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Article

Howard Mayer Brown

(b Leeds, May 4, 1907; d Firle, Sussex, Jan 20, 1990). English musicologist, husband of Gloria Rose. He was educated at St Paul’s School and Oxford (BA 1930, BLitt 1946). He studied the viol, the violin and the interpretation of early music with Arnold Dolmetsch in Haslemere, harmony and counterpoint with H.K. Andrews and R.O. Morris, and composition with Wellesz at Oxford. He divided his career between performance and scholarship. As Leverhulme Research Fellow (1934–6) he scored and catalogued English 17th-century music for viols. He was a member of the English Consort of Viols (1935–9) and the London Consort (1950–60), and founded and directed the Donington Consort (1956–61). From 1961 he spent much of his time in the USA, where he lectured and performed at several universities and music festivals, including the Carmel California Bach Festival (1961, 1971...

Article

Paula Morgan

revised by Jon Stroop

(b Boston, Aug 12, 1911; d New York, Dec 26, 2001). American musicologist and music critic, son of Olin Downes. He attended Columbia University, the Manhattan School of Music and universities in Paris and Munich. From 1939 to 1941 he was music critic for the Boston Transcript. He taught at Wellesley College and the Longy School of Music (1948–9), and was assistant professor of music at the University of Minnesota (1950–55). After taking the doctorate in musicology at Harvard University in 1958 he was musicologist-in-residence at the Bayreuth Festival masterclasses until 1965. He was on the faculty of Queens College and the Graduate School, CUNY (1966–81), and New York University (1981–6), and in 1986 he was appointed professor at the Juilliard School of Music.

As a musicologist Downes concentrated on opera of the early Classical period. In 1958 he became quizmaster for the Metropolitan Opera radio broadcasts, and he wrote programme notes for the New York PO from ...

Article

(b Saratov,? 23 Oct/Nov 4, 1883; d Moscow, Sept 10, 1950). Russian composer and musicologist. Drozdov was mostly not mentioned in the USSR so information on him is contradictory and indefinite; even his year of birth is unsure, though early sources give 1883. He apparently studied at the Ecole de Droit in Paris (1902–4) and then simultaneously at the law faculty and the conservatory in St Petersburg. In 1905 he took part in the revolutionary unrest at the conservatory, from which he graduated in 1909 as a piano pupil of Nikolay Dubasov. He graduated from the university in 1910. From that year he worked as a lecturer and writer on music, holding appointments as director and piano teacher at the Ekaterinodar Music Institute (1911–16), teacher of the theory of musical expression at the Petrograd Conservatory (1916–17), professor of history at the Saratov Conservatory (...

Article

Michael Ellzey

(b East McKeesport, PA, Nov 8, 1948). American trumpeter and pedagogue. He attended San Diego State University (BA 1970, music education; MA, trumpet performance) and the University of California, San Diego (PhD 1980, music). He taught music at the State University of New York at Cortland from 1985 to 2012, and has served as instructor of trumpet at Colgate University in Hamilton, New York. He has also been a research consultant for the instrument museum in Schloss Kremsegg in Kremsmünster, Austria.

Considered one of the leading scholars and performers on the keyed bugle, he wrote the definitive volume on the instrument, The Keyed Bugle (Metuchen, NJ, 1993, 2/2004). His debut solo album, Music for Keyed Bugle, is the first full-length recording devoted to the keyed bugle. His Das Flügelhorn (Bergkirchen, Germany, 2004) was published in both English and German editions. His many other scholarly publications include contributions to the ...

Article

Martina Bratić

(b Krapinica, Croatia, Sept 11, 1874; d Zagreb, Croatia, Dec 12, 1948). Croatian composer, organist, music educator, theoretician, and writer. Dugan had his first musical experience during his choir lessons in an archiepiscopal secondary school. He then studied theology and took organ lessons with the principal organist of the Zagreb Cathedral, Vatroslav Kolander. In 1893 he started mathematics and physics studies but graduated from the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin in 1908 (composition with Robert Kahn, conducting with Max Bruch, and organ with H. Becker). He became a director of the Croatian Music Institute (1908) and was named Zagreb Cathedral’s principal organist in 1912 (the position which he held until his death). From 1897 to 1920 he also worked as a secondary school teacher, giving lessons in mathematics and physics. At the Zagreb Music Academy he taught music theory, composition, and the organ (1920–1941); here his most important contribution was amplifying the foundation of, and developing the curriculum for, the counterpoint and fugue courses. He was also active as a conductor of, among others, the Croatian Choral Society, Kolo, and he periodically wrote music reviews. He worked as an editor of the music section in the sacral music journal ...

