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Frances Barulich

(b Minneapolis, MN, June 12, 1892; d Albuquerque, NM, Jan 6, 1989). American composer, educator, ethnomusicologist, and attorney. He studied English at Yale University (BA 1915) and at Harvard, and practiced law until 1941, when he moved from New York to Albuquerque as professor and head of the music department at the University of New Mexico. He was soon appointed dean of the College of Fine Arts, serving until his retirement in 1957. He studied composition throughout his life, training with horatio Parker , Nadia Boulanger, Roy Harris, paul Hindemith , and at Mills College with Darius Milhaud (1947–50). A prolific composer, he wrote two operas (including Little Jo, 1947–9), a musical comedy ( Joy Comes to Deadhorse), four symphonies, other orchestral and chamber music, numerous songs and choral works, and dozens of electronic works. He collected thousands of field recordings of traditional music, which comprise the John Donald Robb Archive of Southwestern Music at the University of New Mexico, and published ...



(b North Cheam, Surrey, Jan 5, 1823; d London, July 2, 1895). English music historian, composer, teacher and pianist. Baptized at Morden church in the name of Rackstraw, he used an older form of his surname from 1846. His first teacher was the blind organist John Purkis and he received tuition in composition and piano from William Sterndale Bennett. His earliest work to be performed in public was the song Soon shall chilling fear assail thee, sung by Joseph Staudigl at Franz Cramer's farewell concert in London on 27 June 1844. From 20 May 1845 to 24 June 1846 he studied at the Leipzig Conservatory with Mendelssohn (composition and piano), Moritz Hauptmann (theory) and Louis Plaidy (piano).

On his return to London Rockstro gave lessons in piano and singing, and was the regular accompanist at the Wednesday Concerts. In the early 1860s he moved to Torquay and in ...


Eric Blom, David Scott and Paul Hale

(William George)

(b Little Hallingbury, Herts., May 9, 1916; d Bampton, Oxford, Nov 21, 1996). English organist, musicologist and composer. He was a chorister under Alcock at Salisbury (1925–31) and studied at the RCM with Alcock (1933–5) before going up to Cambridge as organ scholar of St Catherine's College, where he was a pupil of Hubert Middleton and Edward Dent (BA 1938, MusB 1939). In 1939 Hugh Allen's influence drew him to Oxford, where he became organist at The Queen's College and conductor of the Eglesfield Musical Society. Distinguished war service intervened, including a period as a prisoner of war. With the Oxford Orchestral Society, Rose conducted the première of Vaughan Williams's An Oxford Elegy, in the composer's presence (1949). From 1946 he lectured in the faculty of music; he was appointed supernumerary Fellow of The Queen's College in 1949 and a university lecturer in ...


Antonio Rostagno


(b Brandizzo, nr Turin, July 27, 1805; d Turin, June 20, 1863). Italian teacher, theorist and composer. Between 1824 and 1825 he studied counterpoint and composition first with Stansilao Mattei in Bologna (where he met Gaetano Gaspari), then with Pietro Raimondi and Niccolò Zingarelli in Naples. His fellow students in Naples were Bellini, the Ricci brothers and Lauro Rossi. After 1833 he returned to Turin, where he presented his comic opera Gli avventurieri (6 July 1835). The impresario Bartolomeo Merelli revived it at La Scala in 1836, with disastrous results, ending Rossi's operatic career. The Milan critics wrote of ‘characterless music’, a very serious charge in the era of Donizettian romantic opera. He subsequently composed sacred and instrumental music. In 1842 he met Adrien de La Fage and Guillaume Louis Wilhem in Paris; their practices and ideas had a decisive effect on the theoretical and teaching work which occupied Rossi in Turin from ...


Adrian Thomas

(b Siebiez, nr Vitebsk, March 14, 1913; d Warsaw, Feb 29, 2004). Polish composer, musicologist and teacher. From 1931 to 1936 he studied at the Vilnius Conservatory, where his teachers included Szeligowski (composition) and Szpinalski (piano). In 1938–9 he was a pupil of Boulanger and Koechlin at the Institut Grégorien, Paris. He taught at the conservatories of Vilnius (1939–42) and Łódź (1945–7), headed the music department of the Polish Ministry of Culture (1947–8) and directed the Warsaw Opera and PO (1948–9). From 1950 to 1956 he was editor of the journal Muzyka, and in 1957 he was appointed professor at the Warsaw Conservatory. Among his prizes were awards for Odprawa posłów greckich [The Dismissal of the Greek Envoys] in the Prince Rainier competition, Monaco (1963) and Obrazy Świętokrzyskie [Pictures from Holy Cross Mountain] in the Grieg competition, Bergen (...


