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Horace Fitzpatrick

revised by Thomas Hiebert

(b Würzburg, March 13, 1767; d Paris, June 19, 1844). German horn player, composer and teacher, active in France. Son of the Hungarian-born principal horn at the Würzburg court, Friedrich Domnich (b Ofen, 9 June 1729; d Würzburg, 22 April 1790), he was the most famous of three horn-playing brothers; the others were Jacob (b Würzburg, 1758; d Philadelphia, after 1806), who in about 1790 emigrated to Philadelphia and taught and played extensively there, and Arnold (b Würzburg, 29 Sept 1771; d Meiningen, 14 July 1834), who was employed at the Saxe-Meiningen court from 1786 until 1834, becoming principal horn in 1803. At an early age Heinrich entered the band of Count von Elz at Mainz, but when subjected to livery service he left in 1783 for Paris, where he studied with Punto for two years. In 1785 he earned praise for the neatness and facility of his playing as second to Jean Lebrun in a double concerto at the Concert Spirituel; this was the first of at least eight appearances there by Domnich between ...


E. Van Der Straeten

revised by Lynda MacGregor

(b Häselrieth, nr Hildburghausen, Jan 20, 1783; d Dresden, March 6, 1860). German cellist, teacher and composer. His early musical talent was fostered by his father. The organist J.K. Rüttinger, a former student of J.S. Bach's pupil J.C. Kittel, taught him composition; he studied the piano and violin with Heuschkel and Gleichmann, and also learnt the cello, double bass, horn and clarinet. He made his début as a cellist at a court concert at the age of 15. In 1799 he went to Meiningen for cello lessons with J.J. Kriegk, a pupil of J.L. Duport. From 1801 to 1805 Dotzauer played in the court orchestra there, and for the next six years in the Leipzig orchestra, also giving solo and quartet performances. In 1806 he spent six months in Berlin, where he became profoundly influenced by Romberg. Dotzauer was appointed to the Dresden royal orchestra in 1811, becoming soloist in ...


(b Athens, ?Dec 21, 1893; d Los Angeles, Aug 11, 1954). Greek violinist, violist, mandolinist, and violin pedagogue. From his early childhood he showed an impressive talent on violin and gave concerts. However his early career and music studies remain confused. Since his father opposed his musical vocation, Dounis studied medicine (neurology/psychiatry) in Athens, Vienna, and Paris. While staying in Vienna and Paris he continued his violin studies with František Ondříček and César Thomson and finally dedicated himself to a music performance career as an orchestra musician and as a soloist mainly on the violin and the mandolin. He made concert tours in Europe, Egypt, and the USA until the mid-1930s. He served in the Greek Army during World War I and he was a member of the teaching staff of the State Conservatory of Thessaloniki from 1919 until 1922, when he established himself in New York. After his establishment in the USA he became known gradually as a respected private violin teacher....


Magdalini Kalopana

(b Platanousa, nr Ioannina, Jan 22, 1914 or 1915; d Athens, Dec 18, 2001). Greek composer, teacher of music theory, and viola player. First of seven children of a rural family, he showed early his attraction to music. Completing his primary education in his birthplace, he was soon sent to Athens by his father, Leonidas, in order to proceed with his musical studies. He studied violin at the National Conservatory with various teachers (M. Rizou, 1928–33, G. Psyllas, 1933–7, M. Dova-Lefkiadou, 1938), completing the Degree with distinction. He subsequently continued his musical studies in harmony (Degree with distinction, 1940), while also teaching violin at the National Conservatory (up to 1947). Before 1938 he got connected with leftist political ideas and later on he was involved with the National Resistance (1941–4). From 1944 to 1947 he was a member of the orchestra of the Greek National Opera (est. 1944) and in ...


