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Douglas Johnson

(b Lüdenscheid, Westphalia, Nov 12, 1817; d Graz, Oct 29, 1882). German musicologist, teacher and composer . After studying in Berlin (1838–9) and in Leipzig (1840–45), where he knew and was taught by both Mendelssohn and Schumann, he moved permanently to Vienna in 1846. There he gave lessons in theory and the piano, composed, and in later years devoted himself increasingly to various scholarly activities. His circle of friends included Brahms, Joachim and many of the important scholars of his day. Although Kalbeck, in his biography of Brahms, described Nottebohm’s character in unflattering terms, Brahms and Nottebohm were frequent companions and even lodged together for a time in 1870. Brahms also referred private pupils to Nottebohm and recommended his scholarly articles to the publishers Rieter-Biedermann.

Nottebohm’s compositions, mostly small piano pieces and chamber works with piano, achieved no lasting popularity, and it is for his scholarly accomplishments that he is remembered, though the full significance of his work has become somewhat obscured. At a decisive period for musicology, he and such contemporaries as Jahn, Köchel, Pohl, Thayer, Spitta and Chrysander developed a new approach to biography, based on documentary fact rather than personal reminiscence, and a new methodology for editing music through critical evaluation of all the available source materials. Nottebohm, one of the first acknowledged experts in textual criticism, was asked by Breitkopf & Härtel in ...


Alina Pahlevanian

[Oganyan, Aleksandr]

(b Soganlug, Georgia, 1889; d Tbilisi, May 31, 1932). Armenian k‘emanch‘a player, teacher, theorist and composer. He began to play the k‘emanch‘a at the age of seven and joined a sazander ensemble in which he played the tiplipito and the duduk as well as the k‘emanch‘a. He became a soloist in the composer Anton Mailian's Eastern Orchestra in Baku in 1905 and often appeared with the instrumental ashugh group Haziri in Tbilisi. In the same year he toured the Transcaucasian region, Central Asia and Iran with two mugam performers, the singer D. Karyagdogli and the t‘a player K. Pirimov. During the period 1906–12 recordings of his performances of classical mugam and Armenian dance music were released by the companies Kontzert-Rekord, Patye and Sport-Rekord. He studied the k‘emanch‘a with Oganez Oganezov, an authority on the Persian mugam, and took the pseudonym Oganezashvili (‘son of Oganez’) in his honour; Oganezashvili added a fourth string to the ...


Árni Heimir Ingólfsson

(b Berlin, May 17, 1912; d Lund, March 10, 1974). Icelandic musicologist, conductor and composer of German birth . The son of the musicologist Otto Abraham, he studied in Berlin at the Hochschule für Musik (1932–4) and privately with Sachs. After leaving Germany in 1934, he continued his studies with Scherchen in Paris and then moved to Iceland in 1935, becoming an Icelandic citizen in 1947. He gained the doctorate from the University of Iceland in 1959 with a dissertation on a 14th-century rhymed office for St Thorlakur, the patron saint of Iceland. He taught musicology, theory and conducting at the Reykjavík College of Music, and was appointed docent at the theological faculty of the University of Iceland in 1966. He served as music director of the Icelandic Lutheran church (1961–74) and prepared a thoroughly revised edition of the Lutheran hymnal (first ed. 1972)....


Katy Romanou

(b Ortaköy [Ortakioi], Bithynia [now Geyve, Turkey], 1869; d Constantinople, July 23, 1915). Greek ethnomusicologist, musicologist, music teacher, and composer. He was taught Byzantine music as a child in Ortaköy, finished the Varvakeion school in Athens, and studied philology at the University of Athens, and music in the Odeion Athinon (‘Athens Conservatory’). In 1895 Pachtikos settled in Constantinople, and was involved in the leading cultural institutions of the Greek Orthodox community, such as the Ellinikos Filologikos Syllogos (‘Greek Literary Society’) and the Ekklisiastikos Mousikos Syllogos (‘Ecclesiastical Music Society’). He also composed music for and staged performances of ancient Greek tragedies and comedies, collected folk music, and, in 1912–15 edited Mousiki, a monthly music periodical with polyethnic collaborators (from Turkey to the USA), in which over 180 of his own articles were published.

Through these activities, Pachtikos contributed to the growing interest among the literati Greeks in Constantinople – immersed in the study of Byzantium – in ancient Greek culture. He was well informed on the studies of ancient Greek music in Western Europe, while his own work was presented in important editions, such as the ...


Anastasia Siopsi

(b Piraeus, 1897; d Piraeus, 1981). Greek composer, music teacher, conductor, music manager, and historian.

