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Article

Walter Blankenburg

revised by Metoda Kokole

(b Krems an der Donau, ?1591; d in Carinthia or Carniola, late 1622 or early 1623). Austrian composer, organist and organ builder. From 1597 until the autumn of 1606 or the spring of 1607 he studied at the Protestant Gymnasium Poeticum in Regensburg, where as a foreign boarding pupil he was entitled to extra music tuition from the Kantors Raselius and Homberger. From 1614 at the latest he worked as organist of the Provincial Estates in Carinthia and as such was probably active among the Protestant nobility. By 1617–18 he appears to have settled in the neighbouring province of Carniola (now part of Slovenia); he repaired a number of musical instruments at Oberburg (now Gornji Grad), the residence of the prince-bishops of Laibach (now Ljubljana), and signed the dedication of his 1618 volume from Laibach, the Carniolan capital. His Musicalische Tafelfreudt (1621) is dedicated to the Provincial Estates of Carniola. In ...

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Jonathan Santa Maria Bouquet

(b ?Augsburg, Germany, ?1556; d after 1629). German lute maker. He might have been a grandson of the Augsburg iron trader and councilman Sixt Rauwolf (d 1557) and nephew of the botanist Leonhard Rauwolf. A 1619 register of the Augsburg lute makers’ guild gives his age as 69 years. On 27 January 1577 he obtained permission to marry Margaret Schlaurin, widow of the lute maker Paul Sturm. Rauwolf’s name appears in the Augsburg Pflegschaftsbuch (book of records) from 1577 to 1582, and in tax records from 1586 to 1629, as a resident of Straiffinge, later the Barfüsser Thor. He signed a complaint in 1625 by the guild protesting against the lute maker Baltasar Schüster for working without fulfilling the guild requirements.

Six instruments by Sixtus Rauwolf are known: four in public collections (D.BAB.f (1577), US.NY.mma (1596), DK.K.m (1599), and ...

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John Dilworth

(b Faulenbach, Füssen, before 1596; d ?London, after 1657). British violin maker of Tyrolean birth. He originated in Füssen, an important centre for stringed instrument making during the 16th century; craftsmen trained there were influential in establishing lute- and later violin-making workshops in many of the major cities of Europe. Rayman arrived in London in about 1620 and seems to have been active there until about 1658. He was succeeded by his son Jacob, who is recorded as a violin maker in London in 1691.

Instruments by Rayman are now rare, but it seems that he enjoyed a high reputation among early writers, many of whom referred to the sale of Thomas Britton’s collection in 1714, which contained four separate lots described as ‘an extraordinary Rayman’. James Fleming noted in 1883 that his instruments are ‘neither scarce nor dear’. The only reliable surviving records of his work are the back and sides of a violin, bearing an authentic label stating ‘Jacob Rayman dwelling in Blackman Street Long-Southwark ...

Article

Reichel  

Enrico Weller

German family of violin and wind instrument makers in Neukirchen (called Markneukirchen after 1858). The family is the largest and oldest such dynasty of the Saxon Vogtland. Up to 1862 it included 54 masters, who unfortunately rarely signed their work. 18 of them were chairmen of the violin makers’ guild. In 1812, nine Reichel violin makers, a double-bass maker, a turner of tuning pegs, and a woodwind and a brass instrument maker worked in Neukirchen. Some of the violin makers were also successful dealers. The last representatives of the family were still working in the mid-20th century, for example August Otto Reichel (b 24 Sept 1873; d Muggendorf, Fränkische Schweiz, 18 April 1968). In brass instrument manufacturing there were eight masters, the companies of August Reichel Jr (founded 1868) and Philip Reichel (founded 1908) gaining importance in the 20th century.

The ancestor of the violin makers was Christianus Reichel (bap. Graslitz, ...

