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(b El Carnero, CO, Sept 12, 1880; d Palo Alto, CA, Sept 4, 1958). American folklorist and educator. Born in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado to a prominent Hispano family with deep roots in New Mexico, Espinosa was one of the first US- born Latinos to earn a teaching post at an American university. Although folklorists without formal training such as Charles Fletcher Lummis and Eleanor Hague studied Spanish-language folksongs of the Southwest, Espinosa made the folksongs of Spanish-speaking peoples a legitimate area for scholarly research at a time when individuals of Hispano, Mexican, or Latino heritage were generally discouraged from pursuing higher education. Like Lummis and Hague, Espinosa viewed this repertory as Spanish American rather than Mexican and believed that New Mexican folksong had more in common with Spanish antecedents than with traditional Mexican song. Espinosa was the New Mexican analogue to Francis James Child. Unlike Child, he collected folk ballads from local people in person, although, like Child, he did not study the music that went with the texts he gathered. Espinosa published more than 175 scholarly articles and about a dozen longer monographs, as well as 30 Spanish textbooks. He served as associate editor of the ...

Article

Malcolm Turner

revised by Jean Gribenski

(b Bordeaux, May 12, 1863; d Tourrettes-sur-Loup, Alpes-Maritimes, Aug 18, 1952). French musicologist. Through Reyer, who overcame his parents’ initial resistance, he was able to attend the Ecole de Musique Religieuse et Classique, founded by Niedermeyer, where his teachers included César Franck, and where he himself later taught (1902–5). From 1902 he also taught at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales; he was also employed at the Bibliothèque Ste Geneviève (1905–9), and then succeeded Weckerlin as second librarian of the Paris Conservatoire library. In 1920 he replaced Tiersot as senior librarian, a post he held until his retirement in 1933. During his period at the Ecole Niedermeyer he was first attracted to French music of the 15th and 16th centuries, to which he subsequently devoted himself unremittingly. In 1894 he began to publish his monumental series Les Maîtres Musiciens de la Renaissance Française; he was compelled to abandon it for lack of money in ...

Article

(b Kaluga, Nov 5, 1841; d Ligovo, nr St Petersburg, July 6, 1896). Russian music historian, critic and composer. He had well-to-do parents and studied natural sciences at St Petersburg University and music privately with M.L. Santis; from 1862 to 1864 he studied privately and at the Leipzig Conservatory with Moritz Hauptmann, E.F. Richter and Carl Riedel, and also (1864–5) studied instrumentation with Max Seifriz at Löwenberg. Returning to St Petersburg he was appointed professor of music history and aesthetics at the conservatory (1865–72); between 1869 and 1871 he edited the periodical Muzïkal′nïy sezon and later contributed to Bessel’s Muzïkal′nïy listok and other journals. From 1870 to 1880 he was secretary to the directorate of the Imperial Russian Musical Society. His four-act opera Sardanapal was produced in 1875 and the vocal score was published by Bessel, but it had so little success that his second opera, the four-act ...

Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Birr, Ireland, Jan 17, 1882; d Law, Scotland, Dec 30, 1965). British musicologist, orientalist and conductor. He studied the violin, the clarinet, the piano and harmony, the last two with Vincent Sykes, organist of St Brendan's Church, Birr, where Farmer was a chorister. In London he studied with H.C. Tonking, Mark Andrews and F.A. Borsdorf and in 1895, while on holiday there with his father, he heard the Royal Artillery Orchestra conducted by Ladislao Zavertal; impressed by its performance, he joined as a violinist and clarinettist and after years of private study he served as its principal horn player, 1902–10. Forced by ill-health to abandon the horn, he began a conducting career at the Broadway Theatre, London (1910–13), while teaching music at various county council schools; he also founded the Irish Orchestra in London, which performed at the National Sunday League Concerts under his direction (...

Article

Jürg Stenzl

(b Bülach, canton of Zürich, June 17, 1887; d Winterthur, April 27, 1963). Swiss musicologist. He studied Romance languages and musicology in Zürich, where he took the doctorate in 1912 with a dissertation on Zeno and his librettos. After a period of study in Italy, Fehr was employed in Zürich (1912–18) and Winterthur (1918–52) as a teacher of French and Italian, writing books on music history in his spare time. From 1917 he was librarian and later president (1923–57) of the Allgemeine Musikgesellschaft, Zürich; as the successor of Hermann Suter, he was also president of the Neue Schweizer Musikgesellschaft, now the Schweizerische Musikforschende Gesellschaft (1919–32). The main emphasis in Fehr’s writings was on Swiss music history, particularly that of Zürich and Winterthur; he wrote a standard work on Richard Wagner’s years in Switzerland.

