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Article

Andreas Marti and Bert Polman

The music of Protestant denominations belonging to (or inspired by) the Reformed tradition inaugurated by Ulrich Zwingli and, particularly, Jean Calvin in Switzerland during the early decades of the 16th century. In almost all the Churches metrical-psalm singing has remained the distinguishing musical element of their worship.

The Reformation ushered in by Ulrich Zwingli in Zürich in 1525 caused a break with traditional worship and its music. Unlike Luther, Zwingli did not preach within the framework of the Mass but in a special form of service based on the sermon. The liturgy employed for such a service, whose roots lay in late medieval practice, was entirely (or almost entirely) said rather than sung. At this early stage of the Reformation congregational singing within the liturgy was a rare occurrence, so that after the celebration of the Mass declined in Zürich and the preaching service became the central act of worship, liturgical music lost its foothold. That congregational singing was not introduced in Zürich in the years following the Reformation was probably connected with Zwingli’s death in ...

Article

Karl-Heinz Schlager

Benedictine monastery on the island of the same name in Lake Constance. Founded in 724, it was a prominent centre of intellectual life until the 10th century. According to tradition, Charles Martel made the island over to the missionary Pirmin after defeating the Alemanni in 722. Charlemagne, another early patron, made the monastery independent of the diocese of Konstanz. In 815 Reichenau received the privilege of immunity and freedom to elect its own abbot. From 846 to 849 the connections of the monastery reached as far as St Denis, Corvey and Fulda in the north and Rome in the south; but by the mid-9th century Reichenau was already beginning to take second place to St Gallen.

The Reichenau monastery school, modelled on that of Tours, was set up under Abbot Waldo (786–806) in accordance with the aims of Carolingian educational reform. Of interest to historians of medieval music theory are a number of liturgical, mathematical and musical writings produced by men associated with this school, including Abbot ...

Article

Richard Sherr

(Lat.: ‘to be repeated’)

In Western chant, a section to be repeated, such as the refrain in hymns or the last part of the respond of a responsory, which is repeated after the psalm verse. In Ordo romanus I (second half of the 8th century) and later, the term ‘versus ad repetendum’ designated extra psalm verses added as needed to the Mass introit and communion. According to Husmann, the words ‘ad repetendum’ were also used in the Middle Ages for additional tropes to the introit antiphon....

Article

Ruth Steiner

revised by Keith Falconer

[Improperia]

A series of chants sung on Good Friday during the Veneration of the Cross, the texts of which tell of God’s generosity to his chosen people and man’s faithlessness. The low Latin word ‘improperia’ originally meant vulgar insults, but in this context signifies reproaches. It is possible to distinguish three different series of Reproaches in the manuscripts; these may be designated the greater, the lesser and the Aquitanian.

The greater Reproaches begin with the verse ‘Popule meus, quid feci tibi? aut in quo contristavi te? responde mihi’ set to a 1st-mode melody in neumatic style in which there are four balanced phrases, with a melodic climax reached in the third of them. There are three more sections, beginning ‘Quia eduxi te de terra Aegypti’, ‘Quia eduxi te per desertum’ and ‘Quid ultra debui facere tibi’. The first of these immediately follows ‘Popule meus’; in it, the two halves of the ‘Popule meus’ melody are slightly modified, and stated in the form ...

Article

Paul Frederick Cutter, Brad Maiani, Davitt Moroney and John Caldwell

[Great responsory of Matins and Vespers; responsorium prolixum]

Paul Frederick Cutter, assisted by Brad Maiani

A category of Western chant serving at Matins and monastic Vespers as musical postludes to the reading of lessons, as the gradual and alleluia do at the Mass. Indeed, responsories make up the greater part of Matins, and in the total repertory of Roman chant are surpassed in quantity only by Office antiphons. From about 600 in their earliest musical source, the Hartker manuscript dating from about 1000 (PalMus, 2nd ser., i, 1900, 2/1970), the number of responsories increased to nearly 1000 in the 13th-century Worcester Antiphoner (PalMus, 1st ser., xii, 1922/R).

