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Steven Strunk

[altered mode; diminished whole-tone scale]

Any scale with one or more chromatically altered pitches can be called an altered scale, but from roughly the 1970s the term has taken on a specific meaning in jazz pedagogy, which often concentrates on associating scales with chords as an aid to learning to improvise, so that a scale is taken as a pool of notes which can be used to make a melody that will fit its associated chord. (Such an approach may slight the melodic tendency of dissonant notes to resolve stepwise.) In this sense a scale usually consists of the root, third, fifth, and seventh of the chord plus the diatonic extensions drawn from the key context of the given chord. For a diatonic dominant seventh chord (e.g., G7) these extensions would be scale degrees 6 (the chordal ninth, A), 1 (the chordal eleventh, C), and 3 (the chordal thirteenth, E), producing a scale equivalent to the mixolydian mode: G–A–B–C–D–E–F–G. If, instead, the altered extensions (...

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In general musical terminology the vocal part or range lying below the soprano and above the tenor; the word is also used as a qualifying adjective to distinguish those members of certain families of instruments (especially wind) that play in that range (for example, alto clarinet, alto flute, etc.; see...

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David Wild

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b New York, Jan 06, 1943). American drummer. He took up drums at the age of 11, and after initially teaching himself he studied from 1960 with Charli Persip. In 1964 he met Paul Bley, with whom he worked regularly until 1970 and occasionally thereafter; at the same time he was a member of the Jazz Composers Guild and the Jazz Composer’s Orchestra Association (1964–8). He recorded with Alan Silva’s free-jazz group in New York in October 1968, and he played more conventional jazz in Europe with Carmell Jones, Leo Wright, and Johnny Griffin for ten months (1967–8), in California in a quartet consisting of Sonny Criss, Hampton Hawes, and Reggie Johnson for three or four months (1969), and again in New York with Tony Scott. Early in 1970, with Chick Corea, Dave Holland, and Anthony Braxton, he formed the free-jazz group Circle, which recorded his composition ...

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(b Los Angeles, Dec 27, 1945). American tenor saxophonist. After attending California State University, Los Angeles (1963–7), he toured with Stan Kenton (1967–9), with whom he also recorded (Stan Kenton Conducts the Jazz Compositions of Dee Barton, 1967, Cap. ST2932). In 1969 he performed with Nat Adderley and Bobby Bryant, played and recorded with Don Ellis, and began an association with Gerald Wilson that continued intermittently for several years. He also performed with Louie Bellson, Terry Gibbs, Duke Pearson, and Frank Zappa and in television orchestras. (...

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William F. Lee III

[Alfred ]

(b Montreal, Feb 3, 1920; d Las Vegas, NV, Aug 1, 1992). American trumpeter. He was brought up in Inglewood, California, and studied piano and violin for ten years before taking up trumpet. He was a soloist with Stan Kenton from 1941 to 1943, served in the US Army (1943–6), then rejoined Kenton, with whom he remained until 1951 except for a brief period in the late 1940s when he played with Red Norvo, Benny Carter, and Charlie Barnet; he may be seen with Kenton in the soundie This Love of Mine (1942) and the film Let’s Make Rhythm (1947). He then opened a music store in Hermosa Beach, California, and worked as a trumpeter and arranger for Latin bands. After moving to Las Vegas he accompanied Ella Fitzgerald, Sarah Vaughan, and others from 1958 to 1982 at a number of hotels in Las Vegas, including the Flamingo, where he played for eight years. Later he formed the Las Vegas Jazz Band and in ...

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Adriano Mazzoletti

(b Genoa, Italy, 1908). Italian pianist, singer, and violinist. He first worked in Genoa with Tullio Mobiglia and others (1927–33). From 1934 he played piano and violin in a small band led by Kramer Gorni in Milan, which made several recordings, including Anime gemelle (1935...

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Jacques Aboucaya

(Bothelo )

(b Rio de Janeiro, April 28, 1950). Brazilian double bass player, pianist, and composer. From 1964 he played piano in the trio Camara, and later made a tour of France, where he settled in 1973; he then changed from piano to double bass and also studied composition at the Paris Conservatoire. He formed a duo with the pianist Jean-Pierre Mas (1978), appeared in Martial Solal’s trio, and played in Eric Le Lann’s quartet (1982). Between 1982 and 1985 he was heard with Jean-Louis Chautemps, Philip Catherine, Joachim Kühn, Michel Portal, and the Americans Charlie Mariano, Joe Henderson, and Lee Konitz. In 1985 he resumed playing piano and formed the Cesarius Alvim Connection, with Jean-François Jenny-Clark on double bass and André Ceccarelli on drums. After a period of voluntary retirement from 1992 to 1997 (though he continued to make recordings) Alvim resumed working: he composed a piece for symphony orchestra, ...

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T. Dennis Brown

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Viniello, Daniel Alvin ]

(b New York, Nov 29, 1902; d Chicago, Dec 6, 1958). American drummer and bandleader. He began playing professionally in New York with a white vaudeville singer known as Aunt Jemima (1918) and recorded there with Sophie Tucker (1919–22). His jazz career centered on Chicago, where he performed with Jules Buffano (1922), Charlie Straight, Elmer Schoebel, and Frankie Quartell (with whom he recorded in 1924); he later worked in commercial bands and briefly as a bandleader before joining Art Hodes (1933). In 1936 he returned to New York to work with musicians who were profiting by the revival of interest in dixieland. As a member of a small group led by Wingy Manone he recorded regularly in 1937–8 and again in January 1940; he also recorded with Joe Marsala (1937) and Bud Freeman’s Summa cum Laude Orchestra (...

