( b Lucens, Vaud, Oct 22, 1908; d Morges, May 7, 1974). Swiss musicologist and critic . After studies in Lausanne, Halle and Leipzig, where he took a degree in social sciences and literature, he taught at Vevey and Lausanne (1940–70). In 1954 he became editor of the Revue musicale de Suisse romande (formerly Feuilles musicales) and director of the Editions du Cervin at Morges; he was one of the authors of the Schweizer Musiker Lexikon. As a musicologist he was interested essentially in the relationship between music and literature, and in the musical history of the Suisse Romande. He wrote opera librettos for Sutermeister, Schibler and Kelterborn. (SML [incl. complete list of writings up to 1964])Les écrivains et la musique (Lausanne, 1944–51) Une amitié célèbre: C.F. Ramuz-Igor Stravinsky (Lausanne, 1962) René Morax et Arthur Honegger au Théâtre du Jorat (Lausanne, 1966/R) Arthur Honegger: humanitäre Botschaft der Musik...
(b Belgrade, Oct 27, 1884; d Belgrade, June 16, 1946). Serbian composer, musicologist, and music critic. Milojević studied various subjects at the University of Belgrade from 1904 to 1906 including German studies, comparative literature, Serbian language and literature, and philosophy. He concurrently attended Serbian Music School where he studied music theory subjects and composition with Stevan Mokranjac and piano with Cvetko Manojlović. For the next five semesters (1907–10), Milojević continued his studies at the Munich University Philosophy Faculty, where he studied musicology (with A. Sandberger and T. Kroyer), literature, and philosophy. At the same time, he attended Munich Music Academy, studying composition (with F. Klose), piano (R. Meier-Gschray), and conducting with score reading (F. Mottl). He graduated from Munich Music Academy in 1910. In the period between the two World Wars he developed an extraordinarily rich music career as a composer, musicologist, music critic, folklorist, music pedagogue, conductor, and organizer of music affairs. In ...
M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet
(b Berlin, June 13, 1887; d New York, April 22, 1967). American musicologist, conductor and critic, of German birth . He studied musicology with Friedlaender at the University of Berlin and law at the University of Heidelberg, where he received the doctorate in 1911. From 1913 to 1921 he worked as an operetta conductor in Osnabrück, Essen, Strasbourg, Bremen and elsewhere; later (1921–3) he was music director of the Berlin Kammeroper. In the 1920s and 30s he was a critic for the Lokalanzeiger and other newspapers (including a few Jewish ones) and a writer of programme notes for the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. He taught music theory and history at the Stern Conservatory and conducted several madrigal choirs. The Nazis identified him as an important Jewish music critic, but on account of his non-Jewish wife Anni he was spared the concentration camps. He did, however, have to endure forced labour as a porter in the Jüdische Bibliothek des Sicherheitshauptamtes. After the war he was able to resume teaching and was even invited to form an orchestra by the mayor of Schöneberg, but he was abruptly arrested by a Soviet patrol for obscure reasons. After his release he emigrated to the USA in ...
George J. Buelow
(b Heidenheim, Franconia, July 25, 1711; d Warsaw, March 1778). German writer on music, physician and mathematician. He was the son of Johann Georg Mizler, court clerk to the Margrave of Ansbach at Heidenheim, and Barbara Stumpf of St Gallen. Most of his early life is chronicled in his autobiography (see MatthesonGEP). According to this, he first studied in Heidenheim with N. Müller, minister from Obersulzbach. At 13 he entered the Ansbach Gymnasium where for six years his teachers were Rector Oeder and Johann Matthias Gesner, subsequently director of the Leipzig Thomasschule, 1731–4. Gesner’s move to Leipzig may have led Mizler to enter Leipzig University on 30 April 1731, where he studied theology. In Ansbach he had had music lessons with the music director Ehrmann and learnt the violin and the flute. Mizler stated that he had studied composition by reading the best books on the subject, hearing performances by good musicians, looking at the scores of the best masters, and through his association with J.S. Bach, whom he said he had the honour to call ‘his good friend and patron’. The nature and duration of Mizler’s association with Bach remains unknown. At Leipzig his teachers included such distinguished German intellectuals as Gesner, J.C. Gottsched and Christian Wolff. After an illness which required convalescence in Altdorf, Mizler returned to Leipzig to complete a bachelor’s degree in ...