Article

Jere T. Humphreys

(b Morristown, NJ, Sept 4, 1954). American music educator and scholar. He holds three degrees from Florida State University (BME 1976, MM 1977, PhD 1983) and studied percussion performance at Indiana University. A student of Clifford Madsen, he taught primary and secondary level instrumental and vocal music in Tallahassee, Florida, Atlanta, Georgia, and Bloomington, Indiana. He has been a member of the faculties of Florida State University (1983–4), Kent State University (1984–5), and the University of Texas at Austin (1985–), where he is the Marlene and Morton Meyerson Centennial Professor in Music and Human Learning, University Distinguished Teaching Professor, Elizabeth Shatto Massey Distinguished Fellow in Teacher Education, and Director of the Center for Music Learning, which he founded in 2002. His research has focused on music performance and perception, systematic analysis of teaching and learning, and procedural memory consolidation. In addition to his published research, he is the author of ...

Article

Paula Morgan

revised by Joost van Gemert

(b Arnhem, Aug 5, 1936; d Loenen aan de Vecht, June 2, 2005). Dutch musicologist. He studied with Bernet Kempers and Smits van Waesberghe at the University of Amsterdam (1959–65), where he received the doctorate in 1969. From 1968 to 1970 he taught at the University of Tübingen. In 1970 he was a Fellow of the Istituto Storico Olandese in Rome, and then joined the faculty of Syracuse University, New York, first as a visiting professor in September 1971, then as a professor of the university’s foreign course at Poitiers. He taught at the Free University of Amsterdam (1973–5) and was a research fellow at Utrecht University (1975–88). In 1988 he was appointed professor of modern and contemporary music history at the University of Pavia.

Dunning concentrated his research mainly on 18th-century music. As well as writing monographs on two Dutch music publishers and on Pietro Antonio Locatelli, he identified Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer as the author of the six ...

Article

Rosemary Williamson

(b London, Sept 13, 1925; d Oxford, May 29, 2004). English writer on music and social historian. A self-taught pianist, he served in the RAF and Army from 1943 to 1947 and while carrying out duties in India lectured on musical appreciation across the country. He studied economic history at the London School of Economics (BSc Econ 1950), continued as research assistant (1950–52) and gained the PhD in 1958. From 1952 to 1961 he taught at Makerere College, Uganda. He joined the staff of the Queen’s University of Belfast in 1961, becoming reader in economic and social history in 1969, professor in 1974 and emeritus professor in 1986. He was visiting professor of music at Royal Holloway, University of London, 1995–7.

Ehrlich’s main area of study was the economic and social history of music in Britain since the 18th century and he was the first scholar to write extensively on this subject. His work, much of which considers the piano as a social and economic indicator, is based on painstaking archival and statistical research and is characterized by its clarity and wit. His monographs on the PRS and the Royal Philharmonic Society are official yet critical histories. In tracing the links between music, technology, business and society, he was outspoken about the negative effects of commercialism and cultural paternalism on professional music-making....

Article

Martin Ruhnke

(b Brandenburg an der Havel, 1561; d Stargard, Pomerania, June 12, 1623). German music theorist, teacher and composer. He is a direct ancestor of the conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler. He taught at the town school at Stargard from 1588, and by 1596 he was Kantor there. Both in their subject matter and in the treatment of it, his two treatises on music are superior to the usual German song manuals for schools. In Oratio de divina origine atque utilitate multiplici … artis musicae (Stettin, 1600) he set out to demonstrate the divine origins and miraculous properties of music, drawing on biblical evidence and the writings of Boethius.

Eichmann was also concerned with improving the effectiveness of new music. Music, he maintained, could fulfil its purpose, stirring the emotions, bringing order into people’s lives and heightening their awareness of God, only when it was well performed. Singers must therefore master the foundations of music theory and performing practice. ...

Article

George J. Buelow

[Tobias]

(b Augsburg, May 23, 1644; d Kempten, nr Mainz, Nov 4, 1702). German composer, teacher and theorist. He probably received his early education at the Jesuit Gymnasium, Augsburg. In 1664 he became a novice at the monastery of St Georg, Augsburg, taking the name Thomas in place of his baptismal name, Tobias. After ordination he became director of the choir as well as music instructor to the boys in his charge. With a change of abbot he was deprived of these duties. In 1677, however, he was called to the princely abbey of Kempten, where he became Kapellmeister as well as teacher and composer; he retained these positions until his death. He was made canonicus regularis at St Georg in 1674 but never returned to participate actively in affairs there. His treatise, Musicalisches Fundament, is an elementary text reflecting his work as a teacher of boys. It is in two parts. In the first he discussed such basic matters as notation, the church modes and simple vocal exercises, and he stressed the need to practise solmization; the second part indeed consists entirely of exercises in solmization. He stated that he had assembled all this material ‘from the most famous and valuable authors’ and that he had adapted it ‘to avoid all annoying prolixity and injurious hindrance to the pupils’ progress’....

