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Nicholas Tochka

(b Brockton, MA, USA, Nov 4, 1925). Albanian tenor and pedagogue. Born in the large Albanian immigrant colony in New England (USA), Athanasi returned as a child to his parents’ hometown of Korça, where he participated in its vibrant prewar choral, theatre, and sports scenes. During World War II, he performed with resistance groups singing patriotic and partisan songs and, in 1948, he was selected as a soloist in the newly formed National Army Ensemble by director Gaqo Avrazi. Athanasi was among a handful of young men in this ensemble to receive a scholarship to study in the Soviet Union, and following the completion of his degree in vocal performance at the Moscow State Conservatory in 1958, he was appointed soloist at Tirana’s Theatre of Opera and Ballet. He performed leading roles in premières of Albanian operas, and was active as a recitalist, performing a broad range of art music works from the Western European and Albanian repertories as well as arranged folk songs into the 1980s. In ...

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Patricia Brown

(Jeffrey)

(b Liverpool, Feb 17, 1950). Australian performer and composer, of English birth. After studying English at the University of New South Wales (1969–77) he worked as a solo and ensemble player on a wide range of medieval, Renaissance and Baroque string, wind and percussion instruments; he also specialized in folk instruments from a variety of countries. This instrumental ability led him to work with cross-cultural groups such as Sirocco, Southern Crossings (a world music quartet founded by Atherton in 1986), and Ariel (a quartet founded in 1995 to explore new music for shakuhachi, didjeridu, percussion and electronics); he has toured and lectured widely with these groups in Australia and abroad. He has also worked as a music therapist, and was curator of instruments at the Australian Museum in Sydney (1993 and 1998). In 1993 he was appointed foundation professor of music at the University of Western Sydney, Nepean. His interests include urban ethnomusicology, organology and Korean music. His work as a composer, arranger and improviser includes film scores, and choral and chamber works....

Article

Atys  

Roger J.V. Cotte

[Atis; first name unknown]

(b St Domingue [now Haiti], April 18, 1715; d Paris, Aug 8, 1784). French creole flautist, composer and teacher. His skill as a flute virtuoso and teacher made him renowned in Paris and Vienna, but his concert career was cut short by a chin wound received in a pistol duel. He was among the first flautists to use crescendo and diminuendo instead of simple echo contrasts. His compositions, all published in Paris, are primarily intended for amateur flautists: they include duos ‘en forme de conversation’ op.1 (...

Article

(b Verneuil, Dec 9, 1796; d Verneuil, Jan 28, 1870). French composer and teacher. His later achievements in the encouragement of amateur music-making in the provinces were foreshadowed in his youth when, at the age of 11, he wrote some marches for the local wind band at Verneuil. He played the flute and the horn, and in 1808 went to Paris to study composition with Momigny and later with Méhul and Cherubini at the Conservatoire. He returned to Verneuil in 1815 and divided his life between music and the management of his estate in the village of Grosbois nearby. He composed an opera Les amants querelleurs, accepted by the Opéra-Comique but played at the Théâtre du Gymnase in 1824. He was prolific in the popular genres of the time and devoted much attention to the guitar, for which he wrote a tutor. Many of his chamber works combine the guitar with strings or wind. He also supplied several books of wind music for the newly reorganized National Guard. In ...

Article

Boris Schwarz

(von)

(b Veszprém, June 7, 1845; d Loschwitz, nr Dresden, July 15, 1930). Hungarian violinist and teacher. He began his studies at the age of eight at the Budapest Conservatory with Ridley Kohne, continued them at the Vienna Conservatory with Jakob Dont (1857–8), and, after concert tours in the provinces, completed them with Joachim in Hanover (1863–4). After a successful début at the Leipzig Gewandhaus, he was engaged as orchestral leader at Düsseldorf (1864–6) and then at Hamburg where he also led a string quartet. Visiting London in 1868, he played Beethoven’s Trio op.97 at the Musical Union with Anton Rubinstein and Piatti. On Rubinstein’s recommendation, Auer was appointed to succeed Wieniawski as violin professor at the St Petersburg Conservatory in 1868; he remained there until 1917. He also taught outside Russia: in London during the summers of 1906–11 and in Loschwitz (Dresden) in ...