The responsories of the Office (like the gradual and alleluia of the Mass) are termed responsorial chants because in them choir responds with a refrain to verses sung by a cantor. In method of delivery they are clearly related to responsorial psalmody, although it is important that a distinction be maintained between the more ancient practice of responsorial psalm singing and the specific liturgical genre that bears its name....

Article

John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham and David Hiley

In 

Article

This article surveys the liturgical and ‘paraliturgical’ music of the Roman Catholic Church from the time of the Council of Trent (1545–63), summoned by Pope Paul III to counteract the changes taking place in the Church in the wake of the Reformation.

The liturgical diversification that had occurred in Europe during the first half of the 16th century was to have a profound effect both on the role of music in worship and on its style. Some Reformers rejected all music except unison congregational song, while others saw the value of continuing older practices and adapting contemporary musical styles to a new repertory in the vernacular. The Council, in response, reasserted the use of Latin and Latin plainchant in the Catholic liturgy, prohibited singing in the vernacular, approved the use of polyphony and rejected secular musical influences. From this point in the history of music, therefore, it is possible to begin to speak of a distinctly ‘Roman Catholic’ musical tradition....

Article

Miloš Velimirović, Irene Lozovaya, Gregory Myers and Leonora DeCarlo

Miloš Velimirović

The Slavs as an ethnic group are divided into eastern Slavs (i.e. Russians, ‘Little Russians’ or Ukrainians, and ‘White Russians’ or Belorussians), western Slavs (Poles, Czechs, Slovaks and Lusatian Sorbs) and southern Slavs (Bulgarians, Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, as well as Montenegrins and Macedonian Slavs).

The eastern Slavs and some of the southern Slavs (except for Croats and Slovenes) accepted Christianity in its Eastern Orthodox form. The remaining Slavonic groups were converted to Roman Catholicism, although some of them had contacts at various times with Eastern Orthodoxy through the intermediary role of Greek missionaries. Within this article only the Eastern Orthodox Slavs will be discussed, that is, those who accepted the Christian religion from the Greeks and the accompanying ritual in its Greek form but translated the services into the Old Church Slavonic language, the root of all Slavonic languages. This language evolved over many centuries. After the 11th century it became Church Slavonic with strong regional variants so that one may speak of various national recensions of Church Slavonic as it is recorded in written documents....

Article

Article

Salii  

Geoffrey Chew

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(Lat.: ‘dancers’)

Company (sodalitas) of priests in ancient Rome and other Italian cities responsible for certain rites, especially those of Mars. Two such companies existed at Rome, the Salii Palatini and Salii Collini, each with 12 members. On certain prescribed days in March and October they held a procession, with stations at which they performed ...

Article

Nicholas Sandon

[‘Sarum’]

The customs, liturgy and chant of the medieval cathedral of Salisbury (‘Sarum’ is an incorrect expansion of the contracted form of ‘Sarisburia’, the Latin name for Salisbury). Sarum chant and liturgy were paramount in later medieval England, and much English sacred polyphony of the period was performed within its context. The modern fame of the Use of Sarum is to a great extent an accidental product of the political and religious preoccupations of 19th-century English ecclesiastics and ecclesiologists. The Use certainly deserves attention and respect as an outstanding intellectual achievement, but it is far from unique, and the fascination that it has exerted still threatens to limit rather than increase our understanding of the medieval English Church.

A Use is a body of custom sufficiently distinctive and defined to be identified with a particular ecclesiastical foundation or group of foundations such as a cathedral church and its diocesan churches or with a religious order such as the Cistercians or Dominicans. Though not confined to the later Middle Ages, the concept of Use was thoroughly exploited during this period because it was well attuned to contemporary attitudes and conditions: the prominent role of the Church; the elaborateness of the liturgy; the desire to create and codify minutely ordered systems; and the strength of regionalism....

Article

Ray Steadman-Allen

The founder of the Salvation Army, William Booth (1829–1912), was a former Wesleyan Methodist minister whose experience as a pawnbroker’s assistant in Nottingham inspired him to take the gospel to the poor and socially unacceptable. The movement began in the slums of Whitechapel in 1865 as the East London Christian Mission. Although Booth did not originally envisage the expansion of his mission into a larger organization, new ‘stations’ were soon established. His movement took the name of the Salvation Army in 1878; its organization and hierarchy were based upon that of the British army, and Booth became its first General.

