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(b Öhrenstock bei Gehren, April 4, 1740; d Frankfurt, March 1, 1804). German publisher, composer and organist. From 1769 he was organist of the reformed church in Frankfurt and conducted and played in public concerts. In 1771 he started a music publishing business, mainly for works by local composers, but by 1787 it had been taken over by the firm of André in Offenbach. Haueisen wrote four sets of three sonatas for piano, violin and cello (op.1, Amsterdam, 1770; opp.2–4, Frankfurt, 1771, lost) and two piano concertos (opp.5–6, Frankfurt, 1772–3). (EitnerQ also mentions three cantatas in D-GOl .) These are clearly the works of an organist who incorporated in them the musical qualities of that instrument and the harpsichord. Haueisen’s style is simple and his themes consist of short, not particularly inventive, motifs. The sonatas were probably more popular in his day than the concertos.

K. Israel...

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John F. Garst

(b Bethania, NC, Dec 23, 1812; d Wadley, GA, Sept 15, 1880). American composer and tune-book compiler. He was a Methodist minister and also worked as a physician. In 1841 he moved to Georgia, settling eventually in Wadley. He compiled The Hesperian Harp (Philadelphia, 1848) which, with 552 pages, was the largest shape-note tune-book in common use in the South. In four-shape notation, it contains 36 of Hauser’s own compositions as well as many original arrangements of tunes from earlier publications. With Benjamin Turner, Hauser issued a second tune-book, ...

Article

Martin Ruhnke

revised by Klaus-Peter Koch

(b Gerbstedt, nr Eisleben, c1560; d probably Gerbstedt, c1611–13, before Nov 11, 1613). German composer, music editor, musician and poet. He usually styled himself ‘Valentinus Haussmannus Gerbipolensis’ or ‘V.H.G.’. No documentation of his Gerbstedt period survives (much of the documentation concerning the town has been destroyed by fire), but his dedications provide a rich variety of biographical information. The descendant of immigrants from Nuremberg, he attended schools in Quedlinburg and Wernigerode (about 1570–80) and the Gymnasium Poeticum in Regensburg (about 1585–90, during the Kantorship of Andreas Raselius). After he finished his schooling he was tutor to a gentleman in Steyr, and it was during this time that his contacts with the Protestant Landesschule in Linz began. In the 1580s and 90s he was often in southern Germany. He made frequent trips to Nuremberg (in 1591, 1592, 1594 and 1597 at least), where his friend Paul Kauffmann published many of Haussmann’s works. He was also in Regensburg, Steyr, Eger, Ulm and Tübingen and Strasbourg. Throughout his life, he maintained an address in Gerbstedt, where he was probably organist; Daniel Friderici studied with him there during the period ...

Article

Franz Krautwurst

[Hellerus Leucopetraeus]

(b Weissenfels, c1518; d Eisleben, c1590). German mathematician, astronomer, teacher, printer, composer and poet. He studied at the University of Wittenberg from 1536. In 1543, on Melanchthon's recommendation, he succeeded Wilhelm Breitengraser as Rektor of the St Egidien grammar school, Nuremberg. In 1546 he also became professor of mathematics at the St Egidien Gymnasium. He frequently staged school comedies. From 1551 he ran his own printing works. He was forced to leave Nuremberg in 1563 because of his controversial religious activities. He subsequently worked as astronomer to the electorate of Saxony in central Germany, mainly at Mansfeld and Eisleben. Three bicinia by him are known, a song in praise of music (in RISM 154916) and two settings of hymns by Luther (in 155120; one of the latter in K. Ameln, ed.: Luthers Kirchenlieder in Tonsätzen seiner Zeit, Kassel, 1934). Two pieces signed ‘J.H.’ in Caspar Othmayr’s ...

