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Lyudmila Kovnatskaya

(b Mishelevka, Irkutsk region, Dec 12, 1921). Russian musicologist and archivist. She enrolled in the Oriental department of the Faculty of Philology at the University of Leningrad specializing in the ethnology of Central Asia, but her studies there were interrupted by World War II, during which time she saw active service in military hospitals. Graduating in 1948, she then studied ethnology and folk music with Gippius at the Miklukho-Maklaya Institute of Ethnology (1949–53), and was an occasional student at the Conservatory, where she studied with Druskin, Rubtsov, Ginzburg and Sergey Bogoyavlensky. She was a research assistant in the art history department of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnology at the Tajik SSR Academy of Sciences in Dushanbe (1953–8), and took part in expeditions to record the folk music of the mountain regions of the Tajik SSR. Returning to Leningrad in 1958, she was an assistant at the Institute for the History of the Arts (now the Zubov Institute for the History of the Arts) from ...


Ian D. Bent

(b Kingston, Surrey, Sept 3, 1921; d London, March 6, 1971). English musicologist, performer and teacher. He was educated at Hampton Grammar School, where he was a chorister of the Chapel Royal, Hampton Court. He studied at the RCM (1938–9) and subsequently read mathematics at University College, Exeter (BSc 1942). After the war he studied in Belgium with Charles van den Borren. In 1946 he returned to England and began a career as a harpsichordist; the next year he was appointed an assistant lecturer in music at Cambridge University.

Dart was editor of the Galpin Society Journal from its inception in 1947 to 1954. From 1950 to 1965 he was secretary of Musica Britannica, and remained the driving force behind the series to the end of his life. He became a member of the Royal Musical Association council in 1952, and later a member of the editorial committee of the Purcell Society. During this period he gave frequent recitals on the harpsichord, clavichord and organ, and many broadcast talks. About ...


Saadalla Agha Al-Kalaa

(b Aleppo, Syria, 1884; d Aleppo, Nov 26, 1952). Syrian musician and music researcher. He studied music and muwashsha singing in Aleppo and Istanbul. From 1912 to 1920 he lived in Turkey, where he taught music and wrote an unpublished book entitled The Real Theories in the Science of Musical Readings. On return to Aleppo he became leader of the Mawlawi Sufi group, playing the flute (nāy) during the ceremonies and teaching muwashsha singing.

In 1927 he was invited to teach at the Royal Institute of Music in Cairo; his pupils included the composers Riyād al-Sunbaṭī and Muḥammad ‘Abd al-Wahhāb. In Egypt he documented many old muwashsha and musical pieces. In 1931 he went to Tunisia to do joint research with the French musicologist Baron D'Erlanger, and while resident in Tunis taught muwashsha for six years. He made the first notations of Tunisian Andalusian ...


John Trevitt

revised by Jean Gribenski

(b Brest, Finistère, Nov 19, 1847; d Paris, May 26, 1923). French musicologist and philosopher. He was educated at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand and, from 1867, at the Ecole Normale, where he studied philosophy, gaining the agrégation in 1872; in 1878 he took the doctorate with the dissertation Des notions de matières et de force dans les sciences de la nature and in the same year published his first philosophical work. He held a lectureship in the arts faculty of the University of Lyons (1879–81) and then the chair of philosophy at the University of Montpellier. In the early 1890s he became interested in music and the value of musicology as a university discipline, and travelled to Germany (1894) to study methods of teaching music in universities there. In 1895, when he became professor of philosophy at the Sorbonne, he tried to have a chair of music psychology founded there; this attempt failed and instead Dauriac was given the newly created professorship of musical aesthetics (...