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Johnny Simmen

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(Julian )

(b Chicago, May 1, 1907; d New York, Dec 29, 1972). American tuba and double bass player. He began playing drums, but while working with Jelly Roll Morton (1927 – early 1928) he changed to tuba and double bass, learning the rudiments from Lawson Buford and Quinn Wilson respectively. From late 1928 to 1930 he played tuba with Earl Hines, with whom he recorded his arrangement Blue Nights (1929, Vic. 38096); he also recorded in Chicago with the Dixie Rhythm Kings, Omer Simeon, and Jabbo Smith (all 1929), and Harry Dial’s Blusicians (November 1930). After moving to New York with Jimmie Noone (spring 1931) Alvis recorded with King Carter and his Royal Orchestra and performed on double bass and tuba with the Mills Blue Rhythm Band (1931–4, 1936) and for a time acted as the group’s road manager; he plays one of the earliest recorded double bass solos on ...

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Roger T. Dean

(b Sydney, May 4, 1969). Australian guitarist. He first played drums, but while a rabbinical student, influenced by a mixture of Jewish mystical components and the music of John Coltrane, Cecil Taylor, and others, he changed to guitar. He performed in particular with Rob Avenaim (percussion, electronics, sampling), for example in the rock-noise group Phlegm (formed 1993), and also with the pianist Max Lyandvert in Ear Rational Music. The latter group involved Eddie Bronson (a member of the earlier and influential band Free Kata), whom Ambarchi had met through his rabbinical studies and who had been another early influence. From 1994 Ambarchi coordinated a series of improvising large ensembles, often based on John Zorn’s conceptual “game” piece Cobra. Following a series of small-scale recordings, often involving studio manipulation of their playing, he released a major work with Avenaim, The Alter Rebbe’s Nigun (1998). In the late 1990s he focused intensively on unaccompanied solo performance and made a series of recordings on European labels, mainly recorded in real-time (rather than involving studio manipulation), and with analogue rather than computer processing. He uses an array of effects units linked to create varied timbres....

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Otto Flückiger and Aldo Sandmeyer

(b Lugano, Switzerland, Oct 8, 1919). Swiss alto saxophonist and vibraphonist, father of Franco Ambrosetti. An engineer by profession, he never worked as a full-time musician. He learned classical piano at the age of six, then early in 1935, after hearing Coleman Hawkins, he took up tenor saxophone, on which he was largely self-taught. Influenced by the work of Benny Carter he changed to the alto instrument, and from the mid-1940s he modeled his playing on that of Charlie Parker. Ambrosetti performed and recorded while studying engineering in Zurich. He made his first commercial recordings in 1943 with Rio de Gregori and with his own group, and in 1949 he played and recorded swing and bop with Gil Cuppini and Hazy Osterwald. Thereafter he played in various Swiss groups and also worked as a leader, recording in Italy and other European countries; in the mid-1950s his sidemen included Raymond Court and George Gruntz, with whom he began a longstanding association. Ambrosetti’s quintet in the mid-1960s consisted of his son Franco, Gruntz, Daniel Humair, and a number of different double bass players; it appeared at many festivals and broadcast on radio and television. This quintet became the nucleus of a large ensemble which in ...

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Peter Schwalm

revised by Simon Adams and Barry Kernfeld

(b Lugano, Switzerland, Dec 10, 1941). Swiss trumpeter and flugelhorn player, son of Flavio Ambrosetti. He first learned piano from the age of eight. When he was 17 he taught himself to play trumpet, and from 1963 he performed with his father’s quintet, alongside George Gruntz and Daniel Humair. In 1964 he recorded with Gato Barbieri (under the leadership of the Italian double bass player Giorgio Azzolini) and with Gruntz, with whom he remained associated into the 1990s; in 1965 he made his first recording as a leader. The following year he won first prize in the trumpet category at a competition sponsored by Friedrich Gulda, and in 1967 he appeared at the Monterey Jazz Festival as a member of his father’s quintet, captured in the film documentary Monterey Jazz Festival (1967); during the same period he earned a master’s degree in economics from the University of Basel. In ...

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Rick Mattingly

[Robert Lane ]

(b New Haven, CT, Dec 7, 1960). American drummer. After studying drums with Ed Blackwell and classical percussion at Yale University (graduating in 1982) he moved to New York and toured and recorded with Dave Valentin (from 1983). He recorded with Dizzy Gillespie (1984, 1988) and maintained an affiliation with the actor and singer Ruben Blades over an extended period (from 1985), during which he toured the Americas, Europe, and Japan, made numerous recordings, and appeared in the film The Return of Ruben Blades (1987); later he toured and recorded with the group Seis del Solar (from 1992), which both accompanied Blades and performed on its own. In 1986 he toured with Paquito D’Rivera, and the following year he began a long association with Kip Hanrahan, with whom he made several tours and recordings. Ameen has been in demand as a studio musician and recorded with Hilton Ruiz and the pianist Bill O’Connell (...

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Brad Madson and Lew Shaw

[AFJS]

Organization formed in 1985 to facilitate international communication among jazz societies, festivals, and presenters. It aids operational aspects involving the aforementioned, provides a forum for interaction within the jazz community, researches current trends, and publishes a quarterly newsletter (Federation Jazz) and manuals on operations, membership recruitment and retention, event production and promotion, fund-raising, and jazz education. The organization holds national and regional meetings, has experts available on the Internet, and maintains a Washington legislative watch. With a membership of more than 100,000, it undertakes cooperative ventures with other national and regional groups committed to the preservation, performance, and advancement of jazz. The AFJS maintains a central office in Sacramento, California....