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Alec Hyatt King

(b Breslau, 1807; d Rome, May 6, 1858). German musician and collector. After beginning his career as a tenor in the chorus of the Royal Opera House in Berlin, he settled in Rome and lived there for 24 years. He studied the piano and organized successful amateur concerts. He also devoted himself intensively to the study of early music and musical literature. His wide knowledge helped him to amass a valuable library, drawn from all over Italy and Germany. At his death, his heirs conveyed part of the collection to Breslau and part to Berlin, and catalogues were prepared to enable it to be acquired by music lovers. But many of the choicest items appear to have vanished (this statement is derived from Fétis, who seems to have known Landsberg by correspondence and received from him a manuscript catalogue on which he based his comparisons). Nevertheless, some of the greatest treasures, including a number of Beethoven sketchbooks, found their way into the Königliche Bibliothek (later called the Preussische Staatsbibliothek) in Berlin; most of them remain in the collections of the Deutsche Staatsbibliothek and the Staatsbibliothek der Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz in Berlin....


Sarah Adams Hoover

(b Little Fork, MN, Nov 10, 1942). American organologist and curator. He received a BFA in music education (1964) and MM in music literature (1968) from the University of South Dakota and a PhD in musicology from West Virginia University (1974). In 1973 he returned to South Dakota to become the first director of the Shrine to Music Museum (renamed the National Music Museum in 2002) at the University of South Dakota in Vermillion. During his tenure (1973–2011) he established a major international collection of instruments (augmenting a private collection owned by his father, Arne B. Larson) and created a significant resource for exhibiting, studying, and conserving historical instruments. He taught music history at USD and established and oversaw the university’s masters program in the history of musical instruments. A recipient of the American Musical Instrument Society’s Curt Sachs Award for lifetime contributions to the field of organology, he served as its president from ...


Susan Feder

(b New York, NY, Sept 22, 1899; d Plainfield, NJ, May 23, 1979). American soprano and folklorist. She studied voice in New York with Cesare Stunai, Henry Russell, and Katherine Opdycke, and made her debut in 1929, as Gounod’s Marguerite, with the Quebec Opera Company, Montreal. During the 1930s, while continuing to sing opera in New York, Philadelphia, and elsewhere (her roles included Aida, Tosca, and Carmen), she became interested in American folk music and folklore and began collecting songs, particularly from residents of the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and the Zuni Indians of New Mexico, about both of which she lectured and wrote articles. Her recital programs (from 1937) ranged from Hopkinson and Billings to MacDowell, Farwell, and Gershwin (often performed from manuscript); she also sang Native American songs in original languages and folksongs from all over North America. A frequent performer on radio, she was the soloist on ...


Israel J. Katz

(b Ciudad Rodrigo, Feb 3, 1868; d Salamanca, June 13, 1928). Spanish folklorist, organist and composer. His talent as a musician was nurtured during his early childhood. After serving as an organist at a local church, Ledesma became organist at the cathedral in Ciudad Rodrigo (1889–98) and at Salamanca Cathedral (1898), a post he held until his death. He was ordained a priest in Salamanca. He was a famous improviser and a prolific composer of organ and liturgical music, but he is best remembered for his Folk-lore ó Cancionero salmantino (Madrid, 1907/R), which contains 404 melodies collected from the rich oral tradition of his native province. This was awarded a prize in an open competition by the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando (Madrid), and was later published by the Diputación Provincial de Salamanca; the collection remains one of the most outstanding in Spanish folklore. An unpublished second volume containing 903 items was left to his disciple Bernardo García-Bernalt Huertos in ...


Paula Morgan

revised by Bonna J. Boettcher


(b Philadelphia, PA, Oct 22, 1896; d Baltimore, MD, Sept 19, 1989). American collector of and writer on American popular music. He received the BA in economics (1918) from Johns Hopkins University, and for 40 years was a manufacturer of men’s hats. At the same time he began amassing a collection of more than 30,000 pieces of American sheet music from the late 18th century onward. Following his retirement, he continued collecting and made significant contributions to the scholarly literature of sheet music. One of the most significant private collections of its kind in the United States, the Lester S. Levy Collection of Sheet Music includes songs for political campaigns and presidential inaugurations, humorous songs, and items in many different popular styles. Levy’s material, now held by the Sheridan Libraries at Johns Hopkins University, has been used by publishers, students, and musicologists (see Libraries and collections, §3, Maryland...


