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Article

Charles Beare

revised by Carlo Chiesa and Duane Rosengard

Member of Stradivari family

Italian family of violin makers.

(b ? Cremona, 1644–9; d Cremona, Dec 18, 1737). Maker of violins and other instruments. Since the end of the 18th century he has been universally regarded as the greatest of all violin makers. In point of tonal excellence, design, beauty to the eye and accuracy of workmanship his instruments have never been surpassed. Stradivari inherited more than 100 years of Cremonese violin-making tradition, and upon this firmest of foundations he built his own unique career. At the peak of a working life spanning almost 70 years he brought his art to a perfection which has not been equalled. Later, at least two of his sons worked with him, but both died within a few years of their father, and thus almost the entire production of the family workshop is attributed to Antonio. In all, some 650 of his instruments survive, many of them used by the world’s leading string players....

Article

Charles Beare

revised by Carlo Chiesa and Duane Rosengard

Member of Stradivari family

(b Cremona, Feb 1, 1671; d Cremona, May 11, 1743). Violin maker , eldest son of (1) Antonio Stradivari. Although only a handful of his instruments still bear their original labels, he was nevertheless a highly important maker, though perhaps less spontaneous and confident than his father. He was his father's right-hand man for over 50 years, during which time he assisted in the building and occasionally the design of a wide variety of bowed and plucked instruments. He was perhaps responsible for the modification of the ‘forma B’ cello, about ...

Article

Charles Beare

revised by Carlo Chiesa and Duane Rosengard

Member of Stradivari family

(b Cremona, Nov 14, 1679; d Cremona, June 9, 1742). Violin maker , son of (1) Antonio Stradivari. While still a young man he travelled to Naples, perhaps in pursuit of a career outside violin making. He made violins intermittently after 1700, and a great deal of his time was taken up with social acitivities unrelated to the family workshop. The most well travelled of the Stradivari family, as a young man he spent a long period in Naples. Later in life he was on familiar terms with Tomaso Vitali, the leading violinist at Modena. Nevertheless, Omobono did build a recognizable number of violins which though not up to high artistic standards of his father and brother, are highly appreciated for their acoustic qualities....

Article

Hans Klotz

revised by Raimund Sterl

(b Schneeberg; d after Feb 1, 1605). German organ builder. He became a citizen of Regensburg on 8 January 1565 and organist of the Neupfarrkirche there in 1565. In 1568 he entered the court chapel in Munich, directed at that time by Lassus. He became a citizen of Ulm on 15 January 1580, made a journey to Italy in 1586, and renewed his citizenship of Regensburg on 7 January 1594. Sturm built two organs for the Munich court (1568 and 1574) and organs for Schloss Isareck bei Moosburg (1574) and the monasteries at Rottenbuch, Indersdorf, Blaubeuren and Scheyern in or before 1575. He built the large organ in Ulm Minster in 1576–8 (tried out by Bernhard Schmid, among others), as well as other instruments for Vienna, Regensburg, Linz, Graz, Abensberg and, in 1591, for the Neupfarrkirche in Regensburg.

Like Jörg Ebert, Balthazar Mygel of Altenmygelburg, Eusebius Amerbach and Martin Ruck, the south German conservatives of the period, Sturm set greatest store by the Principal chorus: the ...

Article

Donald Howard Boalch and Peter Williams

(b Low Countries, c1660; d London, before May 8, 1738). Flemish harpsichord maker. He may have learnt from the Couchets, successors to the Ruckers of Antwerp. Probably about 1700 he settled in London, where both Shudi and Kirkman worked for him. In 1738 Kirkman married Tabel’s widow. Only one of Tabel’s instruments survives, and is now in the County Museum, Warwick; the top key of the lower manual is inscribed ‘No. 43 Herm Tabel Fecit Londini 1721’ (see Mould).

Tabel’s one surviving harpsichord caused Russell to think it ‘likely that the standard large harpsichord made in this country derived from his designs’, Hubbard to suggest it ‘likely that the traditional role ascribed to Tabel and his posthumous fame were the fabrication of both Kirkman and Shudi in their dotage’ and Mould to point out that in any case ‘there is no element of this disposition which is not found elsewhere on earlier English harpsichords’. Nonetheless, the 1721 instrument is one of the few extant English double-manual harpsichords to have been built before ...

Article

Charles Beare

revised by Carlo Chiesa

Italian family of violin makers active in Milan from 1690 until the end of the 18th century. Once even derided as the ‘Milanese cheapjacks’, the Testores were an industrious family of makers whose instruments are far more appreciated today than they can have been at the time of their manufacture. The demand of the time and place was evidently for something inexpensive, so that hasty construction from commonplace materials was most often the rule of the day. They worked ‘Al segno dell'Aquila’, and often branded their work with an eagle emblem.

