141-160 of 512 results  for:

  • 19th c. /Romantic (1800-1900) x
Clear all

Article

Nicholas Tawa

(William )

(b Salem, MA, March 5, 1853; d Boston, MA, April 8, 1937). American composer, pianist, organist, and music theorist. Arthur Foote was the first noted American composer of art music to receive his musical education entirely in the United States. He was born in Salem, Massachusetts, the youngest of three children. His father was editor of the Salem Gazette. His mother died while he was still a child, and an older sister, Mary Wilder (Foote) Tiletson, saw to his upbringing. An older brother, Henry Wilder Foote, was a noted Unitarian minister. Arthur began piano lessons with a local teacher, fanny Paine, at the age of twelve. Two years later, he started studying theory with stephen albert Emery at the New England Conservatory. In 1870 he enrolled at Harvard, with john knowles Paine as his teacher in music composition. He intended to study law and was not yet bent toward a musical vocation. After graduation he took keyboard lessons with ...

Article

Elisabeth Lebeau

(b Pau, Nov 12, 1844; d Pau, April 22, 1883). French musicologist and composer. After studying classics and harmony at Pau, he went to Paris, where he took organ lessons from Charles Chauvet and was admitted to Ambroise Thomas' composition class at the Conservatoire. In 1869 he competed unsuccessfully for the Prix de Rome, and in 1876 he became a librarian at the Conservatoire. His three operettas, choral works, songs, piano pieces and set of orchestral variations reveal skill and taste. He contributed to numerous periodicals including Avenir national, Echo universel, Le ménestrel, République des lettres and Revue et gazette musicale, and wrote several books of substantial historical value, particularly Michel Ivanovitch Glinka: d'après ses mémoires et sa correspondance (Paris, 1880); Histoire du théâtre Ventadour, 1829–79 (Paris, 1881); and Les révolutionnaires de la musique: Lesueur, Berlioz, Beethoven, Richard Wagner, la musique russe (Paris, 1882).

FétisB...

Article

Stella Kourmpana

(b Sparti, 1856; d Athens, Sept 3, 1933). Greek music critic, doctor, and philologist. Along with his philological and medical studies at the Athens University, Foustanos studied at the Athens Conservatory (elementary theory and possibly flute) and participated in the foundation of the short-lived musical club ‘Orpheus’ (1880), an association which organized concerts, in which Foustanos would participate as a flute player. After his three-year postgraduate medical studies in Paris (1882–5)—where he attended, Charcot’s lectures, among others—Foustanos settled in Syros, where he worked as a doctor and medical researcher. He also took part in the direction of the local Opera House, organized and participated in musical concerts, and gave lectures on music history and aesthetics. At the same time, he published opera reviews at the Press, parts of which he gathered in the book Armonia kai Melodia, itoi Mousikai Meletai meta Technokritikis Analyseos diaforon melodramaton...

Article

H.C. Colles

revised by Frank Howes

(b Norwich, Sept 14, 1859; d Dinton, nr Salisbury, May 2, 1948). English musicologist, critic and editor. He was educated at Wellington College and Balliol College, Oxford (MA, 1882), and studied music for two years at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik. He became a schoolmaster at Dulwich College (1884–6) and a form master at Wellington (1887–1910), where he succeeded Alan Gray as the music master in 1893, a post he held until 1901, when he was made house master in college. During these years he wrote a Wellington College German Grammar and visited India, which aroused his interest in Indian music. When he left Wellington in 1910 he returned to India for eight months, collecting material for a book which is still a classic on its subject, The Music of Hindostan (1914); he also acted as Rabindranath Tagore's unpaid literary agent, ...

Article

Anna Amalie Abert

(b Brieg [now Brzeg, Poland], Oct 12, 1852; d Berlin, May 2, 1934). German musicologist. He studied singing under Manuel Garcia in London and Julius Stockhausen in Frankfurt, and went on to establish himself as a successful lieder and oratorio baritone. In 1884 he turned to the study of musicology under Spitta and German literature under W. Scherer in Berlin and took the doctorate at Rostock University in 1887 with a dissertation on Schubert. He completed the Habilitation in 1895 at Berlin University, where he was appointed reader and university director of music in 1903. In 1910–11 he worked as exchange professor at Harvard (receiving its honorary DCL) and at other American universities.

Friedlaender devoted his life to the interpretation, publication, collection and investigation of German folksongs and lieder. In all his scholarly work he never lost sight of the interests of the practical musician. From the time of his research into Schubert's songs he was concerned to reveal the original form of the work in question by investigation of the source material, and thus to provide authoritative editions. This aim applied to the texts as much as to the music. The main consequence of his literary interests was his work on Goethe, which produced a valuable two-volume collection of Goethe settings (...