Apostolo Zeno und seine Reform des Operntextes: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Librettos...

Article

Watkins Shaw

(b Paddington, London, Nov 11, 1870; d Windsor, Dec 21, 1951). English editor, scholar and cathedral musician. He showed marked musical gifts at an early age and when he was only seven Joachim offered to take him as a pupil. However, he received a conventional education at Winchester College and Oriel College, Oxford. At Oxford he read theology though he found time to develop his musical interests and remained for a fourth year working towards a music degree. On leaving Oxford he studied for the church and was ordained in 1894. He served for a short time as assistant curate in Wandsworth, London (1894–7), during which he took the Oxford BMus (1896). After three years as minor canon and precentor of Bristol Cathedral from 1897, he moved in 1900 to St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, as a minor canon, in which capacity he remained for the rest of his life. In the years between the death of Walter Parratt and the appointment of Walford Davies (...

Article

Ramona H. Matthews

(b Budapest, March 5, 1887; d Basle, May 29, 1972). American musicologist and music educationist of Hungarian birth. After early study of the piano and violin, he took a diploma in composition at the National Hungarian Royal Academy of Music (1911). He remained in Budapest as a teacher at the Fodor Conservatory of Music (1912–19), studied with Jaques-Dalcroze at his school in Hellerau, near Dresden (1913–14), and attended the University of Budapest, studying music history, philosophy and psychology. Besides serving as a music critic for several German and Hungarian newspapers, he contributed articles to music periodicals, played in a symphony orchestra, and was a guest producer at the Royal Hungarian Opera. From 1920 he directed the Dalcroze school at Hellerau, teaching theory, ear training, rhythm and music history. In 1925 he moved with the school to Schloss Laxenburg, near Vienna. Being interested in modern dance, he served as conductor for the Hellerau-Laxenburg Dance Group and collaborated in the production of classical Greek dramas in several ancient theatres and temples in Italy. From ...

Article

Eugène Cardine

(b Subiaco, Rome province, Dec 3, 1866; d Bologna, May 23, 1938). Italian scholar and teacher of Gregorian chant. He took his vows as a Benedictine monk at Subiaco on 12 March 1884 and was ordained priest on 20 December 1890; from 1900 to 1919 he was abbot of the monastery of S Giovanni Evangelista, Parma. In 1922 he was appointed director of the Scuola Pontificia (from 1931 the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra) in Rome. Up to his death he taught every aspect of the study and practice of Gregorian chant there. He took up a subtle and prudent stance on the controversy over rhythm; in his writings, however, he seemed gradually to incline towards Mocquereau’s views. His chief work is in the first volume of the Estetica gregoriana (1934); he was engaged on a second volume at the time of his death.

Principii teorici e pratici di canto gregoriano...

Article

Sue Carole DeVale

(b Newton, MA, Nov 14, 1850; d Forest Glen, MD, May 31, 1930). American ethnologist. He studied biology at Harvard (AB 1875, PhD 1877), and later studied at Leipzig and the University of Arizona. He was field director of the Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition (1889–94), and, commissioned by Mary Hemenway, tested the value of the phonograph for fieldwork in March 1890 by recording songs of the Passamaquoddy Indians in Maine. These were soon followed by his Zuni (1890) and Hopi Pueblo (1891) recordings which were then analysed by Benjamin Ives Gilman. He was responsible for the Hemenway Exhibition at the Madrid exhibition of 1892 commemorating Columbus's discovery of America, and consequently received many honours. As a result of his work in Madrid, Hemenway later commissioned recordings by Gilman. From 1895 to 1918 Fewkes worked as an ethnologist at the Bureau of American Ethnology in Washington, DC, becoming chief in ...

Article

Ian D. Bent

revised by Pamela M. Potter

(b Munich, June 11, 1886; d Igls, nr Innsbruck, Aug 2, 1954). Austrian musicologist of German birth. He studied musicology in Vienna with Adler, and composition in Munich with Thuille and Courvoisier, between 1905 and 1912, and took the doctorate at Vienna University in 1913 with a dissertation on the 16th-century Italian madrigal. In 1920 he completed the Habilitation and became a lecturer at Innsbruck University, and in 1923 was made reader. In 1927 he was appointed reader at Vienna, and co-director of the musicology department. In 1931 he succeeded Sandberger as professor and director of the musicology department at Munich, where he served as dean.

Ficker was an early champion of medieval music through his performances, editions and writings. He argued vigorously for its equality of artistic worth beside medieval painting and architecture, and indeed borrowed the terms ‘Romanesque’ and ‘Gothic’ from art history. He had a speculative turn of mind, and was greatly interested in psychological and anthropological matters, particularly as they applied to the origins of Western polyphony. His book, ...