Article

Friedrich Baser

(b Hammelburg, Lower Franconia, ?1633; d Würzburg, Oct 10, 1674). German composer, music editor and organist. He may have studied music with his father and with P.F. Buchner. On 19 September 1653 he matriculated as ‘physicus’ at the University of Würzburg. The next year he became organist and curate at Würzburg Cathedral. In 1658 he was ordained priest but was dismissed in 1668 for offences against canon law. Nevertheless, a year later the Elector and Prince-Bishop of Mainz, who ruled over Würzburg too and was a noted patron of music, sent him, his best-trained musician in liturgical music, to a new post in Mainz, where he commissioned him to publish new editions of liturgical books for use in the Mainz diocese. He returned to Würzburg before his death. His choirbooks, which he edited with scrupulous care, were: Opus lamentationum et passionum; Graduale; Processionale; Praefationes; Officium S. Angeli custodis...

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Franklin S. Miller

(b Albany, NY, Dec 29, 1830; d Kasson, MN, Dec 22, 1898). American music publisher and composer. He moved in 1849 to Milwaukee, where he established himself as a music teacher; he opened a music store two years later that eventually became one of the largest in the upper Midwest. He published editions of the works of 19th-century composers (Schumann, Liszt, Strauss) as well as his own works, the most popular of which were “Iron Brigade Quickstep,” “Garibaldi’s Sicilian March,” and “The Milwaukee Light Guard Quickstep.” From ...

Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Turgutlu, Turkey, Dec 23, 1896; d Aubervilliers, nr Paris, Oct 7, 1975). Italian composer, ethnomusicologist and music publisher. After education at the Alliance Israélite Universelle in Turgutlu, from 1907 he attended the school of the Société Musicale Israélite in Izmir, studying composition with Shemtov Shikayar and cantorial music with Isaac Algazi. He won a scholarship to Milan Conservatory, where he was a pupil of Zavaldi and Pozzoli (theory and solfège), Gatti (orchestration), Zampieri (history), Bossi (composition) and Andreoli (piano) (1914–15, 1917–19). His studies were interrupted by war service and Hemsi was severely wounded. He returned to Izmir to teach, then on to Rhodes (1923–7) and finally Alexandria. From 1920 he became intensely interested in the traditional music of Sephardi Jewry, collecting material around the eastern Mediterranean, in Alexandria, Jerusalem, Rhodes, Turgutlu, Manisa, Izmir and Thessaloniki. Most of the material in Coplas sefardíes, the work which established his reputation, was furnished by the Sephardi communities of Alexandria, Istanbul and Sofia; his well-suited piano accompaniments brought these songs into the salons and concert halls. In Alexandria he founded the Edition Orientale de Musique, the first Egyptian house to publish the work of composers familiar with Middle Eastern culture. In his own music he sought a compromise between Western technique and oriental tradition, believing that harmonic, equal-tempered music would replace microtonal heterophony. He founded a conservatory to propagate these ideas; he also established and conducted the Alexandria PO (...

Article

John W. Wagner

(b ?Dartmoor, June 4, 1770; d Boston, Aug 2, 1827). American conductor, composer and publisher of English birth, father of John Hill Hewitt. Apart from family records giving his place and date of birth, the first documented information about him is that he occupied 12 Hyde Street, Bloomsbury, London, during 1791–2. He arrived in New York on 5 September 1792. Although he advertised himself there as having had concert experience in London under ‘Haydn, Pleyel, etc.’, no evidence of this has been found. He lived in New York until 1811, his longest period of residence at one address being from 1801 to 1810 at 59 Maiden Lane. From 1792 until the end of March 1808, he was conductor of the orchestra at the Park Street Theatre, where his duties included arranging and composing music for many ballad operas and other musical productions. He also operated his own ‘musical repository’, where he gave lessons and sold musical instruments and music composed by himself and others....