(b c1665; d Milan, March 5, 1716). Violin maker. He was the most skilled of the family, having been, according to his earliest labels, a pupil of Grancino. His violins are often mistaken for those of his teacher, the chief differences being that Carlo Giuseppe's had slightly longer and more sweeping corners, and less distinctive soundholes. The volute of the scroll tends to bulge diagonally in contrast to the perfect roundness of a Grancino, a feature unique to the Testore family, whose later members copied and even exaggerated it. Carlo Giuseppe's varnish, like that of Grancino, varied from a rich, dark orange-brown to pale yellow, and there is little that distinguishes the two makers tonally....

Article

(fl 1668–1705; dSaalfeld, 1705). German organ builder. He was probably the son of Andreas Thayssner the elder (fl 1674–1703), organ comptroller of Halle, and possibly the brother of Andreas Thayssner the younger. Zacharias was the most prominent member of the family. Fine organ fronts by Zacharias are preserved in St Wenzel, Naumburg (1695–1705; repairs and rebuilding) and Merseburg Cathedral, although the attribution to him of the latter is doubtful. He had his workshop first in Quedlinburg, where he built the organ for St Servatius (1680) and made repairs to the organ at St Blasius (1668), and later in Merseburg. His contemporaries J. Adlung (Musica mechanica organoedi, 1768) and J.G. Walther (1732) give conflicting accounts of his work: the latter lays particular emphasis on his ‘great and valuable work’ in Merseburg Cathedral (?1693–1705), and Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow described the organ in the Vitikirche on the Altenburg at Merseburg (built in ...

Article

Guy Oldham

revised by Pierre Hardouin

[Thiéry]

French family of organ builders.

(b Paris, late 1604; d Paris, Sept 15, 1665). He studied music with Florent Bienvenu, organist of the Ste Chapelle, and was apprenticed to Valeran De Héman in 1623. Between 1634 and 1636 he worked with Crespin Carlier at St Nicolas-des-Champs. Later he set up on his own and worked at Notre Dame, St Jean and St Gervais, Paris. He added a 4′ stop to the Pedal of the St Gervais organ in 1649; in 1659–60, under the supervision of Louis Couperin, he added to the Positif a new 8′ Bourdon, a 4′ Flûte made out of the old Bourdon, a Nazard and a Tierce, as well as a fourth manual (an Eccho of three octaves from c) placed between those of the Grand orgue and the Cornet séparé and containing Bourdon et octave, Doublette, Nazard et tierce, Cromhorne and Cimballe. He also added the ...

Article

Article

Ian Harwood

revised by Alexander Pilipczuk

(b Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], Oct 14, 1641; d Hamburg, Sept 19, 1719). German string instrument maker . He possibly studied with Gottfried Tielke (i) (b 1639; d c1688), who may have been his elder brother, in Italy in 1662. When he was about 25, he moved to Hamburg, where in 1667 he married a daughter of the instrument maker Christoffer Fleischer (fl c1622–c48). The only source of information on Tielke's life is a congratulatory work compiled by his friends on the occasion of his golden wedding (it survives in a modern copy, before c1939, D-Hkm ). It is clear that he was well known in Hamburg musical circles, since he and his wife were godparents to the children of several musicians. His eldest son, Gottfried Tielke (ii) (1668– after 1719) was a prominent viol player and a member of the Hofkapelle at Kassel (...

Article

Patrizio Barbieri

(bap. Saluzzo, Piedmont, May 24, 1616; d Rome, May 3, 1690). Italian inventor, maker and player of musical instruments. He moved to Rome around 1636, and from 1650 to 1652 he was known as guardiano degli strumentisti for the Congregazione di Santa Cecilia (a very prestigious post, which later was held by musicians such as Carlo Mannelli, Arcangelo Corelli and Giovanni Lulier). He was a trombone player and organist with the Musici del Campidoglio, for whom he was decano from at least 1676 to 1684. He also played various kinds of bowed instruments in numerous public performances, and claimed to have built and introduced the ‘contrabasso di viola’ to Rome about 1646. He died in Rome and not in France, as was erroneously reported by J.-B. de La Borde. He had no children, and thus, contrary to earlier hypotheses, could not have been the father of Pietro Todini, a harpsichord-maker mentioned in ...