Article

Sean Williams

(b St Paul, Feb 26, 1944). American ethnomusicologist. After completing the BA in music at Concordia College (1966) and the MA in religion at the University of Chicago (1970), he took the doctorate in anthropology and Buddhist studies in 1979 at the University of Wisconsin. In 1981 he joined the faculty at the University of Washington, where he has been associate professor (from 1986) and head of the ethnomusicology department (1988–90; 1994–5; from 1997), teaching a range of subjects, including ethnomusicology, anthropology, South Asian studies and comparative religion. He has conducted fieldwork in India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Japan and Nepal, concentrating on the Tibetans, Newar and other ethnic groups, and has written on the Buddhist musical traditions of Sri Lanka, Japan, Thailand and on the art of anthropological representation of Amerindians. His theoretical interests include symbolism, ritual, the notation and transmission of traditional music and the history of anthropological and ethnomusicological theory....

Article

Jere T. Humphreys

(b Toronto, Canada, Aug 25, 1948). Canadian music educator, composer, arranger, and scholar. Elliott graduated from the University of Toronto in music education (MusB 1971, MusM 1972, BEd 1973) and continued his studies at Case Western Reserve University (PhD 1983). After teaching secondary school in Toronto he was appointed to the music education faculty of the University of Toronto, where he became an assistant (1977), associate (1983), and full professor (1989). During this time, he also held visiting professorships at other universities, including Indiana University, Northwestern University, University of North Texas, the Irish World Academy of Music, University of Limerick, and the Puerto Rico Conservatory. He was appointed professor of music education at New York University in 2002. Music Matters: a New Philosophy of Music Education (1995), in which Elliott introduced the praxial philosophy of music education, has long been an important international text. He subsequently edited a series of essays on praxialism: ...

Article

(b Darmstadt, Sept 8, 1921; d Darmstadt, January 8, 2011). German composer and theorist. He studied composition with Fortner, Leibowitz and Krenek (from 1947), philosophy with Theodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer, among others, and musicology (DPhil 1952) at Frankfurt University. Following a stay in Iceland (1953–4), he worked as music adviser and composer at the Hessisches Landestheater, Darmstadt (1954–61), the Nationaltheater, Mannheim (1961–9) and the Städtische Bühnen, Bonn (1972–3). From 1969 to 1986 he taught composition as professor at the Frankfurt Musikhochschule. He lectured on contemporary music at festivals and universities internationally. His honours included a scholarship from Harvard University (1949), the Confederation of German Industry prize (1955), the Lidice Prize of Radio Prague (1960), scholarships from the Villa Massimo, Rome (1960, 1967, 1983), the Stereo Prize of the German broadcasting industry (...

Article

Péter P. Várnai

revised by Zsuzsanna Domokos

(b Budapest, Nov 17, 1923). Hungarian musicologist. After studying German, Italian and aesthetics at Budapest University (1941–5) he took the doctorate in 1945 with a dissertation on Liszt and German Romanticism, and a piano teacher’s diploma in 1947 at the Budapest Academy of Music; he also studied the piano with Gieseking and Elly Ney (1943–4). He joined the staff of Editio Musica Budapest in 1955, becoming its chief editor (1957–61) and artistic director (1961–87).

Eősze’s main topic of research is the life and work of Kodály. He has discovered various documents concerning Kodály’s youthful works, and has assembled the most complete list of Kodály’s musical and literary work. He is also interested in the history of opera, particularly the work of Verdi and Wagner: he has published books on the composers and has lectured at international Verdi and Wagner congresses. His ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Minneapolis, Aug 2, 1941). American harpsichordist and musicologist. He graduated from Whittier College, California in 1963 and took the PhD in history of music in 1970 at Yale University, where he worked with Claude Palisca, William G. Waite and Lawrence Gushee. He studied the piano with Nadia Reisenberg and the harpsichord with Ralph Kirkpatrick and Albert Fuller. He also did post-doctoral research at the IBM Systems Research Institute, New York. In 1971 Erickson joined the faculty of Queens College, CUNY. From 1978 to 1981 he was music department chair and oversaw the transformation of the department into the Aaron Copland School of Music, of which he was the first director. In 1993 he was named dean of faculty for the Division of Arts and Humanities; he was also made a member of the doctoral faculty of the Graduate Centre, CUNY, in 1976. His work with Albert Fuller, with whom he studied for three years as a special student without fee, led to association with the Aston Magna Foundation beginning in ...

