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Jacqueline Avila and David Wright

(b Barcelona, Spain, Sept 22, 1933). Composer and teacher of Spanish birth. He began his musical studies at the Conservatorio del Liceu during the 1950s. In 1956, he won a scholarship to travel to New York to continue his musical education at the Juilliard School where he studied conducting with Igor Markevitch and composition with Aaron Copland, Norman Dello Joio, and Vincent Persichetti. After finishing his studies in 1960, he collaborated with painter Salvador Dalí in New York on a film satire about painter Piet Mondrian, which was realized for US television. Balada also developed his career as a teacher, accepting posts at the Walden School and the United Nations International School. In 1970, he accepted the position at Carnegie Mellon University as a professor of composition. Balada’s compositional style went through several stages throughout his career, influenced by experimental styles, folklore, drama, and the plastic arts. His works during the late 1960s follow a dramatic avant-garde style, exemplified in ...


Stuart Campbell

( b Nizhniy Novgorod, Dec 21, 1836/Jan 2, 1837; d St Petersburg, 16/May 29, 1910). Russian composer, conductor, teacher and pianist .

Balakirev was the son of a minor government official. His musical education began with his mother’s piano tuition and proceeded to a course of summer lessons in Moscow with Aleksandr Dubuque. At that time the leading musical figure and patron in Nizhniy Novgorod (and author of books on Mozart and Beethoven) was Aleksandr Ulïbïshev, and it was through his household pianist and musical organizer Karl Eisrich that Balakirev’s induction to music, embracing the crucial discoveries of Chopin and Glinka, continued. Eisrich and Ulïbïshev provided Balakirev with further opportunities to play, read and listen to music, and to rehearse other musicians in orchestral and choral works, including, when he was 14, Mozart’s Requiem. His first surviving compositions date from the age of 15. Balakirev’s formal education began at the Gymnasium in Nizhniy Novgorod and continued after his mother’s death in ...


Richard R. Bunbury

(b Easthampton, MA, March 27, 1872; d Canaan, NH, Sept 30, 1943). American composer, organist, conductor, and music educator. He graduated from Williston Seminary in Northampton, Massachusetts (1890), and studied music in Boston with George W. Chadwick and others (1890–93). He then returned to Northampton and became a church musician, recitalist, school music supervisor (beginning in 1899), and director of the Vocal Club of Northampton (1894–1904). In 1900 he took over the Institute of Music Pedagogy, a summer program for training school music supervisors. In 1904 he became a church music director, organist, and school music supervisor in Hartford, Connecticut, eventually moving to the Immanuel Congregational Church of Hartford (1917). He also founded and directed the all-male Choral Club of Hartford (1907–37), and directed the Mendelssohn Glee Club of New York City (1923–34). He received honorary degrees from Trinity College in Hartford (BA ...


H. Wiley Hitchcock

revised by Michael Meckna

(b Oberlin, OH, Aug 6, 1886; d Oak Bluffs, MA, July 2, 1971). American composer. He studied at Harvard University (BA 1907) with Walter Spalding and Frederick Converse, then went to Berlin, where he was a student of Artur Schnabel, Rudolf Ganz and Philippe Rüfer (1907–9). In 1912 he was appointed to the music faculty of Harvard, and remained there until his retirement in 1947. His music, cast in a post-Romantic, tonal and accessible style, is often marked by humour, occasionally by a satirical eclecticism. These traits are most apparent in his best-known pieces, two sets of piano variations on Mary had a little lamb (1924, 1943), in which each variation is in the style of a different composer, and in the Four Lyrical Satires for voice and piano.

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Charlotte J. Frisbie


(b Devil's Promenade, OK, July 8, 1931; d Santa Fe, Feb 9, 2007). American composer and music educator of Cherokee Indian, Quapaw Indian, French and Scottish descent. (Honganózhe is a Quapaw name that means ‘Grand Eagle’.) He studied at the University of Tulsa (BME 1954, BFA 1954, MM 1962) and had private composition lessons with Milhaud, Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Surinach and Labunski. After teaching in Oklahoma (1954–8), he was appointed director of music and performing arts at the Institute of American Indian Arts, Santa Fe (1962–9). Subsequently, as music programme director for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (1969–79), he developed a bicultural music education programme that earned him a Distinguished Service Award from the Central Office of Education and a citation in the Congressional Record (1975). Ballard held numerous university appointments and appeared internationally as a guest conductor and lecturer. Among his honours are National Indian Achievement Awards (...


