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Andrew Hughes

(fl early 15th century). Theorist . He was a Carmelite friar, perhaps of the Netherlands, who probably lived in Italy. His brief treatise, Regule (ed. in CoussemakerS, iii, 262–4), is appended to the manuscript I-FZc 117 (pp.58–9), known as the Bonadies Codex. It also appears in a Bologna manuscript, I-Bc A 32. Describing the note forms of early 15th-century mensural music, including semiminims and void semiminims called crome, Weyts outlined the principles of mensuration as expounded by Johannes de Muris. He mentioned, but did not explain, the breve with a downward tail on the left. Near the end are the normal mensuration signs showing the relation between minim and semibreve (prolation) and semibreve and breve (time), followed by numerals indicating the number of breves to the long (mood) and longs to the maxima (maximodus). Two final paragraphs on the tone and semitone seem foreign to the treatise....


Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller

[Nicolas ]

(b Serouville, Lorraine, c1480; d Nancy, after May 23, 1541). Lotharingian theorist and historiographer . Although his family name was actually Wolquier, his Latin musical writings, first published in Germany, carry the name ‘Wollick’; his French historical and literary writings, published in Lorraine, were ascribed to ‘Volcyr’. As a result, musicologists have neglected the other aspects of Wollick’s work. He was the son of a poor patrician and studied at Cologne University from 1498, where he was taught music by Melchior Schanppecher. In 1501 Wollick took the degree of Master of Arts and published in Cologne his Opus aureum musicae (5/1509). The third and fourth parts, which deal with composition for the first time in Germany, were written by Schanppecher. The sources for the book are the writings of Adam of Fulda, Hugo of Reutlingen, Keinspeck and Cochlaeus. The main subject is practical music rather than the ‘musica speculativa’ of the Middle Ages. By his use of the distinction between ‘musica usualis sive vulgaris’ and ‘musica regulata’ Wollick pointed the way towards a new definition of the distinction between ‘musicus’ and ‘cantor’ as the difference between the ‘artless’ folksinger (that is, one without formal learning or the skills of the craft) and the learned musician. In ...