Article

(von )

(b Veszprém, Hungary, June 7, 1845; d Loschwitz, nr Dresden, Germany, July 15, 1930). Hungarian violinist and teacher. From 1868–1917, he taught violin at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, where his pupils included Jascha Heifetz, nathan Milstein , Mischa Elman and Efrem Zimbalist. He helped to establish the Russian school of violin playing that included use of the “Russian bow hold” in which the middle of the index finger presses into the stick resulting in a noticeably high wrist posture. He famously rejected the original dedication of Tchaikovsky’s Violin Concerto and only played the work after his own revisions to the solo part in 1893.

Auer left Russia in 1918 due to the revolution and settled in New York. He quickly scheduled a Carnegie Hall recital and was welcomed into the social circles of musicians such as Franz Kneisel and Donald Lambert. During the 1920s he taught at both the Institute of Musical Art (Juilliard) in New York and the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia. His teaching career was an important link in the lineage of violin pedagogy extending back to Joachim. Auer also published an autobiography and two instruction manuals of which ...

Article

Jeremy Siepmann

(b Kongsberg, Oct 22, 1948). Norwegian pianist. He gave his first recital in Oslo at the age of 15 and later studied in Paris, New York, Munich and London. In 1970 he became the first non-French pianist to win the Concours National de la Guilde Française des Artistes Solistes in Paris, and he gained international attention in 1971 when he won the Olivier Messiaen Competition for contemporary music. Austbö’s repertory is large and exceptionally wide-ranging, but he has won particular renown for his playing of Skryabin and Messiaen both in concert and on disc. A gifted and dedicated teacher, he joined the piano faculty at the Hogeschool voor de Kunsten Utrecht in 1980, and that of the Sweelinck Conservatory, Amsterdam, in 1994. His playing combines a broad tonal palette with an acute and flexible rhythmic profile and is notable alike for its emotional range and its penetrating intellectual command....

Article

Thomas Clark

(Don )

(b Duncan, OK, Sept 12, 1930). American composer. A talented trumpet player from Vernon, Texas, Austin played jazz in the first One O’clock Lab Band at North Texas State University, and later served in the Fourth US Army Band based in San Antonio. He studied with Violet Archer (North Texas State University), darius Milhaud (Mills College) and Andrew Imbrie (University of California, Berkeley). Austin’s 38-year academic career included positions at University of California-Berkeley, University of California, Davis, University of South Florida, and the University of North Texas (formerly NTSU). He taught composition and other subjects as diverse as marching band and advanced computer music research.

In the 1960s he was associated with Karlheinz Stockhausen and David Tudor, and also formed an extended association and friendship with John Cage. While a member of the faculty at UC Davis, he co-founded, edited, and published the journal SOURCE: Music of the Avant Garde...

Article

[Johann]

(b Tonnedorf, nr Erfurt; d Eisenberg, nr Gera, Jan 22, 1617). German writer on music, composer and schoolmaster. In 1579 he was teaching at the Lateinschule at Ronneburg, near Gera, and in 1591 he was Rektor of the Lateinschule at Gera. Later he was a preacher at Bernsdorf, near Torgau, at Munich and at Krossen, near Gera, and from ...

Article

[Giorgos, Yorgos]

(b Mariupol, Ukraine, near the north coast of the Sea of Azov, Sept 27, 1875; d Athens, May 16, 1924). Greek composer, critic, and music educator. After the return of his family to Athens in 1887 he studied music privately with Loudovikos Spinellis, and later, in 1895, he went to Naples, Italy, to study composition at the Conservatory of San Pietro a Majella with Paolo Serrao. He came back to Athens in 1901, where he clashed with the representatives of the biggest music institution, the Athens Conservatory, due to the shift of the repertory towards German instead of Italian music, and the changing of the method of music education. He founded, along with Georgios Lambelet, one of the most important cultural magazines of the period, the journal Kritiki (1903–4), through which he expressed his ideas about the paths of music education and Greek music. During the period ...