Article

Gerald Abraham

revised by Larisa Georgievna Danko

(b St Petersburg, Aug 5, 1868; d Leningrad, Sept 10, 1928). Russian musical journalist and historian. He studied at the Ye. Shreknik Commercial College in St Petersburg (1878–87). He gained his musical education at the K. Dannemann and N. Krivoshein Music School (1886–9), and studied counterpoint privately with Nikolay Sokolov (1890–92). Two years later he published, under the initials N.F., a short study of Verstovsky’s music. In 1894 he founded the monthly Russkaya muzïkal′naya gazeta, which was published weekly from 1899 until it ceased publication in 1917; the quality of its main contents – to say nothing of its concert notices, reviews and news – quickly earned it a unique position in Russian musical journalism. Findeyzen not only edited the Gazeta but contributed numerous biographical and critical articles on Russian musicians and music, and printed quantities of hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material, some (but by no means all) of which appeared later as books or pamphlets. In ...

Article

Hanns-Bertold Dietz

(b Vienna, April 19, 1886; d Innsbruck, Feb 26, 1962). Austrian musicologist. He studied with Adler at the University of Vienna, where in 1912 he received the doctorate with a dissertation on Monn. From 1912 to 1928 he was Adler's assistant, and he completed his Habilitation at Vienna in 1915 with a work on the genesis of the Viennese Classical style, becoming a university lecturer in 1919 (titular professor, 1923). In 1928 he was appointed reader in musicology at the University of Innsbruck, but was suspended from this post after the German annexation of Austria (1938). Expelled from the Tyrol he moved to Vienna (1939), where during the war years he was conscribed to forced labour in a metal factory. In 1945 he became director of the Vienna conservatories, and from 1948 until his retirement in 1961 he held the professorship at the University of Innsbruck....

Article

Douglas Johnson

(b Butschowitz [now Boskovice], Moravia, April 4, 1804; d Vienna, June 28, 1857). Austrian music historian, pianist, composer and teacher. He had some piano lessons as a child, and in 1822 went to Vienna to study medicine while taking instruction in the piano from Anton Halm and in composition from Seyfried. After deciding on a music career in 1827, he taught the piano for many years and in 1833 joined the staff of the conservatory of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. Although well known in his lifetime as a pianist and composer, he is remembered chiefly as a collector and as the author of several articles and monographs, including a history of piano building (Vienna, 1853). His library, one of the great private collections of the century, contained a large number of published scores, books on music theory and music manuscripts. Most of the major composers of the 18th and early 19th centuries and many of the minor ones were represented in manuscript; the concentration of manuscript sources for the works of J.S. Bach was especially impressive, including nearly 200 cantatas. After Fischhof's death his library was bought by the Berlin music dealer Julius Friedlaender, who sold most of it to the Berlin Royal (now State) Library....

Article

Lev Ginzburg

revised by Abraham I. Klimovitsky

(b Baku, 29 May/June 9, 1909; d Moscow, Nov 7, 1986). Russian musicologist and pianist. He received his early musical education from his father, L.N. Fishman (1883–1936), conductor of an amateur theatre in Baku. In 1927 he graduated from M.L. Presman's piano class at the Baku Conservatory and in 1931 from L.V. Nikolayev's piano class at the Leningrad Conservatory. He then worked as a concert pianist (1925–40) and taught the piano in Moscow from 1935. He was principal conductor of the Malïy Theatre in Moscow (1943–50) and a senior research fellow at the Glinka Museum of Musical Culture (1951–78). As a musicologist Fishman became known particularly for his research on Beethoven. In 1962 he published a transcription and study of the Beethoven sketchbooks in the Wielhorski archives, for which he was awarded the doctorate in 1968. In 1970...

Article

David Hiley

revised by Pamela M. Potter

(b Zörbig, Nov 2, 1856; d Berlin, Feb 8, 1933). German musicologist. He studied ancient and modern languages and philosophy at Halle University (1878–82), where he obtained the doctorate with a dissertation on Notker Labeo. He then studied musicology in Berlin with Philipp Spitta and in 1886 his study of Denis Gaultier's La rhétorique des dieux appeared. Two years later he became director of the Berliner Königliche Instrumenten-Sammlung and catalogued its holdings. He was appointed lecturer at Berlin University in 1892 and reader in 1895. In 1899 he founded the International Musical Society and until 1904 was coeditor of its Zeitschrift and the Sammelbände.

It is unfortunate that the framework of ideas which provides a point of reference for most academics' work included, in Fleischer's case, an element of fantasy and even fanaticism, which ensured a stormy reception for his later writings. After the very real advances made by his ...