Vesna Rožić

(b Našice, Jan 3, 1972). Croatian musicologist. He studied musicology at the Academy of Music, University of Zagreb, graduating in 1995. Later he studied with musicologist Nikša Gligo and literary theorist Vladimir Biti at Zagreb University (MA 1998). As a Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst scholarship winner he studied with musicologists Helmut Rösing and Albrecht Schneider at Hamburg University, gaining the PhD (2004) with a dissertation on the epistemological problems of contemporary music scholarship oriented toward an active role in identity politics. Since 1996 he has taught at the department of musicology at the Academy of Music, University of Zagreb. He was a visiting fellow at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana and also taught at the Inter-University Centre in Dubrovnik. He is a member of the Croatian musicological society (Zagreb), Society of Croatian Composers (Zagreb), and Gesellschaft für Musik und Ästhetik (Freiburg i. B.).

Davidovic’s interests are multiple and interdisciplinary. As a musicologist of a distinctively systematic orientation, he is concerned with issues such as listening, value judgments, and the notion of harmony. He has published on various musical practices of the 19th and 20th centuries. In addition he has translated into Croatian books on cinema aesthetics (A. García Düttmann, ...


Carolyn Gianturco

revised by Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Milan, May 23, 1940; d May 20, 2005). Italian musicologist. He studied the piano (diploma 1961), composition (diploma 1965) and conducting at Milan Conservatory. At the same time he took an arts degree at the University of Milan (1964). He taught at the conservatories of Bolzano (1965–6) and Brescia (1967–8), and in 1964 he became lecturer in music history at the University of Milan, and in 1980 full professor. He taught concurrently at Milan Conservatory (1966–74). From 1964 to 1975 he was director and harpsichordist of the ensemble Complesso Barocco di Milano. He provided numerous editions of 17th- and 18th-century music, including works by Domenico Scarlatti, Vivaldi, Pergolesi and Porpora, for this ensemble as well as for Italian and foreign record companies, theatres and musical establishments. He wrote on the history of music from the Renaissance to the 20th century, taught and lectured in many universities in Europe and America, organized musicological conferences in Italy and abroad and worked with Swiss and Italian radio. He was a member of the editorial committees for the critical editions of the works of Pergolesi, Vivaldi and Verdi and was on the editorial board of the ...


Mark Miller

(Arthur )

(b Moose Jaw, Canada, Oct 27, 1918; d Toronto, Jan 16, 1981). Canadian theorist, teacher, and composer. He led dance bands and played trumpet in Toronto (1939–49) before he ended his career as a performer for reasons of health and turned to teaching (1950). He wrote texts on arranging, harmony, counterpoint, 12-tone music, and melody (New York, 1965–76) that became widely used, and he taught many leading jazz musicians in Canada in the 1950s and 1960s. He also composed several works in the third-stream idiom, of which he was an enthusiastic advocate; these include Collage no.3 and Song and Dance, both of which were recorded by Duke Ellington with the Ron Collier Orchestra on Duke Ellington: North of the Border (1967, Decca 75069). His Three Entertainments for Saxophone Quartet (1969) was recorded by the New York Saxophone Quartet. (EMC2...


Martin Brody


(b Boston, Dec 13, 1949). American composer, theorist and teacher. The son of a pianist, he first studied the piano and flute and later worked as a jazz and rock musician. He began composing while a student of John Ronsheim at Antioch College. After further study in composition at the Ecole Normale de Musique, and with the Schoenbergian Max Deutch, in Paris, and with the avant-garde jazz pianist Cecil Taylor, he moved to New York, where he worked with Bulent Arel at SUNY-Stony Brook. He was awarded the doctorate (1980) at Princeton, where his principal teacher was Babbitt. He has taught at Princeton, Bates and Dartmouth, and became professor of music at the University of Wisconsin.

Dembski's music, founded upon both tonal polyphonic models and twelve-note pitch structures, but reducible to neither, yields a broad range of musical surfaces, colours and sensibilities. Spectra (1985) reveals his characteristically deft and innovative orchestral writing, and a dramatic continuity at once vivid and subtle. The monodrama ...


