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Article

Dukrā  

Alastair Dick

Pair of small wooden drums of Kashmir, South Asia. They are played with the fingers as part of the devotional art-music ensemble sūfiāna kalām. The dukrā are the Kashmiri representatives of a tablā prototype drum pair found in northwest India and Pakistan and known elsewhere as dukkar (Punjab), dhukkar (Sind), and so on. Like the tablā, by which it is now sometimes replaced, the dukrā has a small treble right-hand drum and a larger bass left-hand one, both with a double skin braced by leather V-lacings running between two leather hoops, the upper laced to the skins and the lower held by a ledge at the bottom of the drums. The treble also has wooden tuning-blocks. Unlike the Hindustani instruments both drums are of wood and are the same shape—a lightly tapering truncated cone (like the right-hand tablā). Another difference is in the permanent black tuning-paste in the middle of the skin of the treble drum. The dukrā is a recent substitute for the ...

Article

Dumbak  

Patricia Matusky

Drum of Sarawak, Malaysia. Its cylindrical wooden body is about 60 cm long. At both ends of the body a head about 22 cm in diameter made of tree bark or animal skin (typically cow, goat, or deer) is stretched across the opening. Rattan laces sewn into the edge of each head connect to the closer of two braided rattan hoops surrounding the body some 10 to 15 cm from each rim. The two hoops are further secured and connected with rattan laces running along the body in a criss-cross pattern. Small wooden wedges inserted between the body and the hoops tauten the heads. Usually one head is struck with the player’s hand and the other with a bamboo stick, but sometimes a pair of sticks is used to strike both heads. The Bidayuh people use the dumbak together with hanging, bossed gongs, and the Iban people include it in their ...

Article

Alastair Dick

The most ancient known drum name of India, found in Sanskrit texts from the late 2nd millennium bce to about the 13th century ce. Its type has not been identified with certainty, but references throughout the period indicate a loud drum connected especially but not exclusively with war. The name is doubtless onomatopoeic.

The Ṛgveda mentions the dundubhi in contexts associated with Indra (god of thunder, war, etc.), and the Yajurveda states that the spirit of the trees resides in it, as in the flute and the harp, thus indicating that it was of wood; the Atharvaveda, in an incantation, has the dundubhi played by ‘the Goddess around the house’, together with the karkarí (probably a chordophone). Ritual texts of the 1st millennium bce record an earth-drum (bhūmidundubhi) used in the winter-solstice rite mahāvrata, which consisted of the hide of the sacrificed beast being stretched over a pit and beaten with its own tail. The association of the dundubhi with war continues in epic and classical literature, and terms such as ...

Article

Dungu  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Cylindro-conical kettledrum of the Nkundo, Jia, and Sakata peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The partially hollowed wooden body usually contains small rattling stones and is usually painted red or red and white. The closed lower end is covered with a hide to which the goatskin head is fastened by leather cords. The height varies between 50 and 160 cm. ...

Article

Dungur  

Helen M. Faller

Obsolete double-headed drum of Tatarstan. It was played by the Tatars of the Middle Volga region. It was cylindrical or oval, about 1 metre tall and 30 to 40 cm in diameter, and was played with the fingers and palms. Two silver coins were hung on the body. The nägrä...

Article

Dunun  

Rainer Polak

[dundun, djoundjoung; ngangan, konkonin]

Double-headed cylindrical drum with several varieties widespread among Manding-speaking peoples and their neighbours in the Sahel and Sudan belts of West Africa (Senegal, Gambia, Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast). Dunun also is a generic term for ‘drum’ in Manding languages.

The bodies are traditionally carved from wood, but modern shells are often trimmed from recycled metal containers. The heads, of cow, calf, or goat skin, are sewn to a strap running around the shell just below the rim. The straps of both heads are connected by lacing, which applies tension to the heads. The lacing, formerly rawhide or leather, is nowadays mainly synthetic rope. In urban and international contexts, the traditional sewing technique for mounting the heads tends to be replaced by clamp tensioning with iron rings, following the model of the modern jembe drum. Only one head is struck, with a single curved or rectangularly hafted drumstick made from wood or raffia palm leaf stalk. Some ...

Article

Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

[jvaḥnagarā]

Pair of kettledrums of Nepal. Made of clay, one is about 15 cm tall and 20 cm in diameter, the other about 25 cm tall and 33 cm in diameter. The drums are tied together by a piece of cloth. They are played with two sticks in the Patan navabājā...

Article

Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

[dyokhim] (‘god drum’)

Barrel drum of Nepal. The wooden body is about 75 cm long, the cowhide heads 30 and 20 cm in diameter and tuned with paste. The higher-pitched head is named Nāsaḥ after the Newar god of music and the lower is named Makah after the god Mahankal. The drum is played by the hands and accompanies A ṩṭamātṛka masked dances in the Kathmandu Valley, e.g. the Navadurgā pyākhã in Bhaktapur and Theco, the Jala pyākhã in Harisiddhi, and the Pacāli Bhairav pyākhã in Kathmandu. These drums are decorated with ram horns. Attached to the Bhaktapur dyaḥokhīĩm is a small silver mask of Mahakali and a silver container of soot from the annual sacrifice of the Kame buffalo. The soot is used to decorate the dancers’ foreheads and transport them into a trance.

T. Korvald: ‘The Dancing Gods of Bhaktapur and their Audience’, Anthropology of Nepal: Peoples, Problems and Processes, ed. ...