In 1868 Booth issued the Christian Mission Hymn Book, a compilation of hymns specifically designed for his organization, and in 1875 he published a further collection of hymns, Revival Music, this time including tunes. A third collection, Salvation Army Songs, followed in 1878, from which time the term ‘song’ has generally replaced ‘hymn’ in Salvation Army music....

Article

Avigdor Herzog

The tradition of sacred vocal (synagogue) music of the Samaritans, a religious community (which in 1999 numbered about 640), living in Nablus (Shechem) and Holon near Tel-Aviv. They claim descent from the ancient Israelites, and their music and the manner of its performance have many apparently archaic features. The Samaritans differ from the Jews in a number of ways, recognizing only the Pentateuch as canonical (and no other books of the Bible) and regarding Mt Gerizim (near Nablus) rather than Jerusalem as the supreme holy place (see John iv.20).

Samaritan music is an oral tradition sung at synagogue services and at other religious and social gatherings. It consists of performances of literary texts (the Pentateuch and prayers in Hebrew, and hymns in Samaritan Aramaic) and is sung only by men. Although old manuscripts contain Samaritan biblical accents for guiding the reading of the texts, these are no longer used today. Samaritan music can be divided into three categories: songs sung by the whole community; those sung by both a soloist and the community; and solo songs. The group songs are more syllabic in style and rhythmically repetitious, and have fewer glissandos and tremolos than solo music. They are sometimes sung in unison, but mostly antiphonally, the worshippers being divided into two groups, one on the right-hand side of the synagogue facing Mt Gerizim, the other on the left; the former group is termed the ‘right’ or ‘upper’ group, the latter the ‘left’ or ‘lower’ group. Alternate groups of verses drawn from the Pentateuch (called ‘Qataf’), or important hymns (in Samaritan Aramaic) are taken by the two groups, beginning with the ‘right’ group together with the priests; each group begins as the other reaches approximately the midpoint of its verses, so that there is an almost continuous bitextual performance. All the group songs are characterized by improvised parallel polyphony, in which all the intervals are at times found, and in which there are also usually drones and notes of indefinite pitch (...

Article

Sanctus  

Richard L. Crocker

revised by David Hiley

An acclamation of the Latin Mass, sung by choir or congregation at the conclusion of the Preface, just before the Canon, as the musical item most closely associated with the eucharistic phase of the Mass. Since the text of the Sanctus does not change from day to day, it is counted as part of the Ordinary of the Mass. Numerous melodies were composed from the 10th century onwards; a selection of these is contained in the Liber usualis, Masses I to XVIII, together with three ad libitum melodies.

The Sanctus text is the oldest of the acclamations of the Mass, even though it seems to have been added to the Eucharistic Prayer some time between the 1st century and the 5th. It functions as a conclusion for, and people’s response to, the Preface (sung by the celebrant), a rehearsal of God’s acts with particular emphasis on those for which thanks are to be rendered on a given occasion. In the early centuries (at least until 800), the Sanctus was sung by everyone, clergy and people, as a terrestrial analogue of the celestial praises of Cherubim and Seraphim described in ...

Article

Joseph Dyer

A term applied principally to the choir that sang during solemn papal ceremonies in the Middle Ages. Architectural historians sometimes use ‘schola cantorum’ to refer to a large marble choir enclosure that stood in the nave of some medieval Roman churches, but these structures had no connection with the papal singers.

The origins and early history of the Schola Cantorum are obscure. Its foundation has been associated since the 9th century with Pope Gregory I (pontificate 590–604), but most modern scholars are sceptical of these legends. Neither the Liber pontificalis nor the earliest biographies of the pope mention a ‘schola cantorum’. The first reference to an organized body of singers at Rome occurs in the biography of Pope Sergius I (687–701), who had been assigned to the ‘priori cantorum’ for his education. Liturgical reforms implemented in the 670s, just at the time when Sergius first arrived in Rome, might have included provisions for a permanent choir of papal singers. The Schola Cantorum certainly existed by the beginning of the 8th century, since its liturgical functions are described in detail in the ceremonial books known as the ...