Márta Szekeres-Farkas

(b Budapest, Sept 23, 1915; d Budapest, March 31, 1993). Hungarian musicologist. He took the doctorate of laws at Budapest University (1939) and studied music at the piano faculty of the Fodor School of Music, Budapest. In 1967 he took the CSc with a dissertation on Bartók’s early development. His research is centred on Bartók: he has published some small-scale biographies (the first in 1946), and in 1947 became responsible for the collection and publication of Bartók’s letters; his documentary biography was published in Zenetudományi tanulmányok between 1954 and 1962. Among his many other musicological works are studies of Endre Székely, János Seprődi, Sándor Veress and Antal Molnár. Much of his writing deals with the question of the synthesis of music and other arts. He was awarded the Erkel Prize in 1974.

Bartók (Budapest, 1946) ed.: Bartók Béla: levelek, fényképek, kéziratok, kották [Bartók: letters, photographs, manuscripts, music], 1 (Budapest, 1948); ...


Anthony Lewis and Nigel Fortune

(b Ribston, Yorks., July 16, 1876; d London, Aug 22, 1957). English musicologist, teacher, translator and critic. He was educated at Eton, where he studied music with C.H. Lloyd, and Cambridge, where his teachers were Charles Wood and Stanford. He was elected a Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, in 1902, began lecturing on the history of music that year and also taught harmony, counterpoint and composition. In 1918 he left for London, where he worked as a music critic. He returned to Cambridge as professor of music in 1926, when he was again elected to a fellowship at King’s. He occupied the Cambridge chair for 15 years. From his retirement until his death he lived in London.

At Cambridge, Dent completely reorganized the teaching for the MusB degree. He realized that this degree would no longer be taken mainly by church organists but that a Cambridge education in music would produce members of other branches of the musical profession – school and university teachers, composers, critics, BBC staff and so on – and he consistently aimed at giving the curriculum greater breadth as a sound foundation, stressing particularly the study of music history and encouraging the performance of pre-19th-century, especially Baroque, music. He exercised a profound influence on several generations of young musicians, whose subsequent success as composers, teachers, performers or scholars owed much to his teaching and example. He himself composed a small amount of music, mainly of a conservative cast....


Charles Carson and Judy Tsou

(Knowles )

(b Red Bank, NJ, Nov 11, 1954). American musicologist. He was educated at Princeton University (AB 1976) and the University of California, Berkeley (MA 1979; PhD 1985), where he studied with Olly W. Wilson and Joseph Kerman. DeVeaux taught at Humboldt State University, California (1981–2), before taking up his current position at the University of Virginia in 1983. DeVeaux’s main research focus is jazz studies. His 1991 seminal article, “Constructing the Jazz Tradition,” established him as a leading voice in what has been called the “new jazz studies,” which seeks to explore issues of race, ethnicity, gender, and class in relation to both jazz repertoires and the creation of historical narratives. In The Birth of Bebop (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1997), he further explores the ways in which the social, economic, and political contexts of the bebop era continue to influence jazz criticism and reception. In ...


Sanja Radinović

(b Požarevac, Serbia, Aug 15, 1925). Serbian ethnomusicologist. Considered the most prolific and influential Serbian ethnomusicologist in the second half of the 20th century. He was professor in ordinaries at the Faculty of Music (FMU) in Belgrade. He studied music theory and ethnology, and later specialized in ethnomusicology in Bucharest, Berlin, and Freiburg. In 1962, he became assistant at the newly established Department of the History of Music and Musical Folklore at FMU, which he led from 1963 to his retirement in 1990. He also taught ethnomusicology at other music academies and faculties in Serbia and the former Yugoslavia. He conveyed to Serbia the methodological innovations that originated in European centers. He is author of over 100 papers on various topics concerning Serbian folk music. He wrote mostly about old rural two-part and ritual singing, issues of variance, folk and medieval musical instruments, problems of transcription, processes of transformation of musical folklore in the second half of the 20th century, and about important figures in the history of Serbian ethnomusicology. He was editor of several valuable collections of folk melodies. He was a very active field worker and with his collected materials he formed the Phonographic Archive and the collection of folk musical instruments at the FMU. He popularized the traditional music of Serbia through more than 1000 broadcasts on Radio Belgrade, about 30 ethnographic films, and a similar amount of audio publications. He contributed to the preservation of Serbian folk music with his work in programming councils and expert juries in numerous festivals and concerts. He was active in the International Organization of Folk Art (IOV), especially as a chairman from ...