H. Wiley Hitchcock

revised by Scott Alan Southard

(b Aurora, IL, Nov 26, 1865; d Chicago, May 6, 1916). American violinist, teacher, and composer. After studying violin with Rosenbecker (Chicago, 1880–3), Henry Schradieck (Cincinnati, 1884–5), and Carl Hild (New York, 1886–8), and piano and composition with Adolf Koelling (Chicago, 1889–91), Drake observed the teaching of Joseph Joachim, whose lessons he absorbed while accompanying the famous violinist and his students (Berlin, 1892). Returning to Chicago, Drake directed the violin department of the Gottschalk Lyric School (1893–7). From 1895 to 1910 he toured widely as a soloist, with the Drake Quartet, and with the Earl R. Drake Company, a vocal-instrumental troupe of associates and former students. In 1900, he founded the Drake School of Music. Drake helped to found the American Guild of Violinists (1909) and wrote often for The Violinist, a guild publication, on technique, instruction methods, performance, and the history of violin education. His ...


G. Kraft

revised by Peter Downey

(b Thuringia, c1620; d Arnstadt, 1701). German composer, viol player and teacher. He was the outstanding member of a dynasty of Thuringian musicians. Drese is first heard of in Merseburg as collaborator and cathedral musician. By 1648 he was serving as director of music to Duke Wilhelm IV of Saxe-Weimar at Weimar and played a major part in rebuilding the court musical establishment there after the ravages of the Thirty Years War. The musical life at the court benefited from his visits to Warsaw before 1649 to study with Marco Scacchi (returning via Jena), to Dresden in 1652 and 1656 to study with Schütz and to examine the court musical establishment and in 1653 to Regensburg and Coburg. An inventory of the Weimar court music that he compiled in 1662 shows that he played an important part in transmitting Italian musical traditions in particular from region to region. Duke Wilhelm’s death the same year led to the dismissal of the court musicians and after applying unsuccessfully for a post to the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, Drese referred to himself as being ‘without a position for some time’. But already by ...


Martina Bratić

(b Krapinica, Croatia, Sept 11, 1874; d Zagreb, Croatia, Dec 12, 1948). Croatian composer, organist, music educator, theoretician, and writer. Dugan had his first musical experience during his choir lessons in an archiepiscopal secondary school. He then studied theology and took organ lessons with the principal organist of the Zagreb Cathedral, Vatroslav Kolander. In 1893 he started mathematics and physics studies but graduated from the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin in 1908 (composition with Robert Kahn, conducting with Max Bruch, and organ with H. Becker). He became a director of the Croatian Music Institute (1908) and was named Zagreb Cathedral’s principal organist in 1912 (the position which he held until his death). From 1897 to 1920 he also worked as a secondary school teacher, giving lessons in mathematics and physics. At the Zagreb Music Academy he taught music theory, composition, and the organ (1920–1941); here his most important contribution was amplifying the foundation of, and developing the curriculum for, the counterpoint and fugue courses. He was also active as a conductor of, among others, the Croatian Choral Society, Kolo, and he periodically wrote music reviews. He worked as an editor of the music section in the sacral music journal ...


(b Antwerp, Oct 11, 1893; d Antwerp, Feb 7, 1977). Belgian pianist, composer and teacher. At the age of 16 he entered the Royal Flemish Conservatory, Antwerp, where he studied with Franz Lenaerts (piano), Edward Verheyen (harmony) and Mortelmans (composition). He undertook further study with Godowsky in Vienna (1912–14) and, on his return to Belgium, began a successful career as a piano soloist. In 1920 he became professor of advanced piano studies at the Antwerp Conservatory, a post he held until 1959. An influential teacher, he published two piano methods, Je jouerai ‘bien’ du piano (Antwerp, 1935) for beginners and the four-volume Pianostudie en -spel (Antwerp, 1950–60). His compositions include a piano concerto (subtitled ‘Images médiévales’, 1939), a violin concerto (‘La Chapelle de Marie-Madeleine extra muros’, 1946), a violin sonata (‘Récits enluminés’, 1936) and numerous songs, in addition to around 50 piano miniatures, mainly studies and descriptive character pieces, in a colourful harmonic idiom tinged with modality and with melodies often reminiscent of Flemish folksong. He also adapted for the piano more than 350 harpsichord pieces by 18th-century Flemish composers. In ...