Article

Malcolm Turner

(b Amstetten, Dec 15, 1853; d Vienna, Dec 25, 1928). Austrian music scholar. He trained as a doctor of medicine in Vienna, graduating in 1879, but had already begun to turn his attention to the history of art and music. During his student years and in the years immediately afterwards, he made extensive study tours in Germany, Italy, France and the Netherlands, working in between at the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie (1881–3). His only full-time appointment was as assistant curator of the Vienna Hofmuseum (1884–93), a post which he gave up in order to devote himself more thoroughly to his Beethoven studies; in later life he taught art history at the Vienna Athenäum and was director of the Gräflich Schönborn-Wiesentheidschegalerie. His interests and talents were happily united in his work on Beethoven biography and iconography, although he never succeeded in drawing his detailed studies together into a major work, with the exception of the ...

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...

Article

Lyndesay G. Langwill

revised by Veslemöy Heintz

(b Västerås, May 4, 1879; d Hälsingborg, Aug 25, 1965). Swedish musicologist and collector. He studied Romance languages at Uppsala University, where he took the doctorate in 1907, and was a music pupil of I.E. Hedenblad and L.J. Zetterqvist. Subsequently he taught French in schools in Sundsvall (1910–21) and Hälsingborg (1921–44). He devoted himself to a scrupulous study of the history and etymology of various instruments, but is best known for his unique music collection, the largest private collection of its kind in Sweden, now housed in the Musikmuseet and Statens Musikbibliotek (Stockholm) and the Helsingborg Stadsmuseum. It includes 900 instruments, books, posters and music editions, and 10,000 music manuscripts, autographs and letters. Of special interest are the Marseillaise collection of 3000 items, the correspondence of Fétis and the August Bournonville collection. A catalogue of this collection can be found in Collection Fryklund 1949...

Article

Othmar Wessely

[Alois]

(b Raase [now Rázová, nr Brantál, Moravia], June 22, 1799; d Vienna, March 20, 1853). Austrian musicologist. From 1811 he attended the school of the Franciscan friary at Opava, where he had lessons in organ and cello and sang in the choir. After studying philosophy (1816–19) and law (1819–23) at the University of Vienna, he worked from 1824 as an official in the war office, an assistant to Kiesewetter, and later as a drafting assistant (1834–8) and a chancery clerk (1838–53). As a bass he sang occasionally in the court chapel choir from 1825 and became a member of the choir in 1836. In 1829 he was appointed a member of the board of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde.

As a scholar and collector, Fuchs was of great importance to musicology. His music library, which he built from 1820, was particularly rich in autographs, among them works by Bach, Handel, Haydn, Gluck, Mozart, Beethoven and other German and Italian composers of the 18th and early 19th centuries. It also contained rare 17th-century printed editions of music, theoretical treatises on music and a collection of portraits of musicians. Generous gifts to the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna and to other institutions have changed the extent and the contents of the whole collection considerably. This is recognizable from Fuchs’s numerous handwritten catalogues which were constantly renewed from ...

Article

(b London, April 7, 1856; d Carnforth, Lancs., March 30, 1936). English critic, editor and musical scholar. Poor health disrupted his early nonconformist education and apart from three terms at Westminster School he was, by necessity, taught privately. His musical education began in 1872 when he took piano lessons with Ernst Pauer. In 1875 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where he became friends with Stanford and W.B. Squire, whose elder sister he married in 1885, and with whom he participated fully in the flourishing activities of the Cambridge University Musical Society. After graduation in 1882 he studied the piano with Dannreuther and Rockstro; both took a keen interest in early music, but it was Rockstro who introduced him to harpsichord playing. Although he cultivated a reputation as an exponent of the piano and harpsichord, it was in the field of antiquarian studies and musical journalism that he found his true vocation. He was invited by Grove to write articles for his ...

Article

Nanna Schiødt

[Hughes; Ugo Athanasio; Josef Anton]

(b Aitrach, nr Württemberg, Dec 1, 1853; d Ettal, Upper Bavaria, March 26, 1919). German writer on Gregorian and Byzantine chant. He entered the Benedictine monastery of Beuron in 1872, and studied plainchant and theology; he was ordained priest in 1873. After staying in Volders, Tyrol (1875), and in the Benedictine monastery of Maredsou near Namur (1876), he became a teacher (1899) and then director at the Pontificio Collegio Atanasiano in Rome, a school founded in 1577 by Gregory XIII for the education of Greek Catholics. In 1905 he went for two months to Mt Athos to study the chant there. He became prior at the monastery of St Andrew at Bruges in 1912, but was forced to return to Germany in 1914, first to the abbey of St Joseph, Coesfeld, then in 1916 to Ettal.

