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Article

Kazunori Sugiyama

(b Osaka, Japan, Sept 10, 1957). Japanese singer. She learned piano from the age of three, studied singing when she was 17, and in her youth undertook some work as a piano accompanist. After graduating from high school she lived alternately in Kobe, Japan, and Los Angeles. She then went to New York, where she sang from 1986 to 1991 as a member of the gospel choir of the Tabernacle Church in Harlem. In 1991 she returned to Japan and performed with the trio led by the pianist Hiroshi Minami in 1992 and Mikio Masuda’s trio in 1998. Among her recordings is an album (1996) on which she was accompanied by a quartet comprising the guitarist Satoshi Inoue, Junior Mance, Calvin Hill, and Akira Tana. Ayado was employed as a dietician until 1998 and then decided to work exclusively as a professional musician. Since then she has become one of the most successful jazz singers in Japan. She teaches gospel-style choirs in several Japanese cities and also plays piano and organ....

Article

Jean During

Country in the Caucasus of Central Asia of 86,600 km², with an estimated population of 7·83 million (2000). Since 1828 Azerbaijan has consisted of two parts; one forms a province of Iran, whilst the other, which was a Soviet socialist republic from 1920 onwards, became independent in 1991.

The varieties of music found in Azerbaijan can be found across an area which extends to Kurdistan in the south and Zanjan and Ghazvin in the east. In terms of ethnicity, culture, religion and politics the Azeri are musically much closer to Iran than Turkey. Their mugam music also formed part of the Armenian repertory for a long time. However, there has been a tendency among the Armenians for some decades now to reject this music because of the growth in nationalism on both sides which resulted from the geopolitical division of Transcaucasia in 1917. Moreover, some popular bards (...

Article

Alma Kunanbayeva

(b Maty-Bulak, Semirechye [now Krasnogorsk], 1884; d Almata, 1976). Kazakh traditional composer, singer, narrator and dömbra player. He was born to the family of a poor herder and lost his mother when he was seven years old. His family was musically talented and Azerbayev gained the nickname Bala-aqyn (‘Child-singer’) early in his life. At the age of ten or 11 he wrote the songs Ri qoyïm (‘Shoo, my Sheep’, a shepherds' cry) and Boz torgai (‘Sparrow’), which revealed his outstanding talent and became widely popular. Kazakh and Kyrgyz musicians often met in the region of Semirechye, and Azerbayev became famous as a performer of Kyrgyz songs and the Manas epic as well as the Kazakh traditional repertory; his songs also became popular in Kyrgyzstan. More than 200 of his works were recorded by the folklorists B. Erzakovich and A. Serikbayeva. Azerbayev's songs are stylistically linked with aqyn genres of recitation in their melodic construction, which follow the rhythm and meaning of the verse. He composed many songs in response to important events in Kazakhstan; songs such as ...

Article

[Aznavourian, Varenagh]

(b Paris, May 22, 1924). French singer and songwriter. His parents were Armenian immigrants, and he began acting as a child. In 1941 he wrote the lyrics to the song J'ai bu, with music by Pierre Roche, and which brought the songwriting team to the attention of Edith Piaf. Aznavour subsequently wrote songs for Piaf (Il pleut, 1949), Gilbert Bécaud (Donne-moi, 1952) and Juliette Greco (Je hais les dimanches, 1950). As a singer, he toured with Piaf, but major success only came with Sur ma vie (1955). Such reflective and romantic songs as The Old-Fashioned Way and She (1974) brought him international acclaim, while numbers such as Hier encore (translated as Yesterday when I was Young) typify his introspective and melancholic style. His operetta, Monsieur Carnaval, was performed in Paris in 1965, and his film appearances include François Truffaut's ...

Article

Elizabeth Forbes

(b Osaka, Dec 11, 1939). Japanese soprano . She studied in Tokyo, then in Milan and Parma, making her début in 1963 at Reggio Emilia as Suzel (L’amico Fritz). She sang at La Scala and elsewhere in Italy; in France, Belgium, Germany and Austria; in North and South America and with Fujiwara Opera in Tokyo. She took part in the première of Joachim Ludwig’s ...