He studied music theory with Geōrgios Lampelet and Armando Marsik at Athens Conservatory, and continued his studies in Leipzig with Fritz Benesevic and Max Steinizer. From 1914, and for several years, he was a teacher of vocal training in several schools and a professor in the Academy of Film Studies, of the Higher School of Cinema. He was a member of the board of the organization ‘Ellēnikon Melodrama’ [Greek Melodrama] and directing advisor; founder and conductor of the choir in the church of the Greek community in Leipzig; and founding member of the board of the Union of the Critics of the Theatre and Music, the organization ‘Arxaion Drama’ [Ancient Drama], the Greek Society of composers, writers, and publishers, among others. He was the director of the journal Mousika Chronika [Musical Chronicles] (...


Jeremy Dibble


(b Bournemouth, Feb 27, 1848; d Rustington, Sussex, Oct 7, 1918). English composer, scholar and teacher. Combining these three activities with a forceful personality and social position, he exercised a revitalizing influence on English musical life at a time in the 19th century when standards of composition, performance, criticism and education were low.

The sixth child from the first marriage of Thomas Gambier Parry, painter and art collector, Parry grew up at Highnam Court near Gloucester. While attending Twyford School, near Winchester, he became acquainted with S.S. Wesley at Winchester Cathedral. At Eton he received instruction from Sir George Elvey at St George's Chapel, Windsor, and obtained the BMus in 1866, before entering Exeter College, Oxford, to read law and modern history. During the summer of 1867 he studied in Stuttgart with Henry Hugo Pierson; this was the only formal musical training he received while at Oxford. After taking the BA in ...


Walter Aaron Clark


(b Tortosa, Feb 9, 1841; d Barcelona, Aug 9, 1922). Catalan composer, musicologist and teacher. He began his musical studies at the age of seven while a chorister at Tortosa Cathedral, receiving instruction in solfège, harmony and the transcription of popular song from Juan Antonio Nin y Serra. He was otherwise self-taught in music. During his early career he wrote a great deal of vocal music, mostly sacred, but devoted himself increasingly to opera and zarzuela after moving to Barcelona as deputy director of the Light Opera Company of the Teatro Circo in 1873. His operas L’ultimo Abenzeraggio (1874) and Quasimodo (1875) had their premières at the Gran Teatro del Liceo in that city. A year in Italy (1876–7) aroused his interest in musicology, and in Roman libraries he researched music history, aesthetics, folklore and early music. Subsequently he spent two years in Paris, where he composed opera and came under the influence of Wagner. After returning to Spain he settled in Barcelona and concentrated on musicology. He began publishing two journals in ...


Paul Lansky

(b Bayonne, NJ, May 6, 1915; d New York, Jan 23, 2009). American composer and theorist. He studied composition with Wesley La Violette (1934–8) and Krenek (early 1940s), and was awarded the BA at DePaul University (1938) and the PhD at New York University (1956). A member of the faculty at the University of Louisville (1949–57), the University of California, Davis (1957–61), and Queens College, CUNY (1961–84), he also held visiting professorships at Yale University (1965–6), the University of Southern California (summer 1965), SUNY, Buffalo (1971–2), the University of Pennsylvania (1976, 1980), Columbia University (1979, 1983), the University of California, Berkeley (Ernest Bloch Professor, 1989) and New York University (1994). He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters (1978) and the National Academy of Arts and Sciences (...


Nada Bezić

(b Zagreb, Oct 23, 1912; d Zagreb, Nov 20, 1989). Croatian composer, musicologist, and pedagogue. He studied composition with Blagoje Bersa and Franjo Dugan at the Zagreb Academy of Music, graduating in 1935, and earned the doctorate in law from the Zagreb University in 1937. Pettan was a teacher at the music school of the Zagreb Academy of Music (1941–51) and Lisinski Music School (1951–72, director 1951–3). His compositional style is marked by an expanded sense of tonality. In his opus of 75 compositions, most notable are his songs, while his only opera Arkun (1947) is still unperformed on stage. He wrote music for piano, various chamber ensembles, and orchestra, including several sonatas, two cantatas, an oratorio, and a mass. Although primarly a composer, Pettan is better known for his meticulous and trustworthy musicological research, primarily related to the history of Croatian music. His most important books include ...


Nicolae Gheorghiță

(b Achaias, Palaias Patras, Peloponnese, Greece, 1777; d Bucharest, Oct 10, 1821). Greek composer, psaltēs, teacher, historian, poet, copyist, and calligrapher. He studied Byzantine chant with his father Athanasios (the personal physician to Sultan Abdul Hamit (d 1789) and a servant of the Great Church), and with Iakovos Protopsaltēs (d 1800) and Petros Byzantios Fygas (d 1808) at the School of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Constantinople. In 1797 he settled in Bucharest, taking courses at the Princely Academy and at the same time teaching ecclesiastical chant at Căldărușani Monastery (1797–1809) and the schools of psaltic music in Bucharest (1809–16). He was acknowledged as an excellent performer on the tambur and keman, but also played the piano. He was the author of a musical grammar, The Theoretical and Practical Didaskalia of Church Music Written in Particular for the Tambur and Keman Instruments...


Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Reşiţe, Feb 17, 1932). Romanian composer, musicologist, journalist, writer, and teacher. Closely connected to his activities as a musicologist and author of monographs, analytical studies, essays, and music criticism, his compositional practice is characterised by expressive and lyrical works, where traditional (especially Byzantine psaltic) elements are mixed with new music.

He began his music education in Reşiţa and continued at the Municipal Conservatory of Timişoara. After a period of private study with Liviu Rusu (harmony, counterpoint, and musical forms) and Hedviga Haliţchi (piano), Popovici studied at the Bucharest Academy (1950–55) with Mihail Jora, Mihail Andricu (composition), and Theodor Rogalski (orchestration). In 1968 he attended the summer courses in Darmstadt.

Between 1968 and 2002 he was a music editor with the Romanian Radio, while also teaching at the National University of Music Bucharest and at the private universities Luceafărul and Spiru Haret. The composer himself outlined three periods of his creative development. The first one (...


Katy Romanou


(b Constantinople [Istanbul], May 19, 1866 or 1874; d Athens, July 9, 1949). Greek musicologist, music teacher, cantor, and composer. He was crucial in organizing a systematic teaching of Byzantine music in Greece and in establishing a uniform repertory and mode of interpretation in all church rites. After studying philology and theology in Constantinople and serving there as a cantor and a music teacher, he moved to Athens in 1904 to organize a course of Byzantine music in the Conservatory of Athens, an institution fully adapted to German and French music education. Through his articles (mainly in the music periodicals Phorminx (1901–10) and his own Nea [New] Phorminx (1921–2)), his lectures, and the performances he gave with his students, he was successful in changing prevailing ideas and practices, spreading the concept of the importance of preserving the ‘original’ sources.

The influence of equal temperament over Byzantine music performance was another concern of his. He organized concerts with the string professors of the Conservatory instructing them to use unorthodox tunings. In collaboration with the mathematician Stavros Vrachamis he designed, for teaching purposes, a keyboard of 42 keys in each octave, capable of producing all scales of the Byzantine echoi. An organ and a few harmoniums were constructed in 1924 in G.F. Steinmeyer’s factory in Oettingen in Germany; they were funded by his student Eva Palmer-Sikelianos, the American wife of the poet Angelos Sikelianos. Psachos gave the instruments her name (...


[BartolomeoRamos de Pareja, Bartolomé]

(b Baeza, Andalucía, c1440; d ?Rome, after 1490). Spanish theorist and composer active in Italy. His life is undocumented; all that is known about him comes from his own testimony or that of later writers. His first teacher was one Johannes de Monte. He claimed to have lectured at the University of Salamanca for a time, though his position (as later in Bologna) may have been unofficial. While there he wrote a treatise in Spanish (perhaps the one he elsewhere referred to as Introductorium seu Isagogicon) and a mass, both now lost. He went to Italy in the 1470s; his extended residence in Bologna is the best-recorded period of his life. There he lectured publicly on music (though not under the auspices of the university) and had private pupils, including Giovanni Spataro. His important Musica practica (ed. J. Wolf, Leipzig, 1901/R; ed. C. Terni, Madrid, ...


Josephine Wright

[Dr. Guy]

(b Chicago, IL, July 30, 1958). American musicologist, jazz pianist, composer, and arranger. He began piano study at an early age and commenced performing professionally at 18. After graduating from Northeastern Illinois University (BME, 1986), he taught for three years in Chicago public schools. He obtained both the MA (1991) and PhD in Music History and Musicology (1994) from the University of Michigan, writing a dissertation on Bud Powell under Richard Crawford. His academic appointments include tenures at Tufts University (1994–8) and the University of Pennsylvania (1998–), where he was promoted to professor of Music History and Africana Studies in 2009.

Ramsey specializes in African American and American music, jazz, film, and cultural studies as well as popular music and historiography. He has contributed numerous articles to major scholarly journals and reference books, served as a media consultant, and lectured widely on these topics. His honors include the Society of American Music’s Irving Lowens Award for best article (...


Paula Morgan

(b Minneapolis, July 30, 1916; d Palo Alto, CA, Sept 2, 2011). American musicologist and composer. He took the MA from the University of California, Berkeley in 1939 and the PhD in 1947 with Bukofzer; his other professors included Schoenberg, Bloch and Frederick Jacobi. He taught at Berkeley from 1944. In 1947 he joined the faculty of Stanford University, where he was made professor of music in 1957. He retired in 1984.