(b Chotěborky, nr Jaroměř, Bohemia, bap. Dec 8, 1731; d Prague, Feb 12, 1799). Czech composer, pianist and music teacher. The son of a peasant, he was enabled by his patron, Count Johann Karl Sporck, to attend the Jesuit Gymnasium at Hradec Králové. Later he studied music in Prague with Franz Habermann and in Vienna with Wagenseil. Not later than 1770 he settled in Prague, where he became very influential as a music teacher and pianist. The most outstanding of his pupils were Leopold Kozeluch, Jan Vitásek and Vincenc Mašek. As a composer he appears to have had some connection with the orchestras of Count Pachta and Count Clam-Gallas. Dušek's house was an important centre of Prague musical life and was visited by many musicians from abroad. He and his wife Josefa were probably among those who invited Mozart to witness the Prague success of Le nozze di Figaro...


Reginald Morley-Pegge

revised by Horace Fitzpatrick and Jeffrey L. Snedeker

(b Montbéliard, Oct 16, 1765; d Paris, July 19, 1838). French horn player, teacher and composer. He was the first major figure of the native French school of horn playing; his playing and teaching marked the definitive break from the parent Austro-Bohemian tradition. He was self-taught and reportedly specialized in the so-called cor mixte, generally understood to be the horn’s middle range. While this elicited criticism from Fétis, he apparently achieved a remarkably high standard, and was considered by many to be the leading player of his day.

In 1788 Duvernoy joined the orchestra of the Comédie-Italienne in Paris, and made his solo début on 18 March at the Concert Spirituel, playing a concerto by Punto. He appeared six more times before the series was suspended in 1790, and also played at the Concerts de la Rue de Cléry, which lasted until 1802. In 1790 he became a second horn player at the Opéra-Comique and joined the first organized band of the National Guard. Entering the Opéra orchestra in ...


Ruth M. Wilson

revised by Nicholas Michael Butler

(b Eschwege, Germany, Nov 24, 1757; d Charleston, SC, Nov 10, 1833). Organist, pianist, composer, and teacher of German birth. He came to the United States as a musician with Hessian troops. After the Revolutionary War he settled in Richmond, Virginia, where he probably was organist at St. John’s Episcopal Church. He moved to Charleston in 1786 as clerk, organist, and schoolmaster of St. John’s Lutheran Church, then in 1809 became organist of St. Michael’s Episcopal Church, a post he held until his death. His son Jacob Eckhard Jr. later succeeded him at St. John’s; when he died in 1833, he was succeeded in turn by another son, George Eckhard, formerly organist of St. Philip’s Episcopal Church. Eckhard also directed the anniversary music at the Charleston Orphan House from the institution’s inception in 1790 until relinquishing that duty to his sons in the early 19th century.

In addition, Eckhard performed as a pianist in sonatas, concerti, and chamber works at a number of concerts in Charleston over a span of four decades. He also appeared in concert as a vocalist, violist, and conductor. Eckhard led the performance of a “grand overture” by Ludwig van Beethoven on ...


Rolf Haglund

(b Karlstad, Nov 6, 1922). Swedish composer, teacher, conductor and harpsichordist. After attending the Ingesund Music School and the Stockholm Musikhögskolan (1942–7) he went to study at the Basle Schola Cantorum and elsewhere. He was a church organist (1948–60) and was then appointed to the Stockholm Musikhögskolan as teacher of aural training, the subject of his internationally known Modus novus and Modus vetus. In 1967 he founded the Camerata Holmiae, an ensemble of vocal soloists, which he conducts.

Initially a composer only of liturgical music, after his move to Gotland in 1971 he produced a number of original and intense pieces, both sacred and secular. His melodic lines on carefully chosen texts are often built in long cantilenas, oscillating between Gregorian-inspired elements and early Baroque polyphony, and, in particular, taking inspiration from the music of Monteverdi, whom he reveres.