Ada Benediktovna Schnitke

(b Narva, 9/Oct 21, 1899; d Tbilisi, Oct 11, 1942). Russian composer, teacher and musicologist. His family was associated with the artistic world: his mother was a musician while his father had received music lessons from Nikolay Sokolov and advice on painting from Il′ya Repin. Ryazanov served in the Civil War before entering the Petrograd Conservatory where he studied composition with Sokolov and Aleksandr Zhitomirsky, orchestration with Steinberg and fugue with Leonid Nikolayev. He started teaching at the conservatory in 1925 and the rest of his life was mostly devoted to the training of composers in the full range of Leningrad's institutions. Of particular importance was his work in the Central (Fourth) Music College, of which Ryazanov was one of the organizers in 1926 (the staff of this institution represented the conservatory's finest forces), and his restructuring of the teaching system in the conservatory itself. An expert in all aspects of theory, he taught in all fields and developed a special course on melody which had a beneficial effect on the training of composers. Folk music was a particular concern of his: he gave a special course on the subject (...


(b Lwów, June 6, 1929). Polish composer, theorist and teacher. In Kraków he read musicology with Jachimecki at the university (1949–53) and concurrently studied composition with Malawski at the State Higher School of Music. He was a music critic between 1953 and 1959, but since then has devoted his time primarily to composition and teaching; he taught at the Kraków academy from 1963, and in 1986 he joined the staff of the Salzburg Mozarteum. With the political thaw in Poland in 1956, Schaeffer took the lead in disseminating information on contemporary music from the West in a number of analytical and polemical books and articles on style and technique. Later he published Wstęp do Kompozycji/Introduction to Composition, a comprehensive compendium of procedures, variational techniques and sample scores, often drawn from his own music. As a composer, he rapidly became the most adventurous, not to say fearless Polish proponent of new technical and aesthetic boundaries, particularly with regard to notation and performance practice. After the mid-1970s, following a crisis in his creativity, he combined several careers: as a composer, visual artist and as a writer of wry, surreal plays which have popularized his name in Poland and abroad. He is the recipient of numerous national and international awards....


Francis Dhomont

(b Nancy, Aug 14, 1910; d Les Milles, Aug 19, 1995). French composer, theorist, writer and teacher. His tape compositions of 1948 originated musique concrète. Although his parents were musicians he embarked on a scientific career, entering the Ecole Polytechnique in 1929. In 1934 he began to work as a telecommunications engineer in Strasbourg and from 1936 he was a technician with Radiodiffusion Française. Soon he discovered that he was more attracted to literature and philosophy than to technology, and he wrote a number of essays and novels. At this time he developed a taste for communal life, first in scouting, later at Georges Gurdjieff's group meetings. In 1940 he founded Jeune France, an interdisciplinary association interested in music, theatre and the visual arts; the following year he joined Copeau and his pupils in the establishment of the Studio d'Essai, which was to become the centre of the Resistance movement in French radio and later the cradle of ...


[Volupius Decorus]

(b Munich, Oct 21, 1570; d Hall, Austria, Dec 17, 1651).German composer, teacher and music theorist. He became a student at the university in Ingolstadt on 16 October 1587, and he entered the Jesuit order on 14 May 1590. In 1593 he sang under the direction of Lassus in the Kantorei of the court at Munich. From 1596 to 1597 he taught at the University of Dillingen and at the same time became an instructor in rhetoric and ancient languages at the Jesuit college in Munich. The only musical composition he is known to have written is a Missa super ‘Laudate’ (now lost) for the festival of St Ignatius of Loyola held at Dillingen in 1619. After 1628 he went to Wildenau, Upper Pfalz, to join in the establishing of a Jesuit mission. He spent his final years, after 1648, as an instructor in Greek at the Jesuit college at Hall....


John W. Richmond

(b Brooklyn, NY, Dec 25, 1925; d Los Angeles, CA, Sept 23, 1987). American music educator, scholar, performer, and composer. He served as a Marine Corps infantryman in the South Pacific and then as a clarinetist (1943–6). He obtained degrees in music education from Rhode Island College (EdB 1953), the University of Connecticut (MA 1956), and Boston University (DMA 1962), and taught music in the Connecticut public schools (1953–9). He taught music education at the University of Connecticut (part-time 1959–61), Rhode Island College (1959–68, music department chair 1963–8), the University of Hawaii (1968–9), and the UCLA (1969–83, music department chair 1980–3). Schwadron’s 39 published compositions include chamber music, choral music, and transcriptions. He performed as a clarinetist with Sammy Davis, Jr., Florence Henderson, and Dionne Warwick, among others. He is best remembered as a leading philosopher of music education, especially his book entitled ...