Article

Stephen Ruppenthal

revised by David Patterson

[Richard Carter]

(b Cambridge, England, March 15, 1938; d Quebec, Oct 25, 1998). American composer, performer, writer, artist and publisher. He studied composition and orchestration privately with Harry Levenson (1953), with Cowell at Columbia University (BS 1960), and with Cage at the New School for Social Research (1958–9). In the late 1950s, partly as a result of his studies with Cowell and Cage, Higgins began to explore the areas between music and the other arts – the ‘intermedia’. He was associated with the first ‘happenings’ (1958) and was one of the original adherents of the Fluxus movement (from 1961), collaborating in performances with such artists as Cage, Corner, MacLow, Meredith Monk and Tenney. During the 1960s, Higgins became one of the chief exponents of avant-garde music through his writings and other activities. He founded and directed the Something Else Press (1964–73), a major publisher of avant-garde intermedia works, and ran its performance gallery (...

Article

Stephen A. Marini

(b Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, Oct 4, 1730; d Cashaway, SC, cAug 1771). American singing master, compiler, and composer. He was the compiler of The Cashaway Psalmody (1770), a South Carolina manuscript that is the earliest surviving collection of sacred music from the colonial South. Born into poverty and orphaned by the age of 10, Hills acquired enough education to become a schoolmaster in Newcastle before 1751. In that year he was arrested for stealing books, tried, and banished to South Carolina for a term of seven years. He settled in the province’s remote Pee Dee River country, where he worked as a secretary, accountant, and tutor for local indigo planters. Hills served in the Cherokee War of 1759 and was appointed clerk of St. David’s Anglican parish at Cheraw Hill ten years later.

Hills became a singing master during an extended visit to Newcastle in the mid-1760s. By ...

Article

Adam Adrio

(b Bernau, Sept 4, 1622; d Berlin, May 5, 1702). German music editor and composer. He moved to Spandau as a boy when, because of the Thirty Years War, his father became a town musician there, and from 1638 to 1640 he was a pupil of the Berlin town musician Paul Nieressen. After studying for three further years at Spandau he spent five years travelling, which took him to Stettin, Elbing and Danzig, to Wehlau and Königsberg, where he studied with Johann Weichmann, to Insterburg, where he worked for about two years, and as far as Lithuania, Livonia and Sweden. After the peace treaty of 1648 he returned to Spandau by way of Denmark, Rügen and Pomerania and worked briefly with his father. In 1649 he was working at Küstrin, in 1650 in Berlin and from 1651 to 1659 in Stettin. On 1 August 1659 he succeeded Nieressen as town musician in Berlin and remained there until his death, which resulted from a stroke after he had for long suffered from palsy. His funeral oration was given on ...

Article

Virginia Anderson

(b Hillingdon, Sept 9, 1950). English composer, performer and publisher. He studied with Cornelius Cardew (composition) and Patricia Brady (percussion) at the RAM (1967–9). He was a member of the free improvisation group AMM (1967–1971), the Scratch Orchestra (1969–71, for which he designed their first concert, at Hampstead Town Hall on 1 November 1969), the Promenade Theatre Orchestra (PTO) with John White, Hugh Shrapnel and Alec Hill (1969–73), and the Hobbs–White Duo with White (1973–6). He was Director of Music for Drama Centre, London (1973–91) and was appointed as a lecturer at Leicester Polytechnic (later De Montfort University) in 1985. He is currently also Associate Senior Lecturer in Composition at Coventry University. In 1969 he founded the Experimental Music Catalogue, a publisher and distributor of new music scores and recordings.

Hobbs’s Word Pieces (1966–9) use indeterminate text notation (in which musical actions appear in prose) and, similarly to those of other PTO members, his PTO pieces use repetitive processes generated by random procedures (...