Up to 1899 Gaisser wrote mainly about Gregorian chant. During the 11 years which followed, he studied the history of Byzantine chant, using his experience to train the choir of the college church, S Atanasio. He advanced many hypotheses and ideas in this new field: he drew attention to the oriental elements in modern Byzantine chant; he studied the liturgy and folksongs in the Greek-Albanian colony in Sicily to show how Byzantine elements have survived; he drew parallels between the chant in the Eastern and Western church. At the same time as, and apparently independently of, Oskar Fleischer, he found the key to deciphering the neumes of the middle Byzantine notation, but was unable to solve the problem of the ...

Article

Rosemary Williamson

(b Dorchester, Dec 25, 1858; d Richmond, Surrey, Dec 30, 1945). English collector of musical instruments and scholar. He was educated at King's School, Sherborne, where James Robert Sterndale Bennett, son of the composer, encouraged his aptitude for music. From 1877 he studied classics at Trinity College, Cambridge (BA 1882, MA 1885), where he played the clarinet under Stanford in the orchestra of the Cambridge University Musical Society. Ordained in 1883, he was curate of Redenhall with Harleston, Norfolk, for four years, then curate at St Giles-in-the-Fields (1887–91), vicar of Hatfield Broad Oak (formerly Hatfield Regis, 1891–1915), vicar of Witham (1915–21) and rector of Faulkbourn (1921–33). In 1917 he was made a canon of Chelmsford Cathedral. From his university years onwards, Galpin made an outstanding collection of musical instruments, which he made freely available for public exhibitions and lectures and described and illustrated in his book ...

Article

Maurice J.E. Brown

revised by Jean Gribenski

(b Baulon, Ille-et-Vilaine, Oct 13, 1880; d Lyons, May 31, 1945). French scholar. A doctor by profession, he wrote books on medicine, but is best remembered for his writings on Chopin. These show his conviction that Chopin owed most of his development to his Polish origin and upbringing and that the influence of French culture on his music was negligible. This opinion ran counter to those held by all other French scholars, but greatly endeared him to the Poles. In 1911 he founded in Paris the Société Frédéric Chopin and became its first president. During the next 25 years he travelled extensively in Poland and France, lecturing on the works of Chopin. The culmination of Ganche’s work was his three-volume The Oxford Original Edition of Frédéric Chopin. It was based chiefly on Jane Stirling’s printed copies of Chopin’s works, annotated by the composer for her use, with the first volume containing a facsimile of the thematic catalogue written for her by Chopin....

Article

Fabio Fano

(b Bologna, March 15, 1807; d Bologna, March 31, 1881). Italian musicologist, bibliographer and composer. From 1820 to 1827 he studied with Benedetto Donelli at the Liceo Musicale in Bologna, where he won first prizes in piano and counterpoint, and from 1824 to 1827 he was organist at S Martino, Bologna. From 1828 to 1836 he was conductor of the municipal orchestra and maestro di cappella of the Collegiata at Pieve di Cento. In 1836 he became maestro di cappella at Imola Cathedral. From there he was recalled to Bologna in 1839 by his teacher, who was in poor health, to replace him at the Liceo Musicale and in the direction of the cappella of S Petronio. But because of special circumstances connected with the reorganization of the Liceo – of which Rossini was then effectively in control – and because of local opposition, he was unjustly deprived of the succession and at first had to be content with the position of chorus master at the Teatro Comunale. He then competed for and obtained the post of ...

Article

David Hiley

revised by Jean Gribenski

(b Paris, March 19, 1873; d Clamart, Seine, June 1, 1943). French musicologist. He studied the piano with Adolphe Deslandres, the organ with Alexandre Guilmant (at the Paris Conservatoire and then the Schola Cantorum), harmony with Albert Lavignac and composition with Albéric Magnard. Joseph Pothier and Charles Bordes awakened his interest in ecclesiastical chant, and in 1896 he became editor of the Revue du chant grégorien (until 1905). The Schola Cantorum’s own journal, the Tribune de St Gervais, published articles by Gastoué from 1897 (he was its secretary for over 20 years), and in 1898 he began lecturing at the Schola Cantorum on chant. He was appointed precentor of the sister foundation of the Schola Cantorum in Avignon in 1899, and was able to carry out research in libraries of that area; when recalled to Paris by d’Indy he extended the scope of his lectures and publications to include later medieval music. In ...