Rreze Kryeziu

(b Gjakova, Kosovo, April 23, 1943). Kosovar Albanian composer. He finished music high school in Prizren (Kosovo) in 1963 and continued his higher education in composition at the Academy of Music in Ljubljana, where he studied under Matija Bravničar, graduating in 1967. In the same institution he finished his postgraduate studies in musicology (1965–9). Ballata also completed specializations in Italy, notably at the Academia Chigiana in Siena. After his studies he worked in the higher education school in Prishtina (1971–5) and is one of the founders of the Faculty of Music at the Hasan Prishtina University of Prishtina, where he continues to work.

Ballata is head of the Composers’ Society of Kosovo as well as founder of the Kosovar Musical Days Festival (1979). In 1991 he became a member of the Academy of Science and Arts in Kosovo and he moved to Slovenia where he stayed for several years not only working in ...


Ona Narbutienė

(b Mykolaïv, Ukraine, Dec 20, 1919; d Drushininkai, Lithuania, Nov 3, 1984). Lithuanian composer. Balsys grew up in Klaipėda (Memel), completing in 1939 his studies at the Lithuanian Gymnasium, where he had his first musical education, played in a wind ensemble, and began composing. He served as a school teacher in Kretinga (1941–5) and then studied composition at the State Conservatory in Vilnius with Antanas Račiūnas (1945–50), later studying at the Leningrad Conservatory in Voloshinov's masterclass (1950–53). From 1953 until his death Balsys lectured in composition and orchestration at the Lithuanian State Conservatory, becoming head of the composition department in 1960 and professor in 1969. He was president of the Lithuanian Composers’ Union (1962–71). His pupils included Benjaminas Gorbulskis, Algirdas Martainaitis and Vidmantas Bartulis. He was awarded the Lithuanian State Prize in 1960 and 1974.

The style of Balsys is closely linked to the Romantic and folkloristic traditions in Lithuanian music; he was one of the first to extend and deepen these traditions. His work can be divided into three periods. Until ...


J.A. Fuller Maitland

revised by Jeremy Dibble

(b London, June 13, 1831; d London, Nov 20, 1897). English composer and teacher. His first studies were with his father, H.J. Banister, a well-known cellist in his day. In 1846 he won the King’s Scholarship at the Royal Academy of Music, where he studied with Cipriani Potter. He subsequently became a sub-professor at the RAM and, from 1853, professor of harmony. From 1880 he was professor at the Guildhall School of Music and he also taught at the Royal Normal College for the Blind. Banister was a prolific composer of songs, piano pieces and overtures, but most important was his contribution to the mid-19th-century British symphony. Today, however, he is remembered primarily as a theorist.

Lectures on Musical Analysis (London, 1887, 3/1895) Musical Art and Study (London, 1887) George Alexander Macfarren (London, 1891) The Harmonising of Melodies (London, 1897) ed. S. Macpherson: Interludes (London, 1898) [seven lectures delivered between 1891 and 1897]...


Daniel Zager

[Jones, (Everett) LeRoi]

(b Newark, NJ, Oct 7, 1934). American writer. He studied piano, drums, and trumpet privately and attended Howard University (BA 1954). In the early 1960s he achieved wide recognition for his poetry and plays and for his writings about jazz, which included articles for Down Beat, Jazz, and Jazz Review; a selection of his writings, many from Down Beat, was published in 1967 as Black Music. His book Blues People (1963), the first full-length study of jazz by a black writer, is both a sociological inquiry, using blues and jazz as a means of understanding how African Americans became assimilated into American culture, and a superb discussion of the cultural context of the music in the United States. Besides his activities as a writer, Baraka has been involved in many black cultural and community projects. He was a founder of the Black Arts Repertory Theater-School, which was in existence from ...


Carlos Gómez Amat

(b Barcelona, Jan 27, 1876; d Barcelona, Feb 19, 1947). Catalan composer and teacher. In 1887 he entered the Barcelona Conservatory, to study the piano, harmony and composition, and later he was a pupil of Pedrell. He gave much of his time to teaching, collaborating in 1919 with María Montessori in studying music educational methods for primary schoolchildren. In his position at the Conservatory, he taught harmony, counterpoint, composition and orchestration, and was director until March 1938. He instructed many notable musicians, and was one of the driving forces behind Catalan musical life.