Article

Henry Johnson

Musical bow of Japan. The name refers to the quintessential material used for the bow (azusa: catalpa) and the form (yumi: bow). Other names for the instrument include azusa and yumidaiko (daiko/taiko: drum). It is nowadays made of wood such as catalpa or mulberry and is about 1 metre long, has an independent resonator (usually an upside-down box), and is sounded by a wooden beater usually held in the player’s right hand. The single string is normally made of flax. The player, who normally kneels with the string placed horizontally in front, presses the bow on to the resonator with the left hand and beats the string without any change of pitch. The azusayumi is used especially by female itako (shamans) to accompany religious chanting, and is particularly well known in the northern parts of Honshū. A musical bow has been known in Japan since ancient times and is mentioned in the 11th-century book ...

Article

Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Yerevan, Jan 22, 1921; d Yerevan, Nov 11, 1983). Armenian composer and pianist. He graduated from Talian’s composition class at the Yerevan Conservatory in 1947, and in 1948 from Igumnov’s piano class at the Moscow Conservatory; his composition studies were continued under Litinsky at the House of Armenian Culture in Moscow (1946–8). He taught the piano at the Yerevan Conservatory (1950–56) and was himself a brilliant pianist. In 1971 he was made a People’s Artist of the USSR. His music draws on Khachaturian and Rachmaninoff, but is unmistakably individual, particularly in its scoring. The piano works are in a virtuoso style, liberal in their use of touch, texture, rhythm and register, and with expressive leading parts. This style was formed in the 1940s; later he introduced Prokofiev-like chromaticism, Bartókian rhythm and Schoenbergian dodecaphony into his music, achieving his best work in the Violin Sonata, the Cello Concerto and the ...

Article

Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Yerevan, Aug 19, 1948). Armenian composer. He began composing at the age of seven, then studied composition with Bagdasarian at the Melikian Music College (1964–8) and later at the Yerevan Conservatory under Yeghiazarian (1968–73). He joined the Armenian Composers’ Union in 1973, and as a freelance composer has received numerous prizes and commissions. His works have been performed at festivals of contemporary music in Lithuania, Finland, Georgia, Argentina and Hungary. He is prolific and has written in all genres; his style has evolved from an expressionism which makes use of serial techniques to a Romanticism in which modality and tonality play a major role. He also makes use of impressionist and sonoristic techniques (the ballet Pygmalion), heterophony and micropolyphony (Fifth Symphony) and dense textures involving chords and clusters. His preference for clearly defined and logical relationships between form and content has led to unusual assymetrical proportions within works, where the sense of conflict or rhythmic gravitation overrides conventional formal considerations. His symphonies continue the tradition of Mahler and Shostakovich, with outer movements assuming the most significance; his Second Symphony, for example, follows a teleological design which culminates in the finale. Similar formal resolutions can be found in the ballet ...

Article

Bachi  

Plectrum of the Japanese shamisen and biwa (plucked lutes). Good shamisen plectra are of ivory or ivory-tipped wood, although tortoise-shell is used when playing certain chamber and folk music. Practice plectra are made of plastic or of three weights of wood to provide balance and to supply a thin point. ...

Article

Bactria  

Article

Razia Sultanova

(b Ganchkash, Bukhara district, Nov 10, 1946). Uzbek composer. He trained at the Tashkent Conservatory as a performer on Uzbek instruments (1964–9) and as a composer (1972–7), finishing a postgraduate course under Boris Giyenko in 1979. He has taught at the Bukhara Pedagogical Institute (1969–72), has conducted the Uzbek folk instruments orchestra for the Uzbek TV and radio company (1980–86) and in 1986 was appointed artistic director of this folk orchestra. His works have a broad appeal and are heard in festivals and competitions as well as local celebrations; they are rooted in Uzbek folk traditions. Bafoyer has received numerous awards, including the A. Kadïri State Premium (1997) and the title of Meritorious Worker of Arts of Uzbekistan (1995).