Svetlana Kujumdzieva

(b Kumanichevo, Macedonia, July 14, 1889; d Sofia, July 2, 1980). Bulgarian composer, teacher, conductor, and musicologist. He was born in the village of Kumanichevo (now in Greece). He graduated from the Theological Seminary in Istanbul and later from the Conservatory in St. Petersburg, where he studied composition and Eastern Orthodox music. Dinev also graduated from the University of St. Petersburg with a degree in Law. In 1919 he was appointed as a teacher of Eastern Orthodox music at the Conservatory of Kazan. In 1922 Dinev returned to Bulgaria and taught music in different high schools until 1924. From 1925 to 1934 he taught church music at the Sofia State Academy of Music. From 1926 to 1944, Dinev also taught church music at the Sofia Theological Academy. During this time he conducted the choir of the Theological Faculty and the choir at the church of Sts. Cyril and Methodios. After ...


Claude V. Palisca

(b Deruta, nr Perugia, c1554; d after March 25, 1610). Italian organist, teacher and music theorist. He was the author of the first comprehensive treatise on organ playing, in the form of a dialogue under the title Il transilvano, published in two parts (Venice, 1593, 1609).

In a letter dated 1 February 1602 from Chioggia to the magistrates of Deruta, Diruta pleaded that after 30 years of work he desired to return to his homeland. This would indicate that he began his career as an organist in about 1572. On 19 June 1574 he entered the Franciscan monastery of Correggio, near Reggio nell'Emilia, at the same time as Battista Capuani, who may have been his first teacher. He apparently went to Venice in about 1580: he acknowledged that he had as preceptors Zarlino, Costanzo Porta and Claudio Merulo (Il transilvano, seconda parte, iii, 11). Merulo left Venice in ...


Paula Morgan

(b Brooklyn, NY, April 8, 1927). American musicologist of Swiss descent. He took the AB in 1947 and the AM at Columbia University in 1949; he also took courses at the Juilliard School of Music and under Kinkeldey at Harvard. In 1949 he began studies at the University of Basle, where he was taught by Handschin (musicology), Wilhelm Altwegg (Germanic studies) and Albert Bruckner (Latin palaeography); he received the doctorate at Basle in 1952 with a dissertation on the Worcester Fragments. He taught at Wagner College (1953–4), Adelphi University (1954–9) and the Manhattan School of Music (1957–9). In 1957 he joined the faculty of CUNY and from 1976 to 1994 he taught at the music department at the University of Ottawa; he also taught at the University of Vienna, 1996–7. He is director of the Institute of Mediaeval Music, which he founded in ...


Albert Cohen

(b Paris, 1634; d Paris, Nov 5, 1707). French physician and academician. He trained at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, where he received his doctorate in 1660 and accepted a chair in pharmacy in 1666. He served as personal physician to the Dowager Princess of Conti and other members of that house before being named medical adviser to Louis XIV. In 1673 he was named a member of the Académie des Sciences and in 1699 was appointed pensionary botanist. He carried out research in a variety of subjects, notably botany and medicine, and published his findings. His principal contribution to music is his ‘Mémoire sur les causes de la voix de l'homme, et de ses différens tons’, published in the Mémoires de l'Académie royale des sciences (1700; pp.244–93); it was later issued separately (Paris, 1703), and he published ‘suppléments’ in the Mémoires for 1706 (pp.136–48, 388–410) and ...


Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Munich, Aug 7, 1900; d Freiburg, Oct 29, 1977). German music teacher and musicologist. From 1919 he studied music under M. Auerbach, E. Praetorius and H. Kaminski, musicology under Max Schneider, art history under W. Pinder and philosophy under R. Hönigswald in Breslau (now Wrocław) and Munich. He took the doctorate at Breslau in 1924 with a dissertation on form and style in music. Subsequently he studied under Gurlitt and Erpf at Freiburg, where in 1928, with E. Keller and E. Katz, he founded an institute for private music teachers which remained in existence until 1937 as the town's music school. From 1941 to 1944 he was head of department at the regional music school in Breslau. After military service and captivity he was appointed professor, department head and acting director of the newly founded Hochschule für Musik, Freiburg (1947), where he remained until his retirement (...


Sanja Majer-Bobetko

(b Sarajevo, Aug 7, 1945). Croatian and Bosnian-Herzegovinian musicologist. She graduated musicology with Zijo Kučukalić at the Sarajevo Music Academy (1970), and gained the PhD at the Zagreb Faculty of the Humanities and Social Sciences with Jerko Bezić with a dissertation on Glagolithic singing in Kraljevica (1997). She was employed at the Sarajevo Radio Station (1970–71), the Sarajevo Music School as music teacher (1971–4), the Sarajevo Music Academy as assistant (1973–80), the Musicological Institute of the Zagreb Music Academy as assistant (1980–83), and the department of Croatian music history of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts as research associate, then senior research associate (1983–2012). She also taught music history at the Zagreb Music Academy (1981–5) and she was a head of the research project Glagolitic Singing Tradition (2002–6; 2007–10)....


(b Rostov-na-Donu, 31 Aug/Sept 12, 1908; d Leningrad, Sept 21, 1966). Russian musicologist, teacher and educationist. He studied composition at the Leningrad Conservatory with Kushnaryov, Tyulin and Ryazanov, graduating in 1936. He taught there from 1937 and, although dismissed in 1948 for maintaining his support for the renounced Shostakovich, he worked there again from 1954 to 1966; during these periods his pupils included Milka, Rafayel′ Zalmanovich Frid and Yuzhak. For many years he was chairman of the critics' section of the Leningrad Union of Composers.

A key innovator and systemizer of music theory, Dolzhansky classified harmonic systems into four types: ‘vertical’ or ‘gradational’ (church modes), ‘polar’ (major or minor), ‘neutral’ (interspersing major and minor) and closed, self-opposing ‘unitary’ systems (such as the whole-tone scale). He developed the theory of harmonically opposed harmonies and in polyphony introduced a distinction between tonally and contrapuntally developed types of fugue. He also demonstrated how compositional form could have a bearing on the artistic effect of the work. An interest in counterpoint and musical form drew him to the fugues of J.S. Bach and to Beethoven, in particular the tonal schemes of the symphonies and sonatas. He also published studies of various Russian composers from Tchaikovsky onwards, and wrote a series of pocket-books on composers issued to audiences at concerts of the Leningrad Philharmonic....


Ye Dong  

Su Zheng

(b Shanghai, July 21, 1930; d Shanghai, July 12, 1989). Chinese musicologist . He studied composition and music theory at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music under Ding Shande, Deng Erjing and Sang Tong; after graduating he joined the faculty there in 1956. He became vice-chair of the Department of Chinese Composition, and director of the Chinese Music Research programme in the conservatory’s Music Research Institute. His 1983 book on Chinese instrumental music was one of the earliest and most comprehensive textbooks on the subject.

In 1964 Ye had become interested in the 10th-century ce musical notation from Dunhuang. But his work was soon interrupted by the Cultural Revolution, which took a grave toll on his health. He was only able to resume work early in the 1980s on this and other material relating to Tang dynasty music. This research, along with that of scholars such as He Changlin, Chen Yingshi and Xi Zhenguan, as well as that of ...