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Principal publisher: Boileau

T. Marco: Historia de la música española: siglo XX (Madrid, 1983; Eng. trans., 1993)...


Judith Nagley

revised by Susan Forscher Weiss


(b Bologna, July 24, 1586; d Bologna, Nov 1659). Italian composer, organist and teacher. He was organist at S Giacomo Maggiore, Bologna, where he presumably received his musical training, when, on 6 October 1610, he was appointed organist at Bologna Cathedral, succeeding Manfredi Miglioli. Adriano Banchieri had declined the post. While working at the cathedral he also deputized from April 1612 for the ailing G.B. Mecchi at the second organ of S Petronio. On 16 December 1613, after Mecchi's death, he resigned from the cathedral and took up the S Petronio post permanently, drawing a monthly salary of 17 lire until November 1649, when he was appointed first organist and received 21 lire. On 26 February 1646, when he had been blind for several years, his salary increased to 30 lire and he obtained P.M. Alessandri as a deputy; on 6 September 1658 Alessandri was replaced by G.P. Colonna, who succeeded Barbieri after his death. In about ...


Silvio J. dos Santos

(b São Paulo, Brazil, Dec 17, 1944). Brazilian guitarist, arranger, and teacher. Barbosa-Lima has been performing for over 50 years in important venues around the world. He started playing the guitar at age 7 and two years later began studying with Isaías Sávio, one of the foremost guitar teachers in Brazil. His concert career started with his debut in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro at age 13. After his successful 1967 concert tour in the United States, he received scholarships to participate in Andrés Segovia’s 1968 masterclasses in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. He has produced more than 40 recordings, with a repertoire ranging from classical and contemporary music to jazz and Brazilian popular music, and has published books on guitar techniques and repertoires in collaboration with John Griggs. He has also published and recorded works dedicated to him by composers such as Guido Santórsola, Francisco Mignone, and Alberto Ginastera. His transcriptions and performances of works by Domenico Scarlatti, Claude Debussy, George Gershwin, Antônio Carlos Jobim, Scott Joplin, and Stephen Sondheim are remarkable for their clarity of textures, where the melody and bass lines are clearly distinguished from countermelodies and harmonies. Formerly a member of the guitar faculty at the Manhattan School of Music, he still conducts masterclasses throughout the world. He has published several books on guitar techniques and repertoires in collaboration with John Griggs....


Ruth E. Rosenberg

(b Montevideo, Uruguay, Dec 13, 1953). Uruguayan composer, writer, and teacher, active in the United States. He studied in Montevideo with Coriún Aharonian and Héctor Tosar before pursuing his education in Brazil and Germany. Since he relocated to the United States in 1998, his work has been commissioned and performed by numerous groups in Chicago, including the Lyric Opera of Chicago, the Grant Park Festival Orchestra, the Civic Orchestra of Chicago, and the Concertante di Chicago.

Barilari’s classical compositions draw on a diversity of Latin American musical traditions and are often inspired by literature or historical figures. In 2002, as part of a tribute to Argentinian tango composer Astor Piazzolla, Barilari premiered a concerto for bandoneón at Chicago’s Grant Park Music Festival. His Heights of Machu Picchu (2005), incorporates Andean scales and rhythms, while his Canyengue (2006) features the distinctive rhythms of the milongon...


Detlef Gojowy

[Sergey Vasilyevich]

(b Tbilisi, Georgia, 26 Aug/Sept 8, 1887; d Tbilisi, Oct 29, 1972). Georgian composer and teacher. He began his music studies with the pianist Karakhovna in 1898; he then studied the piano with Stakhovsky and Truskovsky, and theory and solfège with Paliashvili at the Tbilisi Music Institute (1900–07). He won by competition a place at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (1907–9) and later studied with Kalafati, Steinberg and Vītols at the St Petersburg Conservatory (1910–15). Subsequently, as a teacher at the conservatories of Tbilisi (1923–54) and Yerevan (1934–37, professor 1941), he instructed many of the leading composers of Armenia and Georgia including Aleksandr Arutyunian and Muradeli. He also appeared as a pianist in Moscow, Leningrad and Caucasian republics. His honours included the titles People’s Artist of the Armenian SSR, Honoured Artist of the Georgian SSR, and the Order of Lenin....


J. Michele Edwards

(b Bronx, NY, Dec 15, 1932). American composer, writer and performer. After gaining the BA (1954) from Queens College, CUNY, she studied composition with Fine, Shapero and Arthur Berger at Brandeis University (MFA 1956, PhD 1971) and with Blacher at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (1956–7). She taught at various colleges and universities before joining the composition and theory faculty at UCLA (1974), where she remained until 1994. For three decades she was a major contributor and adviser to Perspectives of New Music; she has also written extensively on 20th-century music for other journals. In her compositions as well as her writings and presentations she has given attention to women and gender issues.

In about 1978 Barkin turned from using 12-note and serial techniques to explore compositional processes involving collaboration, interactive performance and improvisation. In notes written about her 1989 piece for basset-horn and tape, … ...