( b Geneva, Sept 20, 1876; d Geneva, Aug 24, 1969). Swiss musicologist and music critic . His mother was Russian and his father, Jean-Louis (who worked for a time in St Petersburg), was a son of the organ and piano maker Joseph Mooser (1794–1876). He studied the organ with Otto Barblan and theory in Geneva, and then (1896) composition with Balakirev and orchestration with Rimsky-Korsakov in St Petersburg, concurrently working there as organist at the French Protestant church (1896–1909), music critic of the French periodical Journal de St-Pétersbourg and a member of the directorate of the Imperial Theatre (1899–1904). Subsequently he was music critic of the Geneva periodical La Suisse (1909–62) and director of Auditions du Jeudi, the Geneva concert series of modern music (1915–21). The independent periodical Dissonances which he directed, edited and published (1923–46...
( b Rashmayyā, 1800; d Damascus, 1880). Lebanese physician and polemicist . Among his many writings is a treatise on music, the earliest manuscript of which is dated 1840. This is the most important Arabic work on the subject from the first half of the 19th century. It is always referred to as the first text in which, with an explicitly mathematical formulation resulting in precise string sections, the modern theory of a 24 quarter-tone octave is articulated. But his definitions, which presage much later inquiry on norms of intonation, are tucked away in a concluding section, so that the bulk of the work is generally ignored.
In fact, Mushāqa's treatise is concerned primarily with scale, instruments and mode, and forms part of a tradition of description and definition exemplified by the treatise of Cantemir and, in Arabic, the anonymous Shajara dhāt al-akmām (‘The tree with calyxes’). All regard the theoretical octave as made up of a set of primary notes between which are intercalated secondary ones, and Mushāqa adds to their number by filling the gaps left by earlier writers. The ensuing account of instruments covers chordophones (including the violin) and aerophones, and gives a detailed account of lute tuning. But particularly important is the extensive catalogue of modes, both for its descriptive content, with each mode being defined in terms of a basic melodic matrix, and for its insight into the differentiation of Syrian practice from the Ottoman system of the day....
(b Prague, 23 June 1914; d Prague, 8 Feb 1945). Czech musicologist, violinist, and music critic. After studying law and arts at Prague University, and the violin at the Prague Conservatoire (1933–7), he became a member of the Czech Philharmonic and of the Pro Arte Antiqua ensemble, and was very active as journalist and critic, editing and writing for Hudební věstník and Smetana, besides contributing articles on musical subjects during the German occupation to České slovo, the party organ of the patriotic, moderate-socialist Česká strana národně sociální. As a musicologist he was wide-ranging, writing on 18th-century music, preparing a catalogue of Dvořák’s works and editing 20th-century Czech operas, besides the items listed below. A provocative review in České slovo of a Smetana concert in 1945 led to his being arrested, tortured, and executed by the German occupying authorities.
(selective list)ed. and trans.: Vlastní životopis V. I. Tomáška...
Nelli Grigor′yevna Shakhnazarova
(b Moscow, Jan 17, 1938). Russian musicologist and critic. She studied music history and theory at the Moscow Conservatory with Mazel′, graduating in 1962, and was awarded the Kandidat degree in 1988 from the Moscow Institute of Culture. She joined the editorial staff of the journal Sovetskaya muzïka in 1968, later becoming head of the music theatre section, and is also music critic of a number of newspapers, including the Mariinskiy teatr (from 1993). She became a member of the Union of Composers in 1968 and the Union of Theatre Workers in 1990. Nest′yeva’s area of interest is Russian contemporary music and she has written on composers such as Tishchenko, Sil′vestrov, Pärt and Chalayev. The main focus of her work, however, is music theatre and in her dissertation for the Kandidat degree she examined new aspects of the synthesis of music and theatre in Soviet opera. In her numerous articles on operatic works she has considered a variety of components of this synthesis that range from the artistic composition of a production to the characteristics of individual performers....
Michael C. Heller
(b Cardiff, UK, Jan 8, 1948). British jazz journalist and historian. He studied music theory and clarinet at the Welsh College of Music and Drama (1967–71), followed by ten years leading a jazz-rock band under the stage name Nick Stewart. In the early 1980s he began writing on jazz for various magazines and newspapers in the UK. Since then his pieces have appeared in a range of publications in Europe and the United States, including The Western Mail, Gramophone, The Observer, Jazzwise, Jazz Times, and The Wire. His writing expanded to book-length studies in the 1990s, including highly regarded biographies of Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday, and Duke Ellington, as well as broader surveys of jazz in the 1980s and jazz-rock. Since the early 2000s Nicholson has been a key chronicler of the European scene, especially movements blending jazz with local folkloric forms, classical music, and electronica. His controversial ...
