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(b San Sebastian, Sept 18, 1897; d Madrid, Dec 26, 1988). Spanish composer and conductor. He studied first in his native city and later under Alfredo de Larrocha (violin) and Beltrán Pagola (harmony and composition). He became a member of the Orfeón Donostiarra and later the orchestra of the Casino, playing under his violin teacher and Enrique Fernández Arbós. In 1918 he moved to Madrid as a member of the Philharmonic Orchestra and in 1920 he went to Leipzig. There he studied with Hans Sitt (violin) and Stephan Krehl (composition), supporting himself by playing in symphony orchestras and as a café musician, and made his conducting début in 1922. In 1931 he returned to Spain for the first performance of Katiuska, which remained one of the greatest of many successes in its genre. With Federico Moreno Torroba he was one of the last major exponents of the zarzuela, bringing to it technical refinement and a distinctive grasp of regional styles. He also composed chamber, choral and orchestral music, and was conductor of the Madrid Municipal Band, the Madrid PO and of many zarzuela recordings....

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Lise Waxer

[Francisco, Slinger]

(b Grand Roy, July 9, 1935). Trinidadian vocalist, composer and bandleader born in Grenada. His family moved to Trinidad when he was one year old. He sang as a church choirboy, and made his professional début at 19, performing in the annual calypso tent competition held during Carnival under the sobriquet Little Sparrow. In 1956 he changed his name to Mighty Sparrow and won the Calypso Monarch Competition with his road march Jean and Dinah. That same year he initiated the famous ‘calypso wars’ with his friend Lord Melody, performing at the Young Brigade Calypso Tent. The following year, his tune Carnival Boycott was taken up as an anthem to demand better competitive conditions and pay for calypsonians, masqueraders and pan-men, and which led to the founding of the Carnival Development Committee. In subsequent years, his songs Teresa (1958) and The Yankees Back (1960) also became instant hits....

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Andrew Lamb

(Elisabeth)

(b Graz, Aug 25, 1880; d Berlin, June 27, 1975). Austrian composer and conductor. He received his initial musical training from his parents, Jacob Stolz, a conductor and music teacher, and Ida Bondy, a concert pianist. He gave his first public piano recital at the age of seven with Brahms, a family friend, in the audience. Later he studied under Fuchs at the Vienna Conservatory and with Humperdinck in Berlin. In 1897 he was appointed répétiteur in Graz, in 1898 second conductor at Marburg an der Drau (now Maribor, Slovenia), in 1902 first conductor in Salzburg, and in 1903 conductor at the German Theatre in Brno. In 1904 he married the soprano Grete Holm. A meeting with Johann Strauss in 1899 had turned Stolz’s thoughts to the composition of light music, and his first operetta Studentenulke (Marburg, 1901) had been followed by further efforts. In 1907 he became conductor at the Theater an der Wien, where he conducted ...

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Alyn Shipton

[Louis]

(b London, May 28, 1898; d London, Feb 12, 1969). English bandleader, arranger and pianist. He wrote scores for Bert Ralton's band and rapidly became known as one of the most inventive arrangers of his time, blending elements of jazz, symphonic and commercial music within single arrangements. From 1927 he provided several outstanding arrangements for Ambrose's band, introducing a rhythm string section. He joined Roy Fox in 1931. He first led a band in 1932, at the Monseigneur Restaurant, and later formed his own band there with exceptionally good players and the singer Al Bowlly. The band recorded and broadcast regularly. Stone was musical director for British and Dominion Films (1931–5) and the British National Film Company (1936–9), appearing with his band in several films including Bitter Sweet and The Little Damozel. He also played in clubs, theatres, restaurants etc., made recordings and broadcast, latterly with a sextet (...

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Andrew Lamb

(b Vienna, March 6, 1870; d Bad Ischl, Jan 11, 1954). Austrian composer and conductor. On the recommendation of Brahms he studied with Hermann Grädener and in 1891 went to Berlin as a pupil of Bruch. Advised by the younger Johann Strauss to gain practical theatrical experience in the provinces, he conducted between 1893 and 1899 in Bratislava, Brno, Teplitz, Mainz and Hamburg. During the same period he was active as a composer of stage works and a good deal of salon music. He was conducting in Berlin when, in 1900, he was engaged as pianist and composer in the newly founded Überbrettl cabaret, and he enjoyed his first popular successes with songs such as Die Musik kommt and Der lustige Ehemann. Having returned to Vienna he began a series of operettas of which Ein Walzertraum (1907) rivalled Die lustige Witwe in popularity and first brought Straus international success. Its successor, ...