Ratner specialized in Classical and Romantic music, harmonic theory and analysis and investigations of musical form. His observations on these topics are contained in his two textbooks, Music: the Listener’s Art (1957) and Harmony, Structure and Style (1962). His later writings explored the use of ‘rhetorical’ devices (described in terms of musical procedures such as scoring, harmonic colour and phrasing) to define musical idioms. Many of his compositions, which include an overture, a concertino for trumpet and string orchestra, quartets and sonatas, have been recorded....


Peter Eliot Stone

[Antonín, Anton]

(b Prague, Feb 26, 1770; d Paris, May 28, 1836). Czech composer, active in France and Austria. Though a prolific composer, he was of particular importance as a theorist and teacher in early 19th-century Paris.

Reicha was only ten months old when his father Simon, an Old Town piper, died at the age of 30. About 1780 he felt that his education was suffering and ran away to his grandfather Václav Rejcha (1717–98) in Klatovy, Bohemia. Then he went to his aunt and uncle, Lucie Certelet and Josef Reicha, who adopted him. The fragmentary facts of the first 30 years in the life and works of Reicha often have been confused with those of his uncle, a virtuoso cellist, concert director and composer. Reicha learnt the violin and the piano from his uncle and also received instruction in the flute.

After the family moved to Bonn in ...


Janna Saslaw


(b Grossschönau, nr Varnsdorf, Oct 24, 1808; d Leipzig, April 9, 1879). German theorist, teacher and composer. From about 1818 he attended the Gymnasium at Zittau. In 1831 he went to Leipzig, where he began to study theology at the university but soon turned to music. On the founding of the Leipzig Conservatory in 1843, he was appointed teacher of harmony and counterpoint, with Hauptmann. From 1843 to 1847 he conducted the Leipzig Singakademie and after 1850 was organist at several churches. In 1868 he succeeded Hauptmann as Kantor of the Thomasschule and was named professor at the Conservatory.

As a composer, Richter was a classicist whose large choral works were influenced by Mendelssohn and Friedrich Schneider. His best-known compositions were the oratorio Christus der Erlöser (1849) and the cantata Dithyrambe op.48 (1859). He also wrote songs, sacred choral works, an overture, string quartets, organ works, violin and keyboard sonatas, and a cello sonata....


Paula Morgan

(b New York, April 22, 1944). American musicologist, pianist, conductor and composer. He studied with Persichetti at the Juilliard School of Music (BS 1964), with Reese at New York University (1964–6), at the University of Göttingen (1966–7) and with Lockwood, Mendel, Babbitt and Oster at Princeton University (MFA, 1969); he also worked with Stockhausen at the Darmstadt summer courses of 1961 and 1965. He held various positions with Nonesuch Records in New York (1964–75) and from 1970 to 1982 he was on the faculty of Brandeis University. He has also been a visiting faculty member at Harvard, New York University, Yale, Rutgers and Bard College. His principal areas of musicological research are Renaissance and Baroque music. He has advanced controversial theories about the performance of Bach’s vocal music, particularly the B minor Mass, and has presented these theories in both scholarly settings (notably in a long-running debate between Andrew Parrott, Ton Koopman and Christoph Wolff and Rifkin in ...


Josef Bek

(b Prague, June 18, 1920; d Prague, August 11, 2008). Czech musicologist and composer. He began studying musicology and aesthetics at Prague University in 1939, continuing after the German occupation and taking the doctorate under Hutter in 1947 with a dissertation on the music-theory bases of intonation. In composition he was at first a private pupil of Řídký; later he studied at the Prague Conservatory (1941–7) with Křička and in Hába's microtonal department (1945–7). After teaching at the academy's music department and the music faculty of Prague University he joined the Institute of Musicology (later the Institute of the Theory and History of Art) of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (1962), where he directed the department of theory (to 1971). From 1972 to 1980 he taught at the Institute of the Theory and History of Art. He gained the CSc in ...


La Wanda Blakeney

(b Erfurt, Germany, Aug 25, 1811; d Magdeburg, Aug 26, 1885). German organist, teacher, composer, and musicologist. After graduating with highest honors from Erfurter Lehrerseminar,Erfurt Teachers Seminary, Ritter studied piano with Hummel and later attended the Institut für die Ausbildung von Organisten und Musiklehrern in Berlin. Although considered one of the great organ virtuosos in Germany, Ritter chose to work primarily as a church organist. He served several churches in Erfurt and eventually held prestigious positions at cathedrals in Merseburg and Magdeburg. Ritter’s interests and abilities extended beyond the realm of church music. He taught organ and piano, edited older keyboard works with the music publisher G.W. Körner, and served as a consultant with organ builders in the construction and renovation of large organs. He also organised concerts, frequently conducting or performing as both an organist and pianist.

Ritter wrote more than 120 compositions, mostly for organ but also for voice, piano, orchestra, and chamber ensembles. He co-founded ...