Article

Dyegele  

Konin Aka

Term for a xylophone or ensemble of xylophones and kettledrums of the Senufo people in the Korhogo region of the Ivory Coast. The ensemble normally comprises three or four frame xylophones, each with 12 bars slung on cords attached to the frame at each end. Under each bar is a gourd resonator with spider’s web mirliton. All the xylophones have the same pentatonic tuning; they are accompanied by three wooden kettledrums. The players wear iron jingles on their wrists. The ...

Article

Edjwa  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Single-headed tronco-conical drum of the Sengele people of the Lake Mai Ntombe region, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The body is about 50 cm tall and has a handle on the side. The head is laced to a tension band which is nailed around the body.

O. Boone: Les tambours du Congo belge et du Ruanda-Urundi...

Article

Ekulu  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[ekuku]

Drum of the Tetela people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The ekuku of the Doko is a war drum that is also used in rituals after the death of an important person. The ekulu and ekuku are both played with a stick.

O. Boone: Les tambours du Congo belge et du Ruanda-Urundi...

Article

Emidiri  

Peter Cooke

[emudiri]

Drum of the Teso people of Uganda. It is called emidiri in Soroti and Serere, and emudiri in Ngora, Kumi, and Pallisa districts. It is cylindrical, open at the bottom, approximately 1 metre long and 30 cm in diameter, and is held between the knees and beaten by the flat of the hand. The drum is played for the birth of twins, usually with two smaller ...

Article

Paul Yoon

(b Los Angeles, CA, April 2, 1953). American taiko artist. Of Japanese American descent, he studied drumming, especially jazz and rock, from an early age. He first experienced taiko in the early 1970s and joined Kinnara Taiko in 1975. His interest in taiko was fueled by an emergent sense of his ethnic identity. He went on to study with the San Francisco Taiko Dojo in 1976. Endo felt that it was important to emphasize the Asian aspects of his heritage, and to this end he traveled to Japan in 1980. For the next decade he studied kumi daiko (ensemble drumming), hogaku hayashi (classical drumming), and matsuri bayashi (festival drumming), and he became the first non-native to receive a natori (stage name), Mochizuki Tajiro, in hogaku hayashi. While in Japan, he studied with and was a performing member of Oedo Sukeroku Taiko and Osuwa Daiko. He moved to Honolulu in ...

Article

Endumba  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Engwara  

Peter Cooke

Mirliton of Busoga, eastern Uganda. It is made from a section of the long neck of a gourd, with its narrow end covered by the membrane from spider’s egg capsules. With its mouth-hole cut into the side, it resembles a small, side-blown gourd trumpet, but it is sung into, not blown, by women members of the ...

Article

Furruco  

J. Richard Haefer

[furro]

Friction drum of Venezuela, similar to the Spanish zambomba, often played in pairs. It is a hollow log about 50 to 60 cm tall and 20 cm in diameter. Its single skin head is laced to the bottom of the instrument. A thin, lightly waxed stick about 60 cm long with a small knob on one end stands vertically with the knob touching the top of the head and is rubbed by the fists of both hands. The ...

Article

Gaaw  

J. Richard Haefer

Generic term for drums, and specifically the frame drum, of the Tlingit and Haida peoples of Alaska. The circular frame, about 30 to 35 cm in diameter, is made from willow wood. The single head, of elk skin, is wetted and then dried around the frame. The head is tied across the back of the frame with sinew strips crossing at the centre to form a grip. It is struck with a willow stick about 30 cm long with a padded hide tip. The head is usually decorated on the outside in black, red, and green colours depicting crests symbolizing the clan of the owner. Some instruments are also decorated on the inner surface. The term gaaw may be modified with an adjective to denote other objects, for example lákt gaaw is a box drum and gaaw hít a drum house.

The lgheli is a similar instrument of the Dena’ina (Tanaina Athabascan) people of Alaska. It is not decorated and the head is of moose skin. The drumstick is padded with a small piece of sheepskin pelt....

Article

Henry Johnson

Type of Japanese drum used in gagaku (court music). The name gakudaiko points to the context of performance and to the form of the instrument: gaku (referring to gagaku); daiko/taiko (drum). The gakudaiko is also known by several other names, including gagakudaiko (‘drum of gagaku’) and tsuridaiko (‘suspended drum’). The general term taiko is also used for the instrument. More generally, the term gakudaiko is also used to refer collectively to gagaku drums; and a further use of the term is to refer to a similar drum (hiratsuridaiko) used in kabuki. While used primarily in gagaku, the drum is also known in some Buddhist and Shintō contexts. The gakudaiko is a double-headed frame drum with a shallow barrel shape. It has a cattle-skin head at each end that is attached to the wooden body by metal studs all around the circumference. The body is about 21 cm long and 53 to 58 cm in diameter. A characteristic of the ...

Article

John Okell

[gan-dama]

Double-headed barrel drum of Myanmar. About 40 cm long, with heads measuring about 18 and 15 cm in diameter, it rests on a low horizontal trestle and occasionally is used in the si-daw ensemble. It might resemble the obscure kpen ‘n ‘ok horizontal barrel drum of the Mon people of Myanmar and Thailand....

Article

Ganrang  

Mayco A. Santaella

Double-headed cylindrical drum of the Makassarese people in South Sulawesi. The body is made of wood, with heads tensioned by strings. A dance from this region is accompanied by two drummers, one playing the ganrang palari (with a faster moving rhythm) and the other the ganrang pattannang (with a slower steady rhythm) along with the continuous sound of the ...