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William Waterhouse

(b Bolzano, Jan 15, 1967). Italian bassoonist and teacher. After studying with Romano Santi in Bolzano from 1978 to 1985, he spent four years in Hanover with Klaus Thunemann. Following success in various international competitions and a brief spell as an orchestral player, he embarked on what has been a spectacular career as soloist, teacher and chamber artist. At the age of 22 he was appointed professor at the Stuttgart Musikhochschule, exchanging this for a similar appointment in Basle in ...

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Harrison Ryker

(b Enschede, Oct 22, 1906; d Oegstgeest, Sept 2, 1970). Dutch composer and teacher. The son of a music dealer, he first learned music from his father’s stock of scores and recordings, before studying the piano with Rudolph Breithaupt and composition with Friedrich Koch at the Berlin Hochschule (1924–9). Also working as a jazz and cabaret pianist (under the name Billy Barney), and encouraged by his fellow student Boris Blacher, he developed simultaneous enthusiasms for Gershwin and Webern. He returned to the Netherlands in summer 1929, shortly after meeting Pijper in Berlin; some months later he began composition studies with the latter, at the same time destroying all his compositions from before 1930. The study sessions grew progressively less formal, and Pijper remained a friend and mentor until his death in 1947. After several years in Enschede, mostly working with amateur ensembles, van Baaren became director of the Amsterdam Musieklyceum in ...

Article

Laurie J. Sampsel

(b Milton, MA, Feb 18, 1760; d French Mills, NY, Nov 23, 1813). American composer, singing master, singer, and tunebook compiler. Babcock lived most of his life in Watertown, MA, where he worked as a hatter. As a teenager he fought in the Revolutionary War, and he died while enlisted in the Army during the War of 1812. He was active primarily as a psalmodist during the period from 1790 to 1810. Babcock was the choir leader at the Watertown Congregational church, sang at and composed music for town events, and taught singing schools there in 1798 and 1804. He may also have been an itinerant singing master in the Boston area. Babcock composed 75 extant pieces, including anthems, set pieces, fuging tunes, psalm, and hymn tunes. Most of his music was first published in his own tunebook, Middlesex Harmony, which was published in two editions (1795...

Article

Tatjana Marković

(b Belgrade, Feb 10, 1927; d Belgrade, Oct 13, 2009). Serbian composer and music critic. He studied composition with Milenko Živković at the Academy of Music in Belgrade, graduating in 1955, and at the Accademia Nazionale di S. Cecilia in Rome (1967–8). He was a conductor of the choral society Napredak (1953–5), and then taught at Stanković music school (1955–66) and at the Music Academy (today Faculty of Music, 1966–96). As a music critic, he collaborated with various newspapers (Borba, Naša borba, Politika, Večernje novosti) and translated several books. He received awards from Udruženje kompozitora Srbije (‘the Association of Serbian composers’) and Yugoslav Radio, and received the Vukova nagrada. He followed the aesthetic of Stevan Mokranjac and his own professor Živković. His lyric music, predominantly choral, is distinguishable by his afinity for humour, both in his choice of lyrics and the musical means. He uses verbal punning (...

Article

Douglass Seaton

(b Berlin, 4/Oct 5, 1796; d Berlin, April 15, 1869). German organist, teacher and composer. He was not a descendant of J.S. Bach. He received his earliest musical training from his father Gottfried Bach, organist at the Dreifaltigkeitskirche in Berlin, and accompanied services there while still a boy. After completing his secondary education he took a teaching position in a noble household outside Berlin. On his father’s death in 1812 he returned to seek the post of organist at the Dreifaltigkeitskirche but did not succeed in obtaining the situation. He received instead an appointment in 1814 at the Gertraudenkirche, a less prominent position. During his two-year term there he studied counterpoint and fugue with Zelter and the piano with Ludwig Berger. He joined the Berlin Singakademie in 1815. He was appointed organist and music director at the important Marienkirche in 1816. In the following years he studied the violin with C.W. Henning and broadened his general education through travel and the study of languages. In ...