W. Thomas Marrocco

revised by Mary Wallace Davidson


(b Elyria, OH, Sept 6, 1912; d Rochester, NY, Dec 17, 1996). American composer and teacher. He studied composition with Edward Royce, Bernard Rogers, and Howard Hanson at the Eastman School (1930–37), where he received the MMus and the PhD degrees, and with Schoenberg at the University of Southern California (1935). In 1937 he joined the faculty of the Eastman School, eventually becoming chairman of the composition department, director of the electronic music studio (1968), and dean of graduate studies (1973); in 1978 he was named professor emeritus. He received two Fulbright scholarships (1955–6, 1964–5) and numerous commissions, and travelled widely as lecturer, guest composer and conductor of his own works. He also served as organist and choirmaster at two churches in Rochester, St Thomas Episcopal (1946–76) and Christ Episcopal (1976–8). He was a prolific composer in an eclectic, tonal, free 12-note style....


Charles Conrad

(b Hobart, OK, Sept 9, 1949). American composer, educator, conductor. He earned degrees in music at the University of Kansas (BM 1974, MM 1975), where he has been a faculty member since 1976, and is currently Division Director for Music Theory and Composition. His compositions include six symphonies, many overtures and several works for solo winds with band. He has twice received the American Bandmasters Association Ostwald Award as well as the Kappa Kappa Psi Distinguished Service to Music Medal and the Bohumil Makovsky Award for Outstanding College Band Conductors.

Barnes is known as an expert orchestrator; his trademarks include the integration of tuned percussion, piano, and harp into the band texture, and the extensive melodic and solo use of low brass and woodwind instruments. Among the most performed of his more than 100 published works are Third Symphony (1996), Fantasy Variations on a Theme of Niccolo Paganini...


Adrienne Fried Block

(Ray )

(b Lewiston, IL, May 26, 1886; d San Diego, Aug 28, 1975). American composer, teacher and patron. She studied with Rudolf Ganz and Felix Borowski at the Chicago Musical College (BM 1906) and with Heniot Levy and Adolf Weidig at the American Conservatory, Chicago; she also studied composition in Chicago with Wilhelm Middleschulte and in Berlin with Hugo Kaun (1909–10). From 1917 to 1926 she taught music at the San Diego High School. A respected and influential leader of musical life in San Diego, she helped to found the San Diego Opera Guild and the San Diego Civic SO (of which she was chairwoman for 14 years). Barnett wrote some 60 art songs, 49 of which were published by G. Schirmer and Summy between 1906 and 1932. They display a lyrical gift, sure tonal sense and, despite her German training, strong French harmonic influence. They are often exotic and colourful, especially ...


Paul Rinzler

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[William, Jr. ]

(b Philadelphia, March 27, 1927; d Middletown, CT, Sept 21, 1989). American tenor and soprano saxophonist, composer, and teacher, brother of Kenny Barron. He first studied piano with his mother from the age of nine, but four years later changed to soprano saxophone and then to the tenor instrument. At the age of 17 he toured with the Carolina Cotton Pickers, after which he served as a musician in the army (1943–6), where his fellow bandsmen included Randy Weston and Ernie Henry. He then played tenor saxophone in Philadelphia with Red Garland, Jimmy Heath, and Philly Joe Jones; Dexter Gordon influenced his early style. In 1958 he moved to New York. There he performed and in 1959 recorded with Cecil Taylor, recorded with Jones in 1959–60, and co-led the group the Barron Brothers; he also formed a group with Ted Curson which in 1964 toured Europe, where it frequently broadcast on radio and television and recorded in Paris. He appeared with Taylor’s free-jazz group at the Newport Jazz Festival in ...


Paul Rinzler

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Kenneth ]

(b Philadelphia, June 9, 1943). American pianist, composer, leader, and teacher, brother of Bill Barron. He learned piano from the age of 12 and with the help of his brother secured an engagement when he was 15 with a rhythm-and-blues orchestra led by Mel Melvin; while in high school he also played double bass and tuba. Having worked with Philly Joe Jones (1959) and Jimmy Heath, and in Detroit with Yusef Lateef (1960), in 1961 he moved to New York and began appearing regularly at the Five Spot with James Moody, on whose recommendation he was engaged by Dizzy Gillespie; from 1962 to 1966 he toured Europe and North America with Gillespie. Barron then played briefly with Stanley Turrentine and was a member of several groups led by Freddie Hubbard (1967–9); by 1970 his compositions had been recorded by Gillespie, Hubbard, and Moody. He was again with Lateef from ...