Article

Michael Gillingham

In 

Article

(fl Paris, c1668–1724). French woodwind instrument maker. Court documents from a dispute brought before the Parc Civil, Chatelet de Paris on 21 January 1716, establish that Rippert and his wife, Michelle Maremaire, and children resided at rue St. Honoré l’enclos de Quinze-Vingts from 1668 until 1703, in which year they moved to rue Columbier, Faubourg St. Germain, and describe him as a ‘bourgeois de Paris’, indicating that by 1716 he was more or less retired. A document of 1696 refers to him as ‘Jean-Jacques Ripert master maker of woodwind instruments’ and a ‘maker of flutes’. There is evidence that he was highly regarded by his contemporaries in Sauveur (1704), which names Rippert and Jean Hotteterre (ii) as ‘the most able woodwind makers in Paris’. Surviving instruments bearing the mark of Rippert and a sign of a dolphin attest to Rippert’s mastery and specialization in flute making. Cited in Young are thirty of his instruments, which include 22 recorders (2 descant, 9 treble, 5 tenor, 6 bass), 4 transverse flutes and 3 oboes. A letter dated London ...

Article

Charles Beare

revised by Carlo Chiesa

(fl c1670–c1705). Italian violin maker. He was a pupil of Nicolò Amati in Cremona. By 1675 he was in Brescia and his violins of that period are neat in appearance and reflect an awareness of the Amati system of design and construction. The wood for his backs, sides and scrolls was at first mostly the narrow-flamed variety found locally; and perhaps not surprisingly he sought in certain of his violins to introduce features of Maggini, his predecessor in Brescia half a century earlier.

By 1690 Rogeri’s work achieved a visual elegance exceeded by few of his contemporaries, and he was no doubt already assisted by his son, Pietro Giacomo (b c 1670; d Brescia, 23 Sept 1724), though no instruments by the latter dated earlier than 1705 are known. Pietro Giacomo was a much finer craftsman than is usually appreciated, with a preference for hooked and almost clubby corners: in that detail and in others, such as the rather heavy, flatly carved scrolls, he exaggerated the taste of his father. Wood of the handsomest figure was often used, but there are also instruments less refined in appearance, many with unpurfled backs. This could have been the consequence of his collaboration with members of the Pasta family of violin makers. Tonally some Rogeri instruments compare with the best of the Amatis, particularly the violins with ‘grand pattern’ dimensions. The many cellos offer a good blend of incisiveness and Cremonese quality....

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Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius and Charles Beare

(bap. Amsterdam, Nov 25, 1667; bur. Amsterdam, Sept 27, 1728). Netherlands violin and viol maker. On the remarriage in 1676 of his widowed mother, Sibilla Barents, he became the stepson of Hendrik Jacobsz, from whom he received his initial training. He became a citizen of Amsterdam on 1 November 1707, a year after marrying into a wealthy family; when his widow died in 1750 she left a fortune of more than 53,000 Gulden. As an artist Rombouts was almost his stepfather’s equal, though with rather different taste in the appearance of his instruments. His model, especially in the arching, tends to be fuller, showing a strong Stainer influence. The craftsmanship is very clean and the choice of wood often handsome. The purfling is usually of bold dimensions and the black stripes always of whalebone. His strongly individual style is increasingly recognizable in his stepfather’s instruments after 1686; he continued to use Jacobsz’s label until at least ...

Article

Patrizio Barbieri

(b Gunzing, near Lohnsburg am Inn, Germany, Nov 28, 1669, d Mainz, Germany, April 30, 1728). German priest, philosopher, editor of Latin works of Raymond Lull, and inventor of an enharmonic keyboard. While working at the court of Johann Wilhelm, Prince-Elector of the Palatinate, in Düsseldorf, Salzinger invented and built a keyboard (‘Tastatura nova perfecta’) accommodating the division of the octave into 31 equal parts. His enharmonic harpsichord is mentioned by Joseph Paris Feckler, who reports (1713) that a further two had been ordered: one for the Emperor in Augsburg, the other for the Grand Duke of Tuscany, in Florence. Details of this instrument appear in Salzinger’s ‘Revelatio secretorum artis’ (1721), which he published as an introduction to his edition of Lull’s Ars magna et major. This work tells that ‘the Most Serene Elector continuously used this harpsichord for music at court’, and that years earlier the construction of an organ with the same kind of keyboard had begun, only to be halted in ...