Rudolf A. Rasch
(b Nieuwe Niedorp, North Holland, c1610; d Nieuwe Niedorp, 1682). Dutch amateur scientist. His manuscript notes (dated 1642–4) in a copy of Jacob Vredeman's Isagoge musice (1618; copy now in NL-LE ) suggest that this book played an important part in his music education. It is said that he also benefited from talking to Descartes when the latter was at Egmond, near Alkmaar, around 1645–8. Van Nierop wrote many popular scientific books and booklets in Dutch, disseminating among laymen recent discoveries in, for example, astronomy, physics, mathematics and navigation. His brief music treatise Wis-konstige musyka (‘Mathematical music’; Amsterdam, 1659) is of the same nature. In four sections, it includes the fundamentals of acoustics and musical proportions, instructions on the tuning of the cittern and harpsichord, and something about Greek music theory. Further musical material may be found in his Tweede deel op de wiskonstige rekening...
( b London, March 27, 1930). English critic and musicologist . He was educated at Aldenham School and at Oxford, where he read Greats (1949–53). He studied music independently, specializing at first in English music of the Renaissance but later ranging more widely, with Venetian music of the 16th and 17th centuries and Josquin Des Prez among his main interests. From the mid-1950s he contributed music criticism and reviews to various periodicals, and in 1960 he was appointed a music critic on the staff of The Times. He relinquished that post in 1963 to take a research fellowship at Birmingham University and in 1966 went to teach at the State University of New York at Buffalo (spending 1967–8 in Florence as Fellow of the Harvard Institute for Renaissance Studies). He returned to London in 1970, becoming music critic of the Sunday Telegraph in 1972, but resumed teaching in Buffalo in ...
James F. Bell
revised by Murray Campbell
(b Erlangen, March 16, 1789; d Munich, July 6, 1854). German scientist. He studied mathematics at the University of Erlangen, taking a degree in 1811. He spent the rest of his life in a series of undistinguished posts, teaching mathematics and later physics at a relatively elementary level, apart from a period (1833–49) as professor of physics and rector of the Polytechnic Institute at Nuremberg. Among his writings is the paper of 1827 which contained the famous Ohm’s Law of Electricity, which however was little recognized at the time. His contribution to music is contained in two papers (published in Annalen der Physik uns Chemie, 1843 and 1844) in which he presented what became known as Ohm’s Law of Acoustics: he suggested that musical sounds depended not on phase but on the distribution of energies among the harmonics. His research stimulated Helmholtz’s important experiments in the 1850s and 1860s, and dominated the conception of the subject for a century. Ohm’s place in musical acoustics, although less publicized, is as secure as his place in electromagnetic theory....
(b nr Warsaw, 1685; d Toruń, April 15, 1735). Polish theologian and musician of German origin . He was the son of a Protestant pastor, Marcin Olof (1658–1715), who was active mainly in Warsaw and Toruń, and was the compiler of a Polish religious folksong collection, Zbiór kantycznek (‘Collection of Psalm-Books’, Toruń, 1672). Efraim Olof was educated in Toruń and Leipzig and was active as a Protestant preacher in Elblag and Toruń. His work of historical value is Polnische Lieder Geschichte von polnischen Kirchen Gesängen (Danzig [now Gdańsk], 1744), which is in three parts: a list of the names of authors of songs, with information about their lives; a survey of the history of Polish ecclesiastical song; and a list of songs. Among his other works is Pieśni niektóre z niemieckiego na polski język przetłumaczone (‘Some Songs Translated from the German to Polish’, Toruń, 1727...
Larisa Georgievna Danko
(b Chişinău, 19/March 31, 1871; d Leningrad, July 31, 1957). Russian musicologist, historian and critic . Drawn to music from an early age, he began to learn the violin at the age of seven, and music theory at the age of 11. He studied law at Moscow University from 1889 to 1893, and moved to St Petersburg in 1894 to study composition with Rimsky-Korsakov, with whom he maintained a close friendship. From 1906 to 1908 he studied officially in Rimsky-Korsakov’s theory of composition class at the St Petersburg Conservatory. At this time he attended musical gatherings at Rimsky-Korsakov’s house, and came into contact with Cui, Glazunov, Lyadov, Stasov and the members of Belyayev’s circle; he soon found himself at the centre of St Petersburg’s musical life.
From 1894 Ossovsky contributed to the journals Artist, Russkaya muzïkal′naya gazeta (of which he was deputy editor from 1895) and from ...
(b London, July 27, 1925; d Malvern, Nov 6, 1979). English writer and lecturer . In 1944 he won an open scholarship to the University of the South-West (now the University of Exeter), where he read history (London BA, 1968). He worked chiefly as a teacher, as a freelance writer and for the BBC, for which he prepared programmes on Walton, Rubbra and Shostakovich. His studies in 20th-century music are mainly concerned with the nature of symphonic thought after Mahler, and his published work, though predominantly on English composers, was not limited by a nationalist outlook; his ability to view English composition in its broader context also made his reviews valuable.‘Vaughan Williams: Symphony in D and “The Pilgrim's Progress”’, MT , 94 (1953), 456–8 ‘The Piano Music of John Ireland’, MMR , 84 (1954), 258–66 ‘Prokofiev’s Seventh Symphony’, MT , 96 (1955), 74–5 ‘Vaughan Williams and the Symphonic Epilogue’, MO...