Article

Alexander Weinmann

(b Rothenburg am Neckar, May 12, 1754; d Vienna, Feb 9, 1812). Austrian music publisher and composer. He went to Vienna in 1768 to study law, but after qualifying, devoted his time to music, especially publishing and composing. As early as 1783, when Viennese music publishing was still in its infancy, he began to publish two series of symphonies in Lyons (printed by Guéra), and some quartets and duets for flute. On 24 January 1784 he announced in the Wiener Zeitung that he planned to publish all his musical works at his own expense and under his own supervision from Rudolf Gräffer’s bookshop. But in a large advertisement on 6 August 1785 he no longer mentioned Gräffer, having established a firm in his own name at his home. This advertisement gives a list of works which had already appeared as well as a new publishing programme of three different series, including orchestral and chamber music by Haydn, Mozart, Vanhal, Albrechtsberger, Pleyel, Miča, Ordonez and other foreign composers, besides Hoffmeister’s own works. Although he did not maintain his announced schedules, the business evidently flourished. Hoffmeister had connections with the Speyer publisher Bossler, whose firm acted as a kind of agent for Hoffmeister. Hence a series of announcements and some detailed reviews of works published by the Hoffmeister firm appeared in Bossler’s ...

Article

Richard Crawford

revised by Nym Cooke

(b Shirley, MA, Sept 18, 1765; d Charlestown, MA, Sept 4, 1844). American composer and tune book compiler. After serving in the Revolutionary War he settled in Charlestown and worked for a time as a carpenter. By the early 1790s he had become a prominent public figure there, through being involved in extensive land dealings. He founded a church and served as its minister, and was also a town official (selectman, assessor, justice of the peace) and a representative to the Massachusetts legislature. Holden’s early musical training consisted of two months’ instruction in a singing school in 1783. He began to teach singing schools of his own in the same year, and his first published tunes appeared in The Federal Harmony (Boston, 1788). From 1792 to 1807 he taught singing schools, composed prolifically (his published compositions consist of at least 245 works, including 12 anthems and eight odes), and compiled more than a dozen anthologies, including the last three editions of ...

Article

Lasairíona Duignan

revised by Barra R. Boydell

(d Dublin, 1813). Irish composer, music publisher and instrument maker. George Petrie considered him to have been the ‘most eminent British composer of military music in his time’. A Collection of Quick and Slow Marches, Troops &c. can be dated 1795–8. A square piano dated 1796 bears Holden’s name (possibly as seller rather than maker). In 1805, described as a ‘military music master and instrument maker’, he had premises in Arran Quay, Dublin. Nothing further is known about Holden’s apparent activities as an instrument maker. In 1806 he moved to Parliament Street, where he opened a music shop and began publishing, largely his own music although this continued to be issued by other Dublin publishers. On his death the business was continued by his widow until about 1818. Holden's publications included A Collection of Old Established Irish Slow and Quick Tunes (c1807); many of the airs may have been collected by his son Francis Holden. The elder Holden published two more collections of Irish music (issued periodically), collections of Welsh tunes, masonic songs and country dances, numbers of marches and quick steps, often dedicated to specific regiments and corps, and many individual songs and other instrumental pieces....

Article

Richard Crawford

revised by Nym Cooke

(Adams)

(b Boxford, MA, Oct 15, 1762; d East Concord, NH, Feb 7, 1820). American composer, tune book compiler and singing master. He was descended from two noteworthy New England families, the Holyokes and the Peabodys. He studied at Harvard College (BA, 1789; MA, 1792), during which time he contributed several secular songs to The Massachusetts Magazine, and published his first book of psalmody, Harmonia Americana (Boston, 1791). With Hans Gram and Oliver Holden he brought out The Massachusetts Compiler of Theoretical and Practical Elements of Sacred Vocal Music (Boston, 1795), a collection of mostly European music prefaced by the lengthiest exposition of music theory printed in America during the century. Holyoke was one of the most prolific American composers of his generation. He published almost 700 of his own pieces, mainly in his monumental book The Columbian Repository of Sacred Harmony (Exeter, NH, 1803) and in his collection designed for Baptist worshippers, ...