(b São Paulo, Jan 26, 1932). Brazilian ethnomusicologist, composer and pianist. She graduated as a pianist in 1953 from the Conservatório Dramático e Musical, São Paulo, where she also studied composition with Camargo Guarnieri. She undertook private studies in ethnomusicology and anthropology, and in 1970 a Gulbenkian Foundation grant enabled her to continue her ethnomusicological research in Portugal, with the cooperation of Michel Giacometti and Fernando Lopes Graça. She subsequently obtained her doctorate in social anthropology from São Paulo University after submitting a dissertation (published in 1985) on the music and culture of the Brazilian Caiçara fishermen; she has also conducted research into the music of the Mbyá-Guarani and Krahô Indians of Brazil. She taught folklore and ethnomusicology at the Santa Marcellina music faculty, Perdizes, 1975–7, and postgraduate courses in musical anthropology at São Paulo University in 1985 and ethnomusicology at Bahia University, Salvador, in 1991. As a researcher, she has given conferences and published articles in Brazil and abroad. She is a member of the International Council for Traditional Music and of the Sociedade Brasileira de Musicologia. Setti’s compositional output reflects a preference for choral music, songs and chamber works, some of which were published by Novas Metas and Ricordi Brasileira (both in São Paulo). She has developed a free and individual musical style, having presented works at the Brazilian Contemporary Music Biennial (Rio de Janerio). She has won several composition prizes, among them the Rádio MEC awards in ...


Robyn Holmes, Peter Campbell and Judith Crispin


Robyn Holmes and Peter Campbell, revised by Judith Crispin

(b Tianjin, China, Sept 10, 1934). Australian composer, pianist, and musicologist. Born to Russian-Chinese parents, he emigrated to Australia with his family in 1951. He studied the piano at the NSW Conservatorium of Music, Sydney, where his teachers included Winifred Burston (1952–8), and in San Francisco with Egon Petri (1959–61). On his return to Australia, he taught at the Queensland Conservatorium (1961–5) and lectured on contemporary composition at the University of Queensland. In 1965 he assumed the position of Head of Keyboard at the newly founded Canberra School of Music (now part of the Australian National University), where he became Head of Composition and Head of Academic Studies in 1978, and Professor Emeritus and Distinguished Visiting Fellow in 2005.

Sitsky first came to prominence as a composer at the inaugural Australian Composers’ Seminar (Hobart, Tasmania, ...


Jiří Fukač and Geoffrey Chew

(Xavier Alois)

(b Opočno, July 31, 1830; d Budweis [now České Budějovice], Aug 19, 1892). Czech composer, theorist, and teacher. Born into an educated family of physicians, he attended grammar school in Königgrätz (now Hradec Králové) and Prague, and medical school in Prague and Vienna for four terms before giving up medicine in favour of music. He had been a keen amateur musician and composer since he was 12 and had graduated from the Prague Organ School, where he was a pupil of Karel Pitsch (1846–7). After two years as a music teacher to Count Hardegg of Seefeld he studied with J.B. Kittl in Prague for a short time. From 1854 to 1866 he worked in Innsbruck, first as a theatre conductor, then as the director of the musical society and as choirmaster at the university church. There he performed symphonic and choral music, taught at the school attached to the musical society and wrote operas (which were unsuccessful). He failed to win the position of director of the Prague Conservatory (...


Josef Bek

(b Prague, April 8, 1933; d Prague, August 19, 2011). Czech musicologist and composer. He studied musicology with Očadlík and Sychra at Prague University (1951–6). His diploma work on Vycpálek’s evolution as a composer (1956) determined his further scholarly interests in the history and theory of Czech 20th-century music. He also studied composition with Dobiáš (1953–6), though he devoted comparatively little time to composing thereafter. He worked for the gramophone company Supraphon (1956–62), from 1959 as a writer of sleeve notes and music producer. In 1962 he joined the music faculty of the Prague Academy, where he became lecturer in music theory (1968). He obtained the CSc in 1964 with a standard work on the Czech cantata between the wars for which he was awarded the doctorate in 1966. He became professor and head of the department of theory and history of music (...


Nicola Scaldaferri

(b Shkodër, Albania, 14 June 1920; d Tirana, 12 March 2008). Albanian ethnomusicologist, musician, composer, and writer. He began his musical studies as a boy in Shkodër. In the years between 1940 and 1944 he studied the flute and composition at the Conservatory of Florence, Italy. Back in Albania in the early years of the Hoxha regime, Sokoli was imprisoned, as were other scholars who had studied abroad, and he spent five years in incarceration.

In 1952 he moved to Tirana, where he taught the flute and folklore in the high school. Although he was not qualified to teach at the higher academic level, he played a key role in musical research in Albania. He collaborated on ethnomusicological expeditions carried out in 1957 with East German scholars and in 1958 with Romanian scholars.