[Richter, Johann Paul Friedrich]
(b Wunsiedel, March 21, 1763; d Bayreuth, Nov 14, 1825). German novelist, satirist and aesthetician. His father was a schoolmaster, organist and composer of church music who eventually obtained a post as Lutheran pastor. Jean Paul entered the Gymnasium at Hof in 1779, having already shown a fondness for improvisation that continued well into his adult years. From 1781 to 1784 he was a theology student at the University of Leipzig, but he was forced to discontinue his studies due to straitened circumstances. For the next eight years he made his living as a private tutor and provincial schoolmaster. At the same time he developed a liking for Haydn’s symphonies and oratorios, the church music of Graun and Hasse and the operas of Mozart, Gluck and Méhul.
Jean Paul cultivated one of the most unusual styles in German writing, its chief characteristics including extravagant metaphors, puns and wordplay, syntactic convolutions, the juxtaposition of high-flown poetry and homely prose, and humorous or sentimental digressions which could range from discussions of Fichtean philosophy to hot-air ballooning. With the publication in ...
Robert W. Wason
(b Freiwaldau [now Jesenik], Silesia, April 8, 1836; d Leipzig, April 18, 1898). German writer on music . He was educated at the University of Leipzig, where he first studied theology, but soon changed to classical philology. At the same time he studied the piano at the Leipzig Conservatory with Plaidy, and history and theory of music with E.F. Richter and Moritz Hauptmann, taking his PhD at the university in 1860 under Hauptmann’s direction. After spending some time in various German towns and abroad in pursuit of a career as a pianist, Paul returned to Leipzig in 1866, and was appointed to the university with an Habilitationsschrift on ancient Greek music theory (Die absolute Harmonik der Griechen). In 1869 he also became a teacher of music history, piano and composition at the Conservatory. In 1872 he published his most important work, a commentary on Boethius’s De institutione musica...
(b Barcelona, March 1, 1873; d Barcelona, June 25, 1944). Spanish musicologist and music critic . He qualified in law at Barcelona University, but began his career writing criticism for various Barcelona newspapers. Although he never gave up criticism, his greatest work was as a musicologist and music organizer. He was strongly influenced by Pedrell and centred his efforts on making Wagner’s music known: to this end he founded the Asociación Wagneriana (1901), translated Wagner’s operas and writings and wrote several studies of his music. Later he extended his field to other composers and to other forms, including lieder. In 1940 he started to translate Riemann’s Musik Lexikon into Spanish, but was persuaded by Higini Anglès to change the project into the writing of a new dictionary that would better answer the needs of the Spanish public. After his death it was continued by Anglès and published as the ...
( b Újpest, Nov 19, 1928; d Budapest, April 4, 1980). Hungarian musicologist and music critic . He studied the clarinet and recorder and was a pupil of Kodály, Szabolcsi, Bartha, Bárdos and Kókai at the Budapest Academy of Music (diploma in musicology 1958). Subsequently he was music critic of the newspaper Magyar nemzet (1959–75) and the periodicals New Hungarian Quarterly, Muzsika and Kritika, and from 1964 a lecturer in music theory and history at the Budapest Academy of Music. He also gave 250 lectures on jazz on Hungarian Radio (1962–9). In 1975 he was awarded the Erkel Prize. His writings include studies of Berg and Puccini and the scenario of István Láng's ballet based on Thomas Mann's Mario und der Zauberer. He has edited Dunstaple's Magnificat secundi toni (1974), one of Byrd's Salve regina settings (1975) and, in a series of 16th- and 17th-century keyboard pieces, Daniel Croner's ...
Laurence de Laubadère
revised by Manuel Couvreur
( b Paris, Sept 25, 1613; d Paris, Oct 9, 1688). French polymath , elder brother of Charles Perrault . He studied medicine and qualified as a doctor in Paris in 1641. Boileau was one of his patients before becoming one of his detractors. His medical practice was soon confined to his immediate circle of acquaintances; but he had many other interests. He concerned himself with physics and anatomy and in 1666, on its foundation, was admitted to the Académie des Sciences, where he directed studies in natural history, a field in which he also published new and penetrating observations. His abilities extended to music and architecture as well. When it was decided that the Louvre should be given a façade befitting its monumental grandeur, Perrault entered the competition. He probably benefited from the influential position of his brother Charles, who gave him steadfast support throughout his life. The result was the colonnade of the Louvre built under the supervision of François d’Orbay between ...