Article

Carolyn Gianturco

(b Florence, Dec 19, 1876; d Milan, March 3, 1965). Italian musicologist . He studied at the Milan Conservatory, with Catalani and others, teaching there from 1898 to 1941, and until 1948 holding the chair of Verdi studies, a position created for him. In 1921 he founded the music section of Teatro del Popolo, Milan, which he directed for more than 30 years. He also served as director at La Scala (1941–4) and was music critic of L’illustrazione italiana (1918–48). As a scholar he devoted himself to critical and historical studies of late 19th-century opera: his Verdi, in its original 1931 edition, is one of the most comprehensive and fully documented accounts of the composer and his music. He also composed orchestral and vocal music.

Il Teatro alla Scala rinnovato (Milan, 1926) Verdi (Milan, 1931, 2/1951; part Eng. trans., 1955, as Verdi: the Man and his Music...

Article

Carolyn Gianturco

(b Chieti, May 30, 1892; d Grottaferrata, nr Rome, May 10, 1973). Italian musicologist, editor and administrator. He began to play the violin when he was six and the piano when he was 12, and after schooling in Chieti he studied engineering at the University of Turin (1909–14). At 20 he was made editor-in-chief of the weekly Riforma musicale, published in 1913–15 and briefly in 1918; concurrently he organized concerts of contemporary chamber music in Turin. He founded and edited Il pianoforte (1920–27), which in 1928 became the Rassegna musicale (later with Ronga and Mila as co-editors); after an interruption during the war (1944–6) it moved to Rome (1947), where it subsequently became Quaderni della Rassegna musicale (1962). He also founded Studi musicali (1972–3). The first Congresso Italiano di Musica (Turin, 1921) was held partly under the auspices of Gatti's journal ...

Article

Axel Helmer

(b Ransäter, Jan 12, 1783; d Stockholm, April 23, 1847). Swedish historian, poet and composer. He studied at the University of Uppsala from 1799 to 1806. In 1810 he became a reader in history at the university; he was professor there from 1817 to 1846. One of the most remarkable figures in 19th-century Sweden, he exercised a profound influence on philosophy and theology through his writings; as a member of the Riksdag he was an ardent supporter of liberalism.

Though not a professional musician, he achieved a high standard as a composer of chamber music, vocal quartets and solo songs. He and his friends in Uppsala cultivated a lively interest in old Swedish folksongs, and together with A.A. Afzelius he published the important collection Svenska folkvisor (1814–16; Ger. trans., abridged, Leipzig 1857). They also played the music of the Classical composers and discussed the ideas of Romanticism as they applied to music. Geijer’s songs, which reveal a rich variety of styles and forms, offer many examples of his work as both a poet and a composer; they were well known in Sweden throughout the 19th century. His instrumental works, undeservedly, received less attention. In many details they reveal not only his intimate knowledge of the music of the Classical composers, above all Mozart and Beethoven, but also the influence of his contemporaries Weber, Mendelssohn and Schumann. They are remarkably modern in their feeling for instrumental and harmonic sonority....

Article

Ian D. Bent

(b Colmar, March 27, 1883; d Langen, nr Frankfurt, Sept 22, 1967). German musicologist and philologist. He studied Romance philology with Gröber and Bédier and musicology with Ludwig in Strasbourg and Paris (1903–10), and took the doctorate at Strasbourg in 1908 with a critical edition of Le romans de la dame à la lycorne et du beau chevalier; he subsequently held university posts at Strasbourg (1910–19) and Frankfurt (from 1921). After completing the Habilitation in 1927 he taught at Frankfurt University until 1964, occupying a titular chair from 1934. His extensive library and scholarly papers were destroyed during the war, but he continued to work, instituting two privately published series, the Musikwissenschaftliche Studien-Bibliothek (1946–65) and the Summa Musicae Medii Aevi (1957–67). These constitute some 40 volumes in all; he edited and wrote them entirely by himself, showing remarkable tenacity and energy in his 70s and 80s. From ...

Article

David Hiley

revised by Jean Gribenski

(b Strasbourg, Oct 26, 1866; d Allenwiller, Feb 15, 1956). French musicologist. He studied singing, the violin and music theory at Strasbourg Conservatory, and music history (with Jacobsthal) and theology at the University of Strasbourg; later singing teachers included Julius Stockhausen in Frankfurt (from 1890) and Romaine Bussine and Charles Bordes in Paris (from 1892). After serving as assistant professor to Stockhausen (1895) he was appointed his successor. He sang bass solos in important performances of the choir of St Guillaume, Strasbourg (1888–1906), and drew on this practical experience in his singing method Kleine Sängerfibel. He took the doctorate at the German University of Strasbourg in 1910 with a dissertation on the French art of singing in the 17th century.

Throughout this period Gérold continued his studies in composition, music history and Romance philology. He lectured on music at the University of Basle (...