Peter Wollny

(b Berlin, June 19, 1761; d Berlin, May 11, 1854). German harpsichordist, music collector and patron. She was a daughter of the Jewish banker Daniel Itzig (1723–99) and great-aunt of Mendelssohn. On 2 July 1783 she married the banker Samuel Salomon Levy (1760–1806). With her siblings, of whom Fanny von Arnstein (1758–1818) and Zippora Wulff (later Cäcilie von Eskeles, 1760–1836) were particularly well known as musical amateurs, she received a thorough musical education. She is said to have been a pupil of W.F. Bach at a later date, and she was certainly in contact with C.P.E. Bach, from whom she commissioned a harpsichord concerto. A number of contemporary documents mention her activity as a harpsichordist in private musical circles, for instance in the house of her brother-in-law Joseph Fliess. Later she frequently performed with the Ripienschule of the Berlin Sing-Akademie founded by C.F. Zelter. She was particularly interested in the music of the Bach family as well as the works of other Berlin composers (J.G. and C.H. Graun, Janitsch and Quantz), and is therefore one of the figures central to the appreciation of Bach in Berlin in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. She gave the Sing-Akademie considerable parts of her extensive collection of music, including autograph manuscripts by W.F. and C.P.E. Bach; after her death, some of the remaining items apparently came into the possession of A.W. Bach, and is now dispersed among many European and North American libraries....


David Johnson

(b Denholm, Roxburghshire, Sept 8, 1775; d Batavia [now Jakarta], Indonesia, Aug 28, 1811). Scottish antiquarian and folksong collector. He was a powerful force in Edinburgh's intellectual life from the mid-1790s until his departure for India in 1802. His two outstanding contributions to Scottish folksong scholarship were in helping Walter Scott to collect material for the Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border (1802) and editing the 16th-century political tract The Complaynt of Scotland, adding to it a Preliminary Dissertation which, though prone to irrelevance, is a mine of indispensable material about Scottish folk music and Border customs. Leyden also edited the Scots Magazine for a short period, did pioneering philological work on the Scots dialect and on oriental languages, wrote poetry prolifically and was a qualified surgeon.

J. Morton: Poetical Remains of the late Dr John Leyden, with Memoirs of his Life (London, 1819) M.R. Dobie: ‘The Development of Scott's “Minstrelsy”’, ...


Paula Morgan


(b Chicago, Sept 19, 1944). American organologist and curator. He was educated at Northwestern University, Evanston (BMus 1966), and at King's College, University of London (MMus 1968), studying with Thurston Dart. He then returned to the USA to study for the PhD at Chicago University with Howard Mayer Brown and Edward Lowinsky (1968–71). In 1973 Libin became curator of musical instruments at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and research curator in 1999. He taught at Ramapo College, New Jersey (1972–3), after which he was concurrently lecturer at Columbia University, the City College of New York and New York University (1974–94). His research interests include the history, construction, iconography and collection of all types of musical instruments.

with H. Lenneberg: ‘Unknown Handel Sources in Chicago’, JAMS, 22 (1969), 85–100 ‘The “Restored” Stradivari and Amati Violins of the Metropolitan Museum of Art’, ...


Luise Eitel Peake

(Ger.: ‘song circle’)

A circle or club of people dedicated to the cultivation of popular song. Examples are the ‘Mittwochskränzchen’ (‘Cour d’amour’) that met during the early 1800s in Goethe’s Weimar home, the Stägemann circle in Berlin, 1815–18, that included the young poet Wilhelm Müller, the Dresden Liederkreis (‘Dichtertee’), c 1804–24, in which Weber met the poet Kind, and the ‘Schubertianer’ or friends of Schubert in Vienna, who held regular meetings during the 1820s. Liederkreis activities were varied, recreational as well as creative. They included singing simple group songs, playing charades and other games with songs, and listening to song performances staged with costumes, ‘attitudes’ or elaborate ‘living pictures’. To supply the demand parody texts were often set to song melodies from, for example, Das Mildheimische Liederbuch (ed. R.Z. Becker, 1799, 4/1810); either the melodies were rearranged or the verse newly set. Collections that reflected the work of a Liederkreis were titled accordingly, like J.H.C. Bornhardt’s ...


M.A. Lobanov

(Ėduardovna) [Lineff, Eugenie]

(b Brest-Litovsk [now Brest, Belarus], Dec 28, 1853/Jan 9, 1854; d Moscow, Jan 24, 1919). Russian polyphonic folksong collector. After receiving professional training as a singer, she performed in operatic productions in Vienna, Budapest, London, Paris and Moscow (1882–3, Bol′shoy). She also worked clandestinely for an illegal revolutionary publishing organization, translating the works of Marx and Engels (1882–4). At the end of the 1880s she ceased both her career as a professional singer and her revolutionary work, and made her first folksong recordings, which are no longer extant. After her marriage she and her husband were émigrés in the UK (1891–2) and USA (1892–6). There she founded and directed a choir, whose performances of Russian folksongs in New York and Philadelphia, and at the Chicago World Trade Fair (1893), were received enthusiastically and earned money to support an émigré press....


