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Article

Bwi  

Kettledrum of Upper Volta. It is made from a spherical, hollow gourd with a large hole cut out and covered with goatskin.

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Byàw  

John Okell

Double-headed barrel drum of Myanmar. It is 60 to 70 cm long, with cowhide heads 40 cm in diameter, laced together and beaten with a pair of stout sticks. The byàw is associated particularly with ceremonies for happy events such as a son entering the monkhood as a novice. A typical ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Shallow barrel drum of the Santal people of eastern India. It is 25 to 30 cm deep, 32.5 cm in diameter at the right-hand head, and 35 cm at the left. The shell is of gambhari wood, and the heads are of goatskin stretched on creeper hoops and laced with leather thongs and metal tuning-loops. The right head has a hardened tuning paste of earth, oil, gum, and vermilion. The drum is hung either vertically and played with sticks on the upper (right) head, or horizontally and beaten with the hands on both heads....

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A tenor drum. See Drum, §II, 3.

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Caja  

Henry Stobart

Frame drum, sometimes with a snare, of Spain and Latin America. The caja of central Spain is often a shallow, military-style side drum, slung from the waist and played with two sticks to accompany the dulzaina (oboe), whilst those of Palma tend to be deeper....

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Calung  

Term referring to bamboo Xylophone, bamboo xylophone ensemble or metallophone of Indonesia (the bamboo xylophone and xylophone ensemble are found in Java and Sunda, while the metallophone is found in Bali). For details on Sundanese usage, see Indonesia, §V, 1, (ii), (b); this entry deals with the ...

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Coriún Aharonián

A dance and song genre of Uruguay. The word ‘candombe’ (not to be confused with Brazilian camdomblé) has had various different but related meanings throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. In the colonial era it denoted the musical practices of the black communities; from the 1930s onwards it has described phenomena associated with the ...

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Cang  

Alastair Dick

Indian name for frame drum in Gujarat and Rajasthan (cang), and in Orissa (cangu), denoting two different types in each region. The Gujarati cang and the cangu of the Orissan Khondh people are large (up to 60 cm wide) wooden-rimmed drums, their heads laced by dense strapping passing around a small metal ring held suspended by the straps in the centre of the open left head. They are played with hands or sticks, or both. The cangu of the Juang people of Orissa and the Rajasthani cang, however, have pasted heads, as on the Middle Eastern ...

Article

A Mirliton of the Eunuch-flute type, having the shape of a saxophone and made of zinc. It was patented by Le Jeune of Paris in 1882. See also Bigophone.

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Casio  

Hugh Davies

Japanese electronic instrument manufacturer. Casio was founded in Tokyo about 1956 by Toshio Kashio as the Casio Computer Co., to make smaller electronic machines; it has been specially successful with its pocket calculators, digital watches and cash registers. Its first musical keyboard was marketed in ...

Article

Tenor drum. See Drum, §II, 3.

Article

David K. Rycroft

Open-ended, footed drum of the Chokwe of the Lóvua/Lunda district, Angola. The name derives from the word for ‘hen’, and the instrument is said to make a ‘cackling noise’. In construction and playing technique it closely resembles the mucundo drum, and it is played in conjunction with that and with the ...

Article

Gerhard Kubik

Term used for old drums found in caves north of the town of Singida in central Tanzania. Since about 1935, 78 drums have been found distributed in 16 sacred caves, as reported by the National Museum in Dar es Salaam. The age of these instruments, many of which had partly disintegrated, was estimated at more than 200 years. The makers belonged to neither the Iramb, nor the Nyaturu, nor any other people living there nowadays; the Ihanzu claim that when they moved into the area long ago, the drums were already there. Some one-string bowed lutes were also found in the caves. A huge ancient drum discovered near the summit of Samaja Hill in Irambaland, approximately 45 miles north of Singida, can also be seen in the National Museum. The drum’s body is cut from the stem of an acacia tree and looks like a big tooth with two roots. To produce the tension needed for the skin, large wooden plugs laced with strings were used. It is thought that some of these ‘hidden drums’ were used in religious or ritual contexts, perhaps associated with rain-making....

Article

Pribislav Pitoëff

Double-headed drum of Kerala, south India. The body is a cylinder of jackwood, 55 cm tall and 22 cm in diameter. The heads are glued to two hoops of wood or bamboo, 32 cm in diameter and 4 cm high, and held very taut at either end of the body by W-shaped lacings, each tuned by a movable ring placed on the lacings. On some modern ...

Article

Elaine Dobson

Large, double-headed frame drum of the Lepchas people of Sikkim, North India. It is played with both hands. The heads are laced together in W-pattern and tightened by a perpendicular strip of leather that winds through the lacing.

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Kyle Devine

American manufacturer of electronic keyboards and drum machines. The company was founded in Upland, California, by Harry Chamberlin in the late 1940s. Instead of the electronic circuits and digital processors used to generate sound in most synthesizers, Chamberlins replay the sounds of existing instruments and effects recorded to electromagnetic tape. In using prerecorded sound, Chamberlins are considered forerunners of digital sampling techniques and technologies....

Article

Michael Suing

Generic Sioux Indian term for frame drums. The term refers both to single- and double-headed drums used in personal, powwow, and ceremonial settings, while čháŋčheğa miméla refers specifically to the hand drum. Historic Euro-American accounts often refer to the large drums as war drums; however, this is a misconception as specific drums did not exist for this purpose. Lakota construction methods and materials are representative of traditional drummaking in the Northern Great Plains. A likely predecessor of the Lakota frame drum was a solitary hoop of bent branches with no drum head, played by striking the hoop with a beater. This idiophonic frame was a talismanic object employed by healers and shamans. After idiophonic frames, longitudinally split and bent sections of wood with increased structural integrity for supporting a drum head were used. The two ends were overlapped and lashed with sinew and hide passing through holes cut through the wood. Later, vegetal twine, iron tacks, and wire replaced or were used to repair lapped joints. The use of cross-sections of hollowed trees is common in larger powwow drums, but smaller handheld drums sometimes employed this method. Other lumber, typically from discarded shipping crates, provided wood of ideal thickness and length for use as bent drum frames, and other collected materials, such as large snapping turtle shells, large iron hoops, small shipping crates, wooden buckets, and cast iron kettles were used as drum frames or bodies....

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Changgo  

Robert C. Provine

Article

Changgo  

Robert C. Provine

Double-headed hourglass drum, the chief percussion instrument of Korea (chang: ‘stick’; go: ‘drum’). It is also known as changgu (especially in central Korea and among folk performers), sŏlchanggo (for the instrument used in the farmers’ percussion band music nongak), and seyogo (a Chinese term used in certain historical sources, meaning ‘narrow-waisted drum’). The changgo body is made in various sizes, and in general a changgo used in court music and for subtle accompaniment will be larger and deeper-toned than one used in nongak and in certain types of folk song.

The body of the instrument is made of a single piece of paulownia wood, fashioned in the shape of an hourglass and hollow even at the narrow waist. The body ranges in length from roughly 40 to more than 60 cm and in diameter at the ends from roughly 20 to more than 30 cm. It may be painted red and decorated with traditional motifs, though some drums used in ...

Article

John Okell

Set of six drums used in the hsaìng-waìng percussion ensemble of Myanmar. The set consists of four graduated barrel drums standing on end, the sahkún (large double-headed barrel drum) resting on a low trestle, and the pat-má (large barrel drum) suspended from an ornate rack carved in the shape of a fabulous beast. The ...