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Article

Baghrā  

Article

R. Conway Morris

Turkish long-necked lute of the Ṭanbūr family (for illustration see Kurdish music). The pear-shaped bowl resonator is carved (oyma) or carvel-built (yapraklı). The soundtable is of wood, usually coniferous. The neck has a variable number of movable frets. Traditionally these were made of sheepgut or copper wire but nylon line is now used. The instrument’s name, dating from the 17th century, derives from these ‘tied’ frets (bağ: ‘fret’, ‘knot’; bağlamak: ‘to tie, knot’). The movability of the frets allows the setting of scales to include microtones. There are three double courses of metal strings tuned with wooden pegs. The bağlama is generally played with a cherry-bark plectrum, though formerly the fingertips were widely used. The melody is commonly played on the first double course of strings, while the remaining courses are struck open as drones. Sometimes, however, the second and third courses are also fingered. The second finger of the plectrum hand is often used to strike the soundtable to add a percussive element to the melody....

Article

Bahrain  

Article

Alastair Dick

Name for different flutes in Sind, Pakistan. One type is a thin, wooden transverse flute, about 1.5 cm in diameter and about 30 to 45 cm long, with six equidistant fingerholes. The other is an end-blown duct flute, this name being given to a flute of the paired duct flutes ...

Article

Bājā  

Nepalese generic term designating a musical instrument or an instrumental ensemble, as in the pañca bājā (ensemble of five instruments), navā bājā (ensemble of nine instruments), Damāi bājā (band of musicians from the Damāi caste of tailor-musicians), jhā ṅkri bājā (instrument of the jhā ṅkri, e.g. the dhyā ṅgro, or frame drum), ...

Article

Alastair Dick

A bagpipe of central and southern India. It consists of a short blowpipe, a goatskin bag, and a bamboo single-reed chanter, and is used in the instrumental ensemble bajānā to accompany devotional music. Other south Indian names for the instrument are śruti upa ṅga and titti. The bagpipe appears to be obsolescent in this context nowadays and has been replaced by the ...

Article

Alan R. Thrasher

(‘octagonal drum’)

Single-headed frame drum of the Bai minority (Yunnan province) and the Han Chinese in areas of north China. Eight rectangular pieces of hardwood, each c5 cm long, are glued together to form the octagonal frame (width about 20 cm or less, about 6 cm deep). A head of python skin is glued around the top rim. The frame is often inlaid with bone decoration and has small jingles (ling), similar to those of tambourines, mounted in gaps through seven of the frame walls. The instrument is held by the eighth section, to which a decorative tassel may be attached. The drum is shaken or the head is rubbed or struck with the fingers. Introduced into China during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644 ce), probably from Central Asia, the drum came into usage among the Bai people in accompaniment of dance-songs, and among the northern Han Chinese in accompaniment of narrative and other songs....

Article

Andrew C. McGraw

A bamboo ensemble of the eastern Sumenep region of Madura, Indonesia. Bak beng specifically refers to an idiochord tube zither made from a length of bamboo two and a half internodes long (about 145 cm), from which four ‘strings’, two per internode, are raised from the epidermis by small wooden bridges. The pitches of the front two strings are lowered by small wooden tongues placed in the middle of the strings above a small resonance hole. The instrument is placed horizontally in front of the player on a short wooden stand, the right end closed by a natural node and the left end covered with a leather skin, which the performer beats with his left hand (bak) while striking the four strings with a wooden stick in his right hand (beng), alternating between the internodes. Meanwhile two bamboo tubes, the dak, about 55 cm long, and the ...

Article

Patricia Matusky

Xylophone of the Murut people of Sabah, Malaysia. The bakakong has as many as ten graduated bars made of bamboo sections cut in half lengthwise. The bars are bound together in raft-like fashion and set over a wooden frame that serves as a resonator. They are struck with a pair of wooden sticks by a player seated on the floor....