Article

Michael Kassler

[Karl Friedrich]

(b Nordhausen, Saxony, Feb 1762; d Windsor, Aug 3, 1830). English teacher, editor, organist and composer of German birth. According to memoirs by his son Charles Edward (MS Yomiuri Symphony Orchestra, Japan), Horn defied his father’s opposition to a career in music by taking lessons secretly from the Nordhausen organist Christoph Gottlieb Schröter and by leaving home in 1782 to become a musician in Paris. On his way, a stranger persuaded him to travel to London instead and after accompanying him there stole most of his money. When Horn confessed his plight to a German-speaking passer-by he was taken into a music shop, whose proprietor introduced him to the Saxon ambassador. Through this contact he was subsequently employed as a music master in the household of the 1st Marquess of Stafford. There he met Diana Dupont, a governess, whom he married on 28 September 1785; in consequence of her pregnancy, the couple moved to London where in ...

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Barbara Palfy

(b Kansas City, MO, Jan 12, 1884; d New York, Jan 12, 1964). American pianist, composer, music director, writer, and editor. Horst grew up in a German family that prized music and he first studied violin. After elementary school, the end of his formal education, he took up piano, honed his skills, and soon supported himself as a musician, playing ragtime and improvisations in dance and gambling halls, performing with theater pit orchestras, and accompanying solo classical recitalists.

On the West Coast in 1915, Horst encountered Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn, who hired him as accompanist for their Denishawn company and subsequently as music director of their new school. He remained for ten years. Immersed in the developing new abstract form of dancing, he examined the relationship of music to dance, especially through St. Denis’s “music visualizations.” He began to study musical structure and composition, and left Denishawn to continue learning in Vienna and becoming better informed in contemporary theater, art, literature, and film—knowledge he passed on to future choreographers in his book (with Caroll Russell) ...

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Robert Orledge and Andrew Thomson

(b Paris, Mar 27, 1851; d Paris, Dec 2, 1931). French composer, teacher, conductor and editor of early music. His famed veneration for Beethoven and Franck has unfortunately obscured the individual character of his own compositions, particularly his fine orchestral pieces descriptive of southern France. As a teacher his influence was enormous and wideranging, with benefits for French music far outweighing the charges of dogmatism and political intolerance.

Andrew Thomson

D’Indy came from a military aristocratic family from the Ardèche region, a fact of the greatest importance in understanding his lifelong nationalist and right-wing political position. His mother died in childbirth, and he was brought up by his paternal grandmother, Thérèse (née de Chorier). Her strict regime, however, was mitigated by deep affection: she was not the tyrannical ogress of received opinion. D’Indy took lessons in piano from Louis Diémer and theory from Albert Lavignac; while showing definite promise, he showed more interest as a boy in military matters and the life of his hero Napoleon. At 18, having passed his ...

Article

David G. Klocko

(b Andover, MA, March 1, 1764; d Hancock, VT, April 6, 1838). American tunebook compiler and composer. He moved to Newbury, Vermont, around 1791 and in 1810 to a farm between Rochester and Hancock, Vermont, where he lived for the rest of his life. He was active in both areas as a choir leader, singing-school master, and bass viol player. Over half of the 137 tunes in his only tunebook, The Christian Harmony, or Songster’s Companion (Exeter, NH, 1805/R1981), were composed in the indigenous New England style prevalent in northern tunebooks before 1820. More significantly, the remaining settings constitute the first appearance in print of the spiritual folksong—a sacred text set to a formerly secular or folk melody—a genre that appeared frequently in southern tunebooks from the second decade of the 19th century. Other characteristics of The Christian Harmony that appear rarely in northern tunebooks but commonly in later southern ones are rhythmic and scalar influences from folk and secular music, repeated phrases, three-voice settings, tunes with added choruses, revivalist poetry, the inclusion of complete texts, and tunes named after the texts to which they are set. Ingalls’s book thus belongs to both traditions and occupies a unique position in the tunebook literature....