Article

Peter Ross

[Hans Kaspar]

(b Zürich, Dec 26, 1695; d Zürich, June 23, 1755). Swiss composer and music pedagogue. The year of his birth has been given incorrectly in some sources as 1697. His father Joseph, originally a tailor and from 1692 a schoolteacher, planned a theological training for Johann Caspar, who was his second son. After study at the cathedral school, the Collegium Humanitatis, and (from 1715) the theology class, Bachofen gained the title V.D.M. (verbi divini minister) in 1720. In 1711 he joined the collegium musicum at the chapter house, and in 1715 he became a member of one that met at the German School. In 1720 he became a singing teacher at the lower grammar school. His small income compelled him to seek a secondary source of income, from trading in violin strings. Despite disputes with officials and colleagues, he was appointed, after J.K. Albertin’s death in ...

Article

(b ?Normandy, ?1625; d Paris, Sept 27, 1690). French singing teacher and composer. He may have been a priest. He lived for most of his life in Paris but he was also in the service of Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Elbeuf. Although he was important as a composer and teacher, Bacilly’s most valuable legacy is the vocal treatise Remarques curieuses sur l’art de bien chanter, which has for long been recognized as one of the most detailed sources of information on French 17th-century vocal practice. However, until the publication of an English translation with the examples included, the application of its precepts to vocal performance had been virtually impossible since the examples Bacilly used to illustrate his teachings were not included in the text (he simply referred instead to specific passages in published volumes of airs de cour). The importance of the Remarques lies in two main areas: it is one of the earliest volumes to give specific descriptions and applications of the expressive melodic figures (...

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Truus de Leur

(b Vienna, June 9, 1879; d Brussels, Jan 3, 1963). Dutch violinist and teacher of Hungarian origin. He studied at the conservatories in Vienna and Brussels (with Ysaÿe and César Thomson), and taught at the Brussels Conservatory, 1910–18. In 1919 he settled in Holland and was one of the distinguished violinists who supplemented the Amsterdam Concertgebouw Orchestra under Mengelberg for the historic Mahler Festival of 1920. Back devoted himself chiefly to teaching, first with private lessons and later at the Amsterdam Muzieklyceum and the Rotterdam Conservatory. He taught most of the leading Dutch violinists and orchestral leaders, among whom the best-known are Herman Krebbers, Theo Olof, Willem Noske, Jo Juda, Emmy Verhey and Jean Louis Stuurop; he also taught a number of foreign students, including Alma Moodie. The Oskar Back Foundation was set up after his death to provide assistance for talented young Dutch violinists; it organizes a national violinists’ competition, held every other year....

Article

Jui-Ching Wang

(b Newton, MA, March 20, 1920). American music educator. A leader in the American Kodály movement, she attended the Dana Hall School in Wellesley, Massachusetts, and the New England Conservatory (BM 1952, MM 1954). She taught in the former school before becoming founding director of its music unit, the Dana School of Music (1957). With encouragement from Zoltán Kodály and support from a Braitmayer Fellowship, Bacon earned a Kodály method teaching diploma from the Franz Liszt Academy in Budapest (1968). She founded the Kodály Musical Training Institute (KMTI) (1969) with a Ford Foundation Grant, and established the Kodály Center of America (KCA) (1977), both in Wellesley, for the purpose of developing model schools, training teachers, and conducting research. A demonstration in Hungary of her adaptation of the Kodály approach by her first KMTI class (1970), which included a film entitled “Let’s Sing Together,” led to Hungarian collaboration in the development of Kodály-based curriculum in the United States during the 1970s. She published method books, videos, articles, choral compositions, and a chamber opera. She received two Hungarian government medals (...