Walter Blankenburg

(b Schneeberg, Saxony, April 4, 1515; d Königsberg, Nov 27, 1585). German jurist and humanist. He was one of the children of a Saxon mine inspector. In 1527 he went to school and later to university in Leipzig; in 1535 he took the Master of Arts degree and remained as a teacher at the university until 1550, when he became Hofmeister (private tutor) to two noble students at Leuven University and, from 1551, at the University of Paris. On returning to Leipzig in 1556, he was appointed councillor and chancellor to the Prince of Meissen (Saxony). In 1562 he went to Bologna to study at the university, taking the degree of Doctor of Laws, and in 1563 he was called by Duke Albrecht of Prussia to the chair of law at Königsberg University, where he stayed until his retirement in 1580.

Lobwasser's great achievement was the translation of the Genevan (or Huguenot) Psalter into German, following the original verse forms exactly, in the years immediately after its completion in ...


Loyal Jones

(b Mars Hill, NC, Mar 21, 1882; d Asheville, NC, Sept 4, 1973). American folk-music collector and performer. He played the fiddle and sang as a child, but had no formal musical training. His first job, as a traveling fruit-tree salesman in the mountain areas of the Carolinas, Georgia, and Tennessee, brought him into contact with the Appalachian folk-music tradition. He learned folklore methodology and observed professional standards of collection; in order to preserve the culture he organized the Mountain Dance and Folk Festival in Asheville, North Carolina, in 1928, which has taken place annually since then. Lunsford was also involved in the establishment of several other folk festivals, and in 1949 was invited to represent the United States at the first International Folk Music Festival in Venice, Italy. He recorded for the Library of Congress his own collection of over 300 folksongs, tales, and other items, and made numerous commercial recordings. He also traveled widely to lecture on and perform traditional music. His compositions include the extremely popular “Mountain Dew” (...


Jennifer Spencer

[Lïsenko, Nikolay Vital′yevich]

(b Hrynky, nr Kremenchug, Poltava district, 10/March 22, 1842; d Kiev, 24 Oct/Nov 6, 1912). Ukrainian composer, pianist, conductor and folksong collector. He was first taught the piano by his mother, but was taken to Kiev at the age of nine to have lessons with Panochini and to study theory with Nejnkevič. He attended the Gymnasium at Khar′kiv and then took a course in natural sciences, first at the university there, and then at the University of Kiev (1860–64). He continued his musical education with Wolner, Dmitriyev and Wilczyk, and in Leipzig with Reinecke and Richter. As a child he had been deeply impressed by songs he heard peasants singing, and his nationalist sympathies were stimulated by a volume of Shevchenko's poetry given to him by his grandfather (at the age of 19 he was a coffin bearer at Shevchenko's funeral). As a student he was involved with the anti-tsarist movement, and was much influenced by the philosophers Belinsky, Herzen and Chernïshevsky. His beliefs, however, did not prevent him from becoming a legal adviser in the Imperial Civil Service, a post he relinquished with relief after two years....


Carole Pegg

[Miller, Jimmie]

(b Salford, Lancs, 1915; d Oct 22, 1989). English folk singer, songwriter and collector. He inherited a large repertory of traditional Scottish songs from his parents, William Miller and Betsy Hendry. During the early 1930s he wrote satirical songs. In 1934 he married Joan Littlewood, with whom he formed several theatres, the most famous of which was Theatre Workshop. He changed his name during the Lallans movement in Scotland in the 1940s. He married the dancer Jean Newlove in 1950, with whom he had Hamish and Kirsty MacColl (b 1949; d 2000); both became singers and musicians.

MacColl was one of the architects of the Folk Music Revival ( see England; Folk music §3 ), which began in England in the early 1950s. In 1953 he founded (with Alan Lomax, Bert Lloyd, Seamus Ennis and others) the Ballads and Blues Club in London, later to become the Singers Club. In ...