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Hans Klotz

(b before 1640; bur. Höxter, March 2, 1685). German organ builder. He lived in Höxter, but is said to have been a native of Dortmund. The keyboard compass, pipe scaling, wind-chest construction, and formation of the mouths on the showpipes of his instruments all indicate that he was probably a pupil of one of the Bader family of organ builders. For a time Schneider was an associate of Peter Heinrich Varenholt (with whom he built the organ at St Pauli, Soest, in 1674–6). From 1677 to 1679 Schneider built a small organ for Marienmünster Abbey (now in Gehrden); in 1680–82 he repaired the large organ there and in 1681 produced a chancel organ and a west-end organ for the church of the Benedictine abbey at Corvey. Both organ cases (in Baroque style) survive, together with four spring-chests of the ‘improved’ type and a considerable number of the larger organ’s pipes. The known specifications of Schneider’s organs remain within the style of those of the Bader school and no further independent developments in Westphalian organ building were undertaken by him. He was the first Westphalian builder to make funnel-shaped pipes, which had been known in the Netherlands as early as the beginning of the 17th century. In ...

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Lynn Edwards

(b Schmalenfleth, Oldenburg, bap. ?July 2, 1648, July 9, 1648; bur. Neuenfelde, nr Hamburg, July 28, 1719). German organ builder. He learned joinery from his father, also named Arp, and in 1666 was apprenticed to his uncle, Berendt Huss of Glückstadt in Holstein. With him Schnitger built the large three-manual organ at the Cosmaekiṙche, Stade (1668–75, enlarged by Schnitger in 1688; restored 1972–5 by Ahrend); after Huss's death in 1676 Schnitger fulfilled many of the former's outstanding contracts, completing the instrument at St Wilhadi, Stade and building new organs at Cappel (1680; restored 1977 by the Beckerath) and Lüdingworth (1682–3; restored 1981–2 by Ahrend). In 1682 Schnitger received the contract to build an organ for the Nikolaikirche Hamburg, and moved his workshop from Stade to Hamburg. This organ, built between 1682 and 1687, was the largest new instrument built by Schnitger and tragically was destroyed by fire in ...

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John Bergsagel

(d Copenhagen, before 1647). Danish maker of keyboard instruments, writer on music and organist, of German origin. He was organist of Helligaandskirke, Copenhagen, but is more interesting for his work in other areas. He established himself as a maker of keyboard instruments, for which in 1632 he received a royal privilege affording him the protection of King Christian IV against possible interference from the guild of master joiners. When this protection was reaffirmed in 1636 it was made clear that his privilege was limited to the making of keyboard instruments and that he was not to undertake other kinds of joinery: hence the making of keyboard instruments was recognized, apparently for the first time in Denmark, as an independent industry. Schröder's Ein nützliches Tractätlein vom Lobe Gottes, oder Der hertzerfrewenden Musica (Copenhagen, 1639) is a defence of music, which, of the seven liberal arts, was the one that he considered was held in the lowest esteem by the general public in his day. A notable exception, however, was provided by Christian IV, to whom Schröder dedicated his book and of whose musical interests and accomplishments he gave some interesting details, for example that the king was competent personally to audition musicians seeking positions in his employ. He also praised his generosity as a patron of music: he described the lavish musical productions under the direction of Schütz that celebrated the marriage of Prince Christian of Denmark to Princess Magdalena Sibylla of Saxony in ...