Article

Richard L. Crocker, John Caldwell and Alejandro Enrique Planchart

(Lat. sequentia)

A category of medieval Latin chant (also called Prosa or ‘prose’) which flourished from about 850 to 1150. Throughout that period both its musical and literary importance were great; and from about 850 to 1000, when the large repertories were firmly established, the sequence represented one of the most important kinds of music produced in the West – important because of its intrinsic musical values as well as its historical significance for the development of style in general.

Richard L. Crocker

Since the sequence itself underwent profound structural modifications in its development, it is not possible to give a simple definition of its form that holds for the entire period; with that reservation, the sequence can be described as a piece of sacred chant of ample dimensions, in length as well as melodic range, set syllabically with a Latin text. The text consisted mostly of a series of couplets each having two isosyllabic lines sung to the same melody; each couplet was different from the preceding couplet in melody and usually in length. In earlier sequences the text was not governed by regular accent patterns or by end-rhyme, hence was indeed ‘prose’. After 1000 the texts scanned and rhymed to an increasing degree, finally becoming verse....

Article

Richard L. Crocker

A wordless melody associated with the alleluia of the Mass in the Franco-Roman liturgy. In his Liber officialis (c830) Amalar of Metz identified as sequentia a melisma replacing a repetition of the alleluia after the verse. Such sequentiae are first documented as additions to the Compiègne antiphoner F-Pn lat.17436, a manuscript dated to the end of the 9th century. Hence sequentiae, without texts, are attested before (texted) sequences (i.e. prosae), and it was formerly assumed that the latter developed from the former; Anselm Hughes in his Anglo-French Sequelae (London, 1934) proposed that the term ‘sequela’, not previously used in a musical sense, be taken to denote ‘the melody … in this primitive [wordless] condition’, so as to avoid ambiguity with the word ‘sequence’. But the ambiguity is not intolerable, and the view that the sequentia represents a primitive condition of the sequence is in any case debatable. The relationship of these terms continues to be argued, but the tendency in recent scholarship has been to use ‘sequentia’ as Amalar used it – an expanded melisma to replace the usual repetition of the jubilus after the alleluia verse, and ‘sequence’ for the genre – melodies with or without words....

Article

Victor Fell Yellin

revised by H. Wiley Hitchcock

The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, popularly known as Shakers or Shaking Quakers, was a millenarian community under the leadership of Ann Lee (1736–84) of Manchester, England, who emigrated to America in 1774. The Shakers believed that Mother Ann was the female incarnation of the dual Saviour, fulfilling the Gospel prophecy of Christ’s second coming, and to be certain of salvation they remained unmarried and sexually abstinent, organizing their reclusive lives around work and prayer. By the mid-19th century the sect had some 4000–6000 adherents residing in about 20 Shaker villages from Maine to Indiana and Kentucky; it was by far the most successful of all the 19th-century American communal societies. After the urbanization and industrialization of the eastern USA following the Civil War, Shaker communities gradually declined. By the end of the 20th century they were all but extinct, their only remaining influence lying in their simple but functional furniture, much prized by collectors, their cooking and their music....

Article

Article

Shofar  

Jeremy Montagu

(Heb., pl. shofarot)

The ram's horn of the Bible; it is the only ancient Jewish liturgical instrument that survived the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 ce and is still in use. For a discussion of the shofar in biblical times, see Biblical instruments, §3, (x); see also Jewish music, §II.

In post-biblical times, the shofar was still widely used for signalling, not only as an alarm but also with some symbolical intent on occasions of natural or man-made catastrophe such as droughts, famine or raging inflation. It was also used on occasions of rejoicing and jubilation (the word ‘jubilee’ is derived from the name of a special form of the instrument, the shofar ha-yovel), a practice still in use today among the Sephardim.

The Ashkenazim, however, use the shofar only during the month of Ellul, on Rosh Hashanah (New Year; the first day of the following month) and Yom Kippur. On Rosh Hashanah it is blown at several points during the service, symbolically to call Israel together and to summon all Jews to repentance and to God; all adult male Jews are under obligation to hear the shofar on this day. Four calls are blown in varying combinations at each point (...