word (tēnella) of his victory hymn, however, supposedly imitates the twang of a lyre string (Scholiast on Pindar, Olympian, ix.1–4); and one heavily restored fragment (Edmonds, frag.114, xiv) may refer to lyre playing accompanying the dance. He did clearly mention the aulos as a feature of religious or convivial occasions (frags.76; 32); possibly, though not certainly, he associated it with the performance of elegiac verse (frag.123) – a likely combination in this early period of elegy. According to a late source (Pseudo-Plutarch, ...


Gordon A. Anderson

revised by Thomas B. Payne


(b ?Cologne, c1130; d shortly after1165). Latin lyric poet. His real name is unknown. He was a German or French clerk of knightly birth whose patronage by Reinald of Dassel, Archbishop of Cologne and Archchancellor to Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa may have given rise to his pseudonym. He travelled throughout Germany and to Austria and Italy, where he was desperately ill in 1165. He must have written many Latin poems, but only ten survive; additions to his corpus present problems of ascription, since his name was sometimes conferred honorarily on later poets. His poetic technique follows that of his older contemporary Hugh Primas, but with less spite and more wit. The Confessio, written at Pavia, is his greatest achievement and illustrates his best characteristics: a keen knowledge of biblical and classical authors, ingenious rhythm and supreme rhyming skill, great wit and genial humour, cunning word-play and melodious cadence. No melodies are known for his poems. His poetic style is mirrored in a number of Notre Dame conductus texts....


Walter Pass

(b Cremona, 1550–60; d ?Prague, after1611). Italian composer and instrumentalist, active in Bohemia. From 1582 until 1612 he served at the imperial court at Prague, where there were other instrumentalists with the same surname, of whom the older Alberto Ardesi may have been his father. He published ...


Gerhard Croll and Ernst Hintermaier

[Dardespin, Melchior]

(b c1643; d Munich, 1717). German composer and instrumentalist, ? of French birth. On 9 October 1669 he was employed as a cornettist at the Bavarian electoral court at Munich with an annual salary of 250 florins, increased on 27 October 1670 to 400 florins. In a decree of 2 September 1683 he received the title of Kammerdiener, and thenceforth he received 600 florins annually. In 1687 he was appointed director of the court orchestra and in 1690 electoral councillor; he held both positions until his death. In 1688 his salary increased by 300 florins, to which certain payments in kind were added, and it reached an annual total of 1073 florins in 1699; this was, however, reduced to 400 florins on 20 March 1700 as a result of Austria’s taking possession of Bavaria. His output, much of which is lost, consisted mainly of ballet music. Apart from a few isolated pieces and a ballet composed in ...


(b Novgorod, 30 June/July 12, 1861; d nr Terioki, Finland [now Zelenogorsk, Russia], Feb 25, 1906). Russian composer, pianist and conductor. His father, a doctor, was a keen cellist, and his mother an excellent pianist who gave him his first music lessons. By the age of nine he had already composed some songs and piano pieces. When the family moved to St Petersburg, Arensky took lessons with Zikke before entering the St Petersburg Conservatory (1879), where he studied composition with Rimsky-Korsakov and counterpoint and fugue with Johannsen. He graduated with a gold medal in 1882. Even before this Rimsky-Korsakov had been sufficiently impressed by Arensky’s talent to entrust him with a share in preparing the vocal score of The Snow Maiden. After graduating Arensky went straight to the Moscow Conservatory as a professor of harmony and counterpoint; among his pupils were to be Rachmaninoff, Skryabin and Glière. The move to Moscow brought him into close contact with Tchaikovsky, who gave him much practical encouragement, and Taneyev. From ...


John Koegel

(b Guadalajara, Mexico, July 5, 1843; d Los Angeles, CA, June 28, 1900). American guitarist, composer, and music teacher of Mexican birth. He began his musical studies at the age of 15 in Guadalajara, where he was active in musical circles and where he also probably helped establish the Sociedad Filarmónica Jalisciense (founded 1869). Arévalo left Mexico for San Francisco in 1870, moving permanently to Los Angeles the next year. He became the preeminent guitarist in Los Angeles and Southern California, and was active there through the 1890s. Arévalo was also a teacher of guitar, voice, and piano, and a composer for the guitar. He played in many recitals, society musicales, club events, and other contexts throughout Southern California, and the Spanish- and English-language press frequently mentioned him and favorably reviewed his performances. At least two of his students achieved prominence, including guitarist Luis Toribio Romero and pianist María Pruneda. Arévalo’s guitar works are in the standard European and American salon styles of the day, though he also wrote “Latin-tinged” pieces (e.g. his guitar duet ...


Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl c580 bce). Greek aulos player and poet. He wrote lyric and elegiac poems, but none has survived. He provided his elegiac verses with musical settings (during the central classical period elegy had no accompaniment). According to Pseudo-Plutarch (On Music, 1134a–c, 1135c), he was a skilled aulete who three times carried off the prize at the Pythian games, beginning in 586 bce. The reawakening of musical culture at Sparta after Terpander’s great initial changes was ascribed to Sacadas and a few others who kept the exalted Terpandrian manner but introduced new rhythms.

Pausanias’s Description of Greece (ii.22.8–9, iv.27.7, vi.14.9–10, ix.30.2, x.7.4) contains the additional point that Sacadas was the first to perform the ‘Pythian aulos tune’ at Delphi. This was not an auloedic Nomos but an auletic one, that is an extended piece for solo aulos in which the music itself is highly descriptive or evocative. In some way Sacadas portrayed the victorious combat of ...