Article

[jr]

(b St Louis, July 16, 1925; d Manila, Philippines, May 5, 1982). American vibraphone player, percussionist, bandleader, composer and arranger of Swedish descent. Based in San Francisco’s Bay Area throughout his career, he began as a jazz player, playing the drums with the Dave Brubeck Trio (1949–51). In 1953 he joined George Shearing’s jazz quintet as a vibraphone player and percussionist, and the following year left to form his own jazz ensemble with such players as pianist Vince Guaraldi. His virtuosity and infallible sense of phrasing marked him as the greatest jazz vibraphone player since Lionel Hampton. He turned to Latin jazz in the late 1950s, working with percussionists such as Mongo Santamaría, Armando Peraza and Willie Bobo. Tjader became the most famous non-Latino Latin jazz musician and bandleader of the 1950s and 60s, with such hits as Soul Sauce and Mamblues in addition to memorable versions of Dizzy Gillespie’s ...

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(b London, 1908; d Eastbourne, July 16, 1990). English arranger, composer, conductor and theatre organist. His early career involved playing for silent films and he soon graduated to the organ, becoming one of Britain's leading theatre organists during the 1930s. He became involved with light orchestral music during his wartime service in the RAF as conductor of the RAF Concert Orchestra. After the war he contributed numerous original works to publishers' mood music libraries, and worked extensively in radio on programmes such as ‘Much Binding in the Marsh’. In 1953 he devised the successful formula for BBC Radio's ‘Friday Night is Music Night’, in which he conducted the BBC Concert Orchestra regularly until his retirement in 1972. Torch presented numerous celebrity concerts particularly, for many years, the BBC's prestigious Light Music Festivals. His London Transport Suite was specially commissioned for the 1957 festival. During the 1940s and 50s he recorded many important works in the light music repertory for EMI's Parlophone and Columbia labels, including many of his own cameos, the most famous being his ...

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Simon Collier

[Pichuco; El Gordo]

(b Buenos Aires, July 11, 1914; d Buenos Aires, May 18, 1975). Argentine tango bandoneon player, bandleader and composer. Largely self-taught, he played full-time in tango bands from the age of 13, working in those of Juan Maglio, the Vardaro-Pugliese Sextet, Julio De Caro and Alfredo Gobbi among others. His own band made its début at the Marabú cabaret in Buenos Aires in July 1937. With Troilo’s bandoneon and the piano skills of Orlando Goñi, it was soon recognized as the leading band of its time; the first of its nearly 500 recordings date from 1938. Supremely popular in Buenos Aires, Troilo made relatively few trips abroad, which were always short. His best tango songs were written with the lyricist Homero Manzi, and include Barrio de tango and Sur, the prime tango classics of the 1940s. In 1953 he wrote music for a long-running musical comedy, El patio de la morocha...

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Jon Alan Conrad

(b New York, April 19, 1938). American orchestrator, conductor and composer. His education included degrees from Bard College (1958) and the Juilliard School of Music (1960), and compositional study with Nordoff, Giannini and Bernstein. Work in New York as an instrumentalist, conductor and arranger led to the first commercially successful musical with which Tunick was associated, Promises, Promises (1968). Company, two years later, cemented his position at the forefront of theatre orchestrators and led to a long-lasting association with the work of Stephen Sondheim. His pre-eminence in this area has caused notable theatre composers to seek his services, inluding David Shire, Charles Strouse and Maury Yeston, and has fittingly led to his receiving the first Tony award given for orchestration, for Titanic (1997). His film work includes scores for Fort Apache, the Bronx (1981), Endless Love (1981...

Article

Andrew Lamb

[padre]

(b Badajoz, Feb 27, 1846; d Madrid, March 17, 1910). Spanish composer and conductor. He began his musical studies in his native city, and as a boy he played the piccolo in a military band. He later studied at the Madrid Conservatory, where he won first prize for flute in 1867 and composition in 1870. In 1871 his Sinfonía Batilo was awarded a prize by the Sociedad Fomento de las Artes. He composed flute studies and in 1882, during an unsuccessful attempt to become a flute teacher at the Madrid Conservatory, wrote a pamphlet La flauta: su historia, su estudio (Madrid, 1886), which was later adopted by the conservatory as a text. In all he composed over 200 instrumental works, but his prime preoccupation was with the theatre. He was a theatre conductor throughout the 1870s and 80s and composed many zarzuelas, often in collaboration. Of these the best-known are those with Chueca, including ...