(selective list)


F.H. Jenks

revised by John Moran

(b Düsseldorf, June 13, 1824; d Boston, MA, Jan 19, 1893). German violinist, teacher and composer. He entered the Brussels Conservatory in 1843, studying with L.J. Meerts and Bériot, and graduated in 1845 with first prizes for violin and composition. He was then appointed professor at the conservatory in Geneva, where he remained for 11 years. In 1857 he went to New York and two years later to Boston. He was director of the Boston Museum Concerts (1859–66), and in 1867 took part in the establishment of the Boston Conservatory of Music, being mainly responsible for the good reputation of its violin department.

Eichberg's many compositions include works for solo voices, chorus, violin, string quartet and piano. He prepared textbooks and pedagogical works including collections of vocal exercises, studies for senior schoolchildren and a thorough violin method (1873). Eichberg enjoyed great success with his four operettas, ...


Olga Manulkina


(b Tbilisi, Feb 11, 1919). Georgian composer, pianist and teacher. At the Tbilisi Conservatory she studied the piano with A. Tulashvili and composition with A. Ryazanov and Andria Balanchivadze, graduating in 1940 and 1945 respectively. In 1947 and 1950 she was a postgraduate student at the Moscow Conservatory, studying with Goldenweiser (piano) and Litinsky and Shebalin (composition). In 1944 she began her career as a pianist and teacher; she has taught in Tbilisi at the First Music College, the Paliashvili Central Music School and, from 1953, at the conservatory, where she was appointed professor in 1973. On Eksanishvili’s initiative, the first Georgian experimental school-studio was set up in 1973; the teachers there have used the method she expounded in her textbook Aisi (published 1972) of developing creative abilities using Georgian folksong. Eksanishvili’s piano music, comprising original compositions, transcriptions of works by Georgian composers and music for children, is the most significant part of her output. In ...


Robert Stevenson

(b Morelia, Sept 27, 1786; d Morelia, Oct 2, 1842). Mexican composer, teacher, pianist and organist. He made his first public appearance by command of the viceroy in Mexico City at the age of six. After studying with José María Carrasco (1781–1845), maestro de capilla of Morelia (then Valladolid) Cathedral, he received a grant from the cathedral cabildo to defray the expenses of his study in Mexico City with Soto Carrillo, a Haydn enthusiast and the leading piano teacher in the capital. Upon his return home in 1799 Elízaga was appointed assistant organist at the Colegio de S Nicolás, and the cathedral chapter simultaneously purchased ‘the best available pianoforte in Mexico City’ for him to instruct the local aristocracy in the new art of piano playing. Among his pupils was Doña Ana María Huarte, later the wife of Agustín Iturbide, first emperor of Mexico.

In 1822...


John A. Emerson

revised by Michael Meckna

(b Sacramento, CA, April 30, 1884; d Oakland, CA, Feb 19, 1962). American composer, pianist and teacher. He received early musical training from his mother, Bertha Kahn Elkus, and then studied piano with Hugo Mansfeldt in Sacramento and San Francisco. He attended the University of California, Berkeley (BLitt 1906, MLitt 1907). A gifted pianist, he gave many public recitals during this period throughout northern California, particularly with the Saturday Club of Sacramento. In 1907–8 he studied theory and composition with Hugo Kaun in Berlin and, on his return to the Bay area in 1909, with Oscar Weil. He again went abroad for three years (1912–14) and studied privately with Harold Bauer (piano) in Paris, Josef Lhévinne (piano) and Georg Schumann (composition) in Berlin, and Robert Fuchs (composition), Karl Prohaska (counterpoint and composition) and Franz Schalk (conducting) in Vienna. In 1915 he joined the faculty of the Jenkins School of Music in Oakland, and went on to teach at the San Francisco Conservatory (...