Article

Sue Carole DeVale

(b Cuba, March 15, 1838; d Washington DC, April 6, 1923). American ethnologist. She devoted herself to the study of the Great Plains Indians, so completely winning their confidence that she was privileged to gather data and record ceremonials and rituals not usually witnessed by non-Indians. While living on the Omaha reservation in 1881, she became interested in the education of the 24-year-old son, Francis, of Chief Joseph La Flesche. She took him to Washington where he lived with her, as her ‘son by adoption’, until 1910; with him, Fletcher wrote an important monograph on the Omaha tribe (1911).

Fletcher, who was an assistant at the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology from 1882, began collecting ethnological and musical data in 1883 among the Omaha and Dakota Indians. She also wrote about other tribes and kinship groups and transcribed hundreds of songs including the first complete record of the Pawnees’ Hako ceremony. Initially she notated melodies by ear, having her informants repeat each song until she was satisfied that she had an accurate transcription. Soon after the pioneer field use of the Edison phonograph by Jesse Walter Fewkes in ...

Article

(b Lismore, Co. Waterford, 1 Nov 1857; d Enniscorthy, 6 Aug 1928). Irish music historian, organist, and composer. He received his first musical education from his mother and was then educated at Mount Melleray Roman Catholic University, All Hallows College, Dublin, and Carlow College. Although intended for the priesthood he turned to antiquarian studies (chiefly musical) and was organist of Belfast Pro-Cathedral from 1876, Thurles Cathedral from 1882, and Enniscorthy Cathedral from 1895 to his death. He also taught music at St McCartan’s College, County Monaghan, St Kieran’s College, County Kilkenny, and Clongowes Wood College, County Kildare. Devoting himself to raising the standard of church music, he wrote three masses and numerous other church compositions. The National University of Ireland awarded him an honorary DMus (1907) and his services to Catholic church music were recognized by the award of the papal cross Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice and his elevation to the Order of St Gregory (...

Article

Dennis Libby

revised by John Rosselli

(b San Giorgio Morgeto, Calabria, Oct 12, 1800; d Naples, Dec 18, 1888). Italian librarian, musicologist, teacher and composer. The varied activities of his career were dominated by a single theme: the preservation and glorification of the Neapolitan musical tradition. At 12 (or 15) he entered the Naples Conservatory, where he was a fellow student of Bellini, who became his closest friend and the object of his intense devotion. He was made archivist-librarian there in 1826 and (perhaps his most important achievement) acquired a large part of the library’s rich holdings. He also served as director of vocal concerts and singing teacher there. His widely praised Metodo di canto (Naples, ?1840; Milan, 1841–3, enlarged 3/?1861) was conservative in tendency, claiming to be based on the precepts of the castrato Crescentini, then director of the conservatory’s singing school, and intended to restore the ‘antico bello’ of ‘the only true tradition of Italian song’, that of Scarlatti, Porpora and Durante, which had been displaced by ‘la moda barocca’ of the present age. Florimo composed in all genres except the dramatic, but apart from a ...

Article

Anthony Hicks

(b Fontmell Magna, Dorset, July 8, 1879; d Blandford, March 12, 1964). English author, collector and publisher. After training as a writer on various popular journals, Flower joined the publishers Cassell & Co. in 1906 and took over as proprietor in 1927. He was knighted in 1938. His purely literary work includes an edition of the journals of Arnold Bennett.

Flower’s musical interests were amateur. His books are marred by a poor literary style and the absence of scholarly discipline, though the use of previously unknown documentary material gives them some value. His important collection of manuscripts and early printed editions of Handel’s music (including the bulk of the Aylesford Manuscripts, copied for Handel’s friend Charles Jennens) was acquired by the Henry Watson Library, Manchester, in 1965.

Catalogue of a Handel Collection formed by Newman Flower (Sevenoaks, 1921) George Frideric Handel: his Personality and his Times (London, 1923, 2/1947)...

Article

Rudolf A. Rasch

(b Buitenzorg [now Bogor], Java, Aug 17, 1887; d Beekbergen, Sept 24, 1972). Dutch physicist and acoustician. He took the doctorate in physics in 1913 at the University of Leiden, and studied with Einstein in Zürich, Rutherford in Manchester and Bragg in Leeds. He taught physics at Delft Gymnasium (1921–3) and Technical College (1923–7), and was Lorentz's assistant (1927) and director of the physics section (1928–55) at Teyler’s Stichting, Haarlem, concurrently occupying the chair founded by this institute at Leiden (1928–55). During these years Fokker became one of the foremost physicists in the Netherlands, and with the suspension of academic activity under the German occupation he turned to problems of musical aesthetics, his chief interests being the theories of Euler and Christiaan Huygens. He constructed two pipe organs, one (1943) with just intonation scales according to the principles of Euler’s ...