Robert J. Bruce

[ Johann Baptist ]

( b Cologne, bap. Jan 15, 1730; d Oxford, Dec 12, 1812). German violinist, collector of national melodies and watercolour artist . Son of a watchmaker, he sang in the choir of Cologne Cathedral for six years from 1744. By 1751 he was in Nancy and in about 1754 he went to London where he taught drawing at a ladies' school and played the violin in concerts at inns. He then moved to Lewes, where he taught music to officers and came under the influence and patronage of the artist Robert Price of Foxley. In 1758 he was living and working as a musician in Bristol, and in the following year he began an association with the Three Choirs Festival (where he led the second violins) which lasted until about 1776.

In 1759 he was elected to lead the Oxford Music Room band, which held weekly concerts, and he remained in Oxford thereafter. He married Elizabeth Jenner in ...


Rodney Hall

(b Melbourne, April 21, 1915; d Brisbane, April 19, 1985). Australian folksong collector and poet. After graduating in modern languages from Cambridge University, Manifold became active in Baroque music circles in London. He served with the intelligence corps during World War II. His first book of poems was published in New York in 1946 and soon afterwards he wrote a handbook on the history and repertory of the recorder, The Amorous Flute (London, 1948). On his return to Australia he completed the innovative study, The Music in English Drama, from Shakespeare to Purcell (London, 1956), which for many years was the standard reference book used by English theatre companies. His major musical contribution began in the 1950s when he started to collect Australian folksongs. These songs were published in broadsheet editions as Bandicoot Ballads (Lower Fern Tree Gulley, Victoria, 1955) and The Penguin Australian Song Book...


( b Cartagena, Oct 24, 1863; d St Blasien, Baden, Feb 27, 1929). Spanish composer, folklorist and music critic . His father was a captain of a marine infantry battalion, and he began his musical training under a military bandsman in his father's regiment. In the early 1880s, while stationed in Madrid as a second lieutenant, he began to study harmony, counterpoint, fugue and composition with Ruperto Chapí, remaining his sole disciple until Chapí's death in 1909. During these years he devoted most of his spare time to composition. He was a member of the Sociedad Filarmónica Madrileña (1901–11) and a founder-member of La Asociación Wagneriana Madrileña (inaugurated 4 May 1911). He was music critic for the periodical El mundo (1907–15) and also contributed articles to ABC. He also conducted numerous concerts of the Sociedad de Conciertos, Madrid, and the S Cecilia choral society. In ...


Arthur Searle

(b nr Leeds, June 24, 1836; d London, Nov 21, 1903). English collector and writer on music. From a Yorkshire industrial family, he sang in the choir of Leeds Parish Church under S.S. Wesley. He went to London in 1861 to pursue his interest in art, racket games and music, about all of which he wrote. One of the principal contributors to the first edition of Grove's Dictionary, Marshall was also secretary to the Mendelssohn Scholarship Foundation from 1871. His first collection, of prints and engravings, was sold at Sotheby's in 1864. Thereafter he concentrated on printed and manuscript music. His printed Handel scores and librettos were sold to Arthur J. Balfour (later 1st Earl) in 1876 and are now in the National Library of Scotland. Between 1878 and 1881, while the Musical Association was campaigning for greater emphasis on music in the national library, Marshall sold over 400 volumes of music manuscripts to the British Museum (...


( b Cholula, Mexico, Jan 27, 1894; d Mexico City, Oct 27, 1964). Mexican folklorist . He was born of a musical family (his great-grandfather was an organist, his grandfather a tenor and his father a piano teacher) and he began his studies at home at an early age. When his family moved to Mexico City in 1906, Mendoza began working as a barber while continuing his music instruction; this lasted for 12 years. At the same time he also worked as a draughtsman and as a pianist for silent films. In 1916 he entered the National Conservatory, where he studied under Lauro Beristáin and Rubén M. Campos, and until 1925 he studied intermittently with Julián Carrillo.

After four years working in state schools, he took a post in 1936 at the Institute of Aesthetic Investigations at the University of Mexico, which he held until his death. He was founder and president of the Sociedad Folklórica de México from ...


Patricia Brown

(Stanley )

(b Holbrook, NSW, Jan 17, 1920). Australian folksong collector, folklorist and oral historian . In Sydney he came into contact with other enthusiasts for the collection and performance of Australian traditional bush songs and verse, and in 1954 he formed the original Bushwhackers band, in which he played the button accordion, as a means of ensuring performance of many of the songs and dance tunes he had collected. Also in 1954 he met Sally Sloane, with whom he established regular recording sessions; between 1954 and 1958 he recorded over 150 items from this one singer. From this period his collecting and recording activities became geographically wider in scope and more thorough. The culmination of this work was Folk Songs of Australia, i (1967), which remains significant for its wealth and variety of material, as well as for the information it offers on each song’s performers and social contexts. A heart attack in ...