Markéta Hallová

(b Prague, July 13, 1856; d Prague, Sept 9, 1934). Czech pianist, teacher, writer on music and composer, sister of the painter Helena Emingerová (1858–1943). She studied the piano with Josef Jiránek, Karel Slavkovský and Karl-Heinrich Barth in Berlin (1882–3), then composition (privately) with Zdeněk Fibich and probably with Vítězslav Novák. She gave concerts and taught at the Prague Conservatory until 1928; she promoted and also published music, notably old Czech piano works. Her own compositions – piano pieces for two or four hands – were mainly dances, published by Klemm (Dresden, 1882) and Barvitius (Prague). Her Polka melancholická was published as a supplement to the magazine Zlatá Praha in 1901; earlier works include a violin sonata (1881), songs (published by František Urbánek, 1882) and music for women’s choir (Urbánek; 1900). Starosvětské písničky (‘Songs from the Old Time’) appeared in Česká hudba...


Noel Malcolm

revised by Valentina Sandu-Dediu

[Enesco, Georges]

(b Liveni Vîrnav [now George Enescu], nr Dorohoi, Romania, Aug 19, 1881; d Paris, France, 3/May 4, 1955). Romanian composer, violinist, conductor, and teacher. Enescu (also known by the French form of his name, Georges Enesco) was Romania’s greatest composer, the leading figure in Romanian musical life in the first half of the 20th century, and one of the best-known violinists of his generation.

Enescu came from a modest middle-class family (his father was an estate manager). He started to play the violin at the age of four, and began composing as soon as he learnt musical notation (aged five). In 1888 he entered the Konservatorium der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna. There he studied with Sigmund Bachrich and Joseph Hellmesberger jr (violin), Robert Fuchs (harmony), Joseph Hellmesberger sr (chamber music), and Ernst Ludwig (piano). He also learnt the organ and cello, frequented the Hofoper (for Wagner performances conducted by Hans Richter), and played Brahms’s works in the conservatory orchestra, in the composer’s presence. His first public performance, as a violinist, was at Slănic (north-eastern Romania) in ...


Christian Carey

(b Denver, CO, Nov 25, 1959). American composer, pianist, and teacher. She grew up in Omaha, Nebraska, and began formal composition studies in 1977 with Robert Beadell at the University of Nebraska. She graduated from the University of Colorado (BM 1982) and Boston University (MM 1984, DMA 1989). Her principal composition teachers included cecil Effinger , Charles Eakin, joyce Mekeel , Bunita Marcus, and bernard Rands . In 1986 and 1988 she was a Fellow in Composition at the Tanglewood Music Center, where she worked with Oliver Knussen and Hans Werner Henze. The latter helped secure her an invitation from the City of Munich to compose a puppet opera, Hero und Leander, for its 1992 Biennale for New Music Theater. She was also a resident at the MacDowell Colony (1998, 1999) and composer-in-residence for the Radius Ensemble (2009–10). Among her awards are a Fromm Foundation Commission and the Lee Ettleson Composition Prize. She has also received commissions from CORE Ensemble, ALEA III, Sequitur New Music Ensemble, and the Pro Arte Chamber Orchestra of Boston. She is an active pianist and plays prepared piano with guitarist David Tronzo in the Epstein/Tronzo Duo. She has taught at Berklee College of Music since ...


Keith Horner

(b Castellammare di Stabia, Sept 29, 1855; d Florence, Nov 19, 1929). Italian pianist, composer, conductor and teacher. After studying the piano under B. Cesi and composition under P. Serrao at the conservatory of S Pietro a Majella, Naples, Esposito went to Paris in 1878. Four years later he began his long association with Dublin, the development of whose concert life owed much to his enthusiasm and initiative. As professor of the piano at the Royal Irish Academy of Music, his influence extended throughout the country, and he was awarded an honorary doctorate in 1905 by Trinity College, Dublin. He gave frequent chamber music and piano recitals under the auspices of the Royal Dublin Society and founded a small symphony orchestra which gave Sunday afternoon concerts at a low admission price in the Antient Concert Rooms. In 1899, by means of public subscription, he founded the Dublin Orchestral Society, which he conducted with much success until ...