Article

Maarten Albert Vente

[Andries, Andry]

(b Maastricht, c1605; d Liège, May 2, 1673). Dutch organ builder. He became a citizen of Liège on 16 January 1629, as a member of the merchants’ guild; his tomb in St Jacques, Liège, bears an epitaph. Séverin was probably a pupil of the younger Florent (Floris) Hocquet, who worked frequently at Maastricht and Liège during the first decades of the 17th century. On 18 November 1626 the Liège inventor Jean Gallé pledged himself to instruct Séverin in ‘la façon de faire orgues positives, régales, espinettes et clavis, lesquelles par son invention se pourront haulser et abaisser, s’accordantes à touts tons avec une harmonie meilleure qu’à l’ordinaire, pouvant commencer Ut par tout l’octave’. This contract obviously does not refer to the building of organs in general, but to the use of a transposing keyboard. It is not known if Séverin applied this invention.

Séverin was by far the most important 17th-century organ builder in the Meuse valley from Huy to Venlo. His work was concentrated in Liège, with its many churches. Séverin’s activities in Tongres and Maastricht were also important. His main work was at St Denis, Liège (...

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(fl Antwerp, c1660–1703). Netherlands violin maker. His background and training remain obscure, but the style of his instruments is a blend of Italian and Flemish. There is some affinity between his work and that of Mathias Hofmans, though it is not so elegant. His violins are often inlaid with double rows of purfling in the Brescian style and his violas actually appear inspired by this school. (W.F. von Lütgendorff: ...

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John Rowntree

(Bernard) [Schmidt, Bernhard]

(b c1630; d London, 1708). Organ builder and organist, active in England. His birthplace is unknown, though he is first heard of as ‘Baerent Smitt’, coming from Bremen in 1657 to Hoorn in the Netherlands. In 1660 ‘Baerent Smit, organist’ requested a fee for repairs to the organ in Hoorn Parish Church, and in 1662 he contracted to build two organs, for the Grote Kerk and the Cleinjne Kerk in Edam.

‘Bernard Smith’ is first noted in England in the Westminster Abbey treasurer’s accounts of 1667, where he was paid for tuning the organs. The following year he was paid ‘for the repayre of the old organ and a new chayre organ’ at Rochester Cathedral. The first documented new organ in England by Smith was that for the Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford (1670–71). It had the following specification: By 1671 Smith was described as ‘the King’s organ maker’, and in ...

Article

Walter Senn

revised by Karl Roy

[Jakob]

(b Absam, nr Hall in Tirol, 1617; d Absam, late Oct or early Nov 1683). Austrian violin maker. He received a good education as a chorister (serving in either a church choir – perhaps in Hall – or the Innsbruck court chapel); surviving letters from later years suggest he was a well-educated man. He is traditionally said to have learnt his craft in Cremona, but he was probably apprenticed to a German violin maker resident in Italy. He based his style on an earlier German model, developing it to perfection. Hart wrote: ‘I am satisfied that Stainer was assisted by neither the Brothers Amati nor Nicholas Amati, and I am strengthened in this opinion by the steadfastly German character of a model which no pupil of Amati could have persisted in using’. His oldest known violin is dated Absam, 1638.

Until 1655 Stainer made visits to monasteries, church choirs and court chapels in order to sell instruments and carry out repairs; his travels took him to Salzburg, Munich, Venice, Brixen, Bozen and elsewhere. In ...

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Stark  

Hans Klotz

revised by Jiří Sehnal

Bohemian family of organ builders. Abraham Stark (b Loket, Bohemia, 1659; d Loket, March 18, 1709) was trained by his father Andreas, and probably served his apprenticeship with Franz Michael Kannhäuser (1634–1701) in Sokolov and in Prague. On his return to Bohemia he founded his own business in Loket, which after his death was carried on by his brother Wenzel Stark (b Loket, Sept 23, 1670; d Loket, Sept 16, 1757). Abraham Stark built the organ at the monastery church, Plasy (1690), the organs of the Cistercian abbey at Zlatá Koruna (1699) and St Francis (1688), Prague, both of which still exist, two organs at Sedlec (1690), the organ at St James, Prague (1702), where only the case exists and the organ at Staré Brno (1697), which is now housed in Snčžné. Wenzel Stark built two organs in the town church in Most (...

Article

Charles Beare

revised by Carlo Chiesa and Duane Rosengard