He was the author of numerous pioneering books and articles on Albanian musical folklore, employing both descriptive and analytical approaches, as well as surveying important figures of the musical, and wider cultural, Albanian tradition. His writings and ideas shaped the discipline and educated two generations of Albanians ethnomusicologists, including scholars in Kosovo. His many publications include the books ...


Miroslav K. Černý

(b Kosmonosy, nr Mladá Boleslav, Jan 22, 1861; d Mladá Boleslav, March 13, 1918). Czech theorist, composer and teacher. Having studied law and aesthetics at Prague University, and at the Organ School, he turned at first to music criticism. In 1885 he was appointed teacher at the Organ School, and in 1889, after the school was joined to the conservatory, he became professor of composition, organ, theory and history of music. He tended in his compositions mostly to church music, in strict ecclesiastical style, which also attracted his interest as a theorist. Stecker was a very intelligent musician with scientific aspirations. He published the first Czech textbook on musical forms and their history, and he was the first Czech theorist to apply the analysis of musical form in practice as a teacher.

(selective list)

many MSS in CZ-Pk


Richard Swift

(b Scott, NY, Dec 3, 1908; d Inglewood, CA, Jan 20, 1989). American composer, musicologist and teacher. He studied composition with William Berwald at Syracuse University (BM 1931, MM 1937, honorary LittD 1967) and with Bloch at the University of California, Berkeley (1944). He taught at Syracuse University (1935–7), Dakota Wesleyan University (1937–44), the College of Music, Bradley Polytechnic Institute (1941–6) and the University of Redlands (1946–7). In 1948 he gained a post at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, later becoming professor emeritus. Visiting professor at Yale University (1960–61) and at Williams College (1970), he lectured widely on the problems of modern music. A Guggenheim Fellow in 1964 and 1971, he received many awards and commissions for his music. Stevens is a noted authority on the music of Bartók, on whom he wrote the standard critical biography in English (...


Anthony F. Carver

(b Schwendi, nr Laupheim, Swabia, c1550; d c1605). German composer and theorist. He attended the University of Freiburg, probably from 1572, and in 1574 he was awarded the master's degree; in 1577–8 he was registered in the medical faculty. In 1587 he was a priest and choirman in the Kantorei at the court of Count Eitelfriedrich IV von Hohenzollern-Hechingen at Hechingen in Swabia. At the beginning of 1591 he was recommended for a benefice by Christoph Truchsess von Waldburg of Riedlingen an der Donau. At Freiburg he had studied with J.T. Freigius, a pupil of Glarean, who must have thought highly of him since he used Stuber's De musica (now lost) as the basis of the dialogue forming the fifth part, ‘De musicae elementis primus’, of his Paedagogus (Basle, 1582). Count Eitelfriedrich was an ardent advocate of the Counter-Reformation, the spirit of which is evident in the texts, entirely sacred, set by Stuber in his few surviving compositions. Rubsamen (in ...


Brian Fennelly

(b Middlepoint, OH, Sept 24, 1927; d Davis, CA, Nov 8, 2003). American composer and theorist. After private studies in the 1940s, he was a pupil of Leland Smith, Grosvenor Cooper and Leonard Meyer at the University of Chicago (MA 1956). He then taught at the University of California, Davis (1956–91), where he received a special appointment as Faculty Research Lecturer in 1982–3. He received awards from the NEA (1977), the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters (1978) and other institutions. Swift was active in the San Francisco Composers Forum and the New Music Ensemble, whose influence is reflected in improvisatory elements in his works of the 1960s. Most of his music is serial and in large part 12-note. He wrote many articles on 20th-century composers for this dictionary and contributed numerous reviews to Notes; he was also a consulting editor of ...


János Demény

revised by Wolfgang Suppan


(b Cinfalva [now Siegendorf], Sept 25, 1902). Austrian composer, pianist, ethnomusicologist and teacher of Hungarian origin. He studied composition with Hans Gál and Joseph Marx and the piano with Felix Weingartner in Vienna, where he was also in contact with the Second Viennese school. From 1927 to 1932, and again from 1934 to 1936, he taught at the Cairo Conservatory, taking an interest in Arab music; at the 1932 Cairo congress on Arab music he met Bartók, whom he had come to know in 1926 in Budapest. On his second visit to Egypt, he also served as music adviser to Egyptian Radio. In between he taught at the University of the Philippines in Manila (1932–4), from where he made ethnomusicological expeditions to the tribes of north Luzon. Apart from making concert tours of Europe he has visited the Middle East and East Asia (he played his Piano Concerto for Radio Tokyo) and in ...