Article

Friedrich Baser

(Robert)

(b Pforzheim, April 23, 1891; d Stuttgart, Oct 17, 1969). German musicologist, teacher and composer. He studied under Philipp Wolfrum at Heidelberg (1909–11) and under Riemann at Leipzig (1911–13), where he took the doctorate in 1913 with a dissertation on musical form. In 1914 he studied composition with Bodanzki in Mannheim, and after war service he taught at the Röhmeyer Conservatory, Pforzheim (1919–23). He was lecturer in music theory at Gurlitt’s musicology institute at Freiburg University (1923–5), deputy director of the Academy for Speech and Music, Münster (1925–7), director of the music department of the Folkwang-Schule at Essen (1927–35) and director of the Folkwangschulen for Speech, Dance and Music (1935–43). His final post was as director of the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik, Stuttgart (1943–5, 1952–6), where he taught composition. His works include several large-scale choral pieces, folksong cantatas, string quartets, violin sonatas, songs and choruses. His writings, mostly designed for teaching purposes, have had a more lasting influence and show, in his dissertation as in his final book, a penetrating understanding of form. His practical gifts, which he was able to develop in Münster, are reflected in his textbooks on harmony and orchestration....

Article

(b El Carnero, CO, Sept 12, 1880; d Palo Alto, CA, Sept 4, 1958). American folklorist and educator. Born in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado to a prominent Hispano family with deep roots in New Mexico, Espinosa was one of the first US- born Latinos to earn a teaching post at an American university. Although folklorists without formal training such as Charles Fletcher Lummis and Eleanor Hague studied Spanish-language folksongs of the Southwest, Espinosa made the folksongs of Spanish-speaking peoples a legitimate area for scholarly research at a time when individuals of Hispano, Mexican, or Latino heritage were generally discouraged from pursuing higher education. Like Lummis and Hague, Espinosa viewed this repertory as Spanish American rather than Mexican and believed that New Mexican folksong had more in common with Spanish antecedents than with traditional Mexican song. Espinosa was the New Mexican analogue to Francis James Child. Unlike Child, he collected folk ballads from local people in person, although, like Child, he did not study the music that went with the texts he gathered. Espinosa published more than 175 scholarly articles and about a dozen longer monographs, as well as 30 Spanish textbooks. He served as associate editor of the ...

Article

Rosemary Williamson

(Egerton)

(b London, Dec 27, 1956). English musicologist. He studied music at Dartington College of Arts (BA 1979), King’s College, London (MMus 1980), and Keble College, Oxford (DPhil 1985). From 1982 he lectured in music at King’s College, London (reader in musicology from 1994), and in 1996 became reader in music and then professor at the University of Southampton. Everist’s areas of research are diverse and embrace European polyphony 1150–1330, French opera 1815–48, including the reception of German and Italian opera in France and the operas of Meyerbeer, the historiography of music, reception theory, and the analysis of music before 1600. His publications include source studies and editions of early European polyphony, and a monograph on the 13th-century French motet which challenges previous classifications and offers an alternative theory of the genre that builds both on Russian formalist and medieval concepts. His later writings exhibit an awareness of the changing intellectual environment of the last decades of the 20th century and pay attention to the continuing viability of musicology and music theory....

Article

Michael Fend

[Lefèvre d’Etaples, Jacques]

(b Etaples,c1460; d Nérac, 1536). French theologian, scholar and music theorist . He matriculated at the University of Paris, possibly in 1474 or 1475, and received the BA in 1479 and the MA probably in 1480. He taught in the Faculty of Arts at the Collège du Cardinal Lemoine, University of Paris, until 1508 and was afterwards active as a scholar at the abbey of St Germain-des-Prés outside Paris. There he prepared a French translation of the New Testament and Psalms, which provoked the Parlement of Paris to summon him on suspicion of heresy. Clearly in sympathy with the Reformation, he fled to Strasbourg in 1525, but in 1526 he was recalled by François I, who appointed him librarian of the royal collection and made him tutor to his children. Faber completed his translation under royal protection; it was published in 1530. He spent his last years at the court of Queen Marguerite of Navarre....

Article

Clement A. Miller

[Lichtenfels, Hainrich]

(b Lichtenfels, before 1500; d Oelsnitz, Feb 26, 1552). German music theorist and composer . Under the name of Hainrich Lichtenfels he may have been a singer from 1515 to 1524 in Copenhagen at the court of King Christian II of Denmark (see Peters-Marquardt). In 1538 he was a teacher at the Benedictine monastery of St George in Naumburg. He entered the University of Wittenberg in 1542 and three years later received the Master of Arts degree. Meanwhile he became rector of the cathedral school of Naumburg in 1544, but his advocacy of Lutheran doctrines brought him into conflict with Catholic authorities and in about 1549 he left the city. He lectured on music in 1551 at Wittenberg, and at the time of his death he was rector at Oelsnitz.

Faber’s musical renown rests on three theoretical works. His Compendiolum musicae (Brunswick, 1548), a textbook for beginners in music, was the most popular music treatise in Lutheran schools during the 16th and 17th centuries. It had more than 30 editions, the last appearing in ...