Article

Anne Beetem Acker

(bc1604; d London, c1662). English virginal maker. He apprenticed with Thomas White, becoming a freeman of the Joiners’ Company in London in 1624/1625, and a master in 1657/1658. His apprentices included Stephen Keene and John Player. Townsend probably died by 1662 as Keene was admitted free of the Joiners’ Company through sponsorship by Player rather than their master Townsend. One instrument by Townsend survives (1641, B.B.mim), a typical English rectangular virginal with coffered lid, made for Elizabeth (Stuart) of Bohemia, daughter of James I and sister of King Charles I. It bears the Plantagenet arms under the initials ‘E.R.’ in the repeated pattern in the embossed gilded papers in the keywell and above the soundboard. As is typical of English virginals, it is plain on the outside and richly decorated inside. The interior lid painting depicts Orpheus (who bears a striking resemblance to Charles I) with his lyre, charming the beasts and trees. The keyboard cover painting shows ships at sea and a courtly group on an island....

Article

Ulrich Dähnert

(b Frankenhausen, Germany, Aug 10, 1678; d Weimar, Germany, bur. Aug 18, 1748). German organ builder. The son of a carpenter, he learnt his trade from Christian Rothe in Salzungen about 1698 and went to Weimar in 1709, perhaps at J.S. Bach’s request; he became court organ builder there in 1712. When his eldest son, Johann Gottfried, was baptized on 26 November 1713, the godfathers were Bach and the composer and lexicographer J.G. Walther. Trebs built organs for Taubach, near Mellingen (1710; one manual with eight stops, pedal with three; specification by Bach); the Schlosskirche, Weimar (1714, during Bach’s tenure; two manuals, 24 stops, a rebuild; repaired and rebuilt again 1719–20 and 1726); and the Jacobikirche, Weimar (1721; two manuals, 18 stops). He built a large organ for Bad Berka, near Weimar, between 1742 and 1743, also in collaboration with Bach and with the help of his son Christian Wilhelm Trebs and Johann Christian Immanuel Schweinefleisch; it had 13 stops in the ...

Article

Hans Klotz

revised by Hermann Fischer

(b Lichtenstadt [now Horžnětín], Bohemia, March 23, 1626; d Kulmbach, Upper Franconia, April 9, 1686). German organ builder . He was the son of Paul Tretzscher (d 1633) and Susanne Schott, who in 1636 married the organ builder Jakob Schedlich of Joachimsthal. In 1641 Matthias Tretzscher was apprenticed to his step-brother, Andreas Schedlich; subsequently he worked in Nuremberg for 21 months with David Schedlich, a relative of Hans Leo Hassler. He returned to Joachimsthal in 1644, to work under Jakob Schedlich (his step-father), who made him a journeyman in 1647. On Maundy Thursday 1650 Tretzscher had to leave Joachimsthal because of his religious beliefs, and between 1651 and 1652 was organist in Marienberg, in the Ore mountains. In 1653 he built an organ in Bayreuth (Stadtkirche). In the same year he moved to Kulmbach where he became organ builder at the court of the Margrave of Brandenburg; in ...

Article

Charles Beare and John Dilworth

(fl London, c1650–80). English or Scottish violin maker. He was probably a pupil of Jacob Rayman, and was more or less a contemporary of Edward Pamphilon. Urquhart was the most accomplished craftsman of the three. An early, small-sized violin bearing a label with the date 166– (last digit illegible) is of extraordinary delicacy, with a golden varnish of the highest quality. Later instruments are slightly more robust, but excellently finished, and often have a fine red varnish of almost Italian character. These instruments are capable of very fine tone, and can often be distinguished from provincial Italian work of the period only by the intriguingly worked scroll, which is incised at the chin and marked with small prickings around the volute. Unfortunately many of the scrolls and labels were removed by unscrupulous dealers and replaced with more Italianate substitutes. It is likely that some of his work was relabelled and sold in his own lifetime by John Shaw, an eminent instrument dealer and music publisher of the period, who was appointed ‘instrument maker to his Majesty’ in ...

Article

Edward H. Tarr

( fl Naumburg, mid-17th century). German brass instrument maker . Two of his trumpets survive, dated 1646 and 1651 (Berlin, Staatliches Institut für Musikforschung, Musikinstrumenten-Museum, nos.640 and 639 respectively). The latter, pitched in modern E♭, is the only surviving pre-19th-century slide trumpet or tromba da tirarsi known. It is of the Renaissance type (...

Article

Voigt  

Enrico Weller

German family of musical instrument makers in Markneukirchen (to which the following refers, including birth and death data). Lutherie dominated the family’s craft in the 18th century, beginning with Adam Voigt (b c1674; d 19 Feb 1737), who in 1699 became a member of the Neukirchen violin makers’ guild. By 1850, 23 Voigts were counted as guild masters, their high-arched violins epitomizing the old Vogtland style. The most important masters were Johann Georg Voigt (four masters with the same name about 1800), Johann Friedrich Voigt, called ‘Fritz’ (b 17 Dec 1778; d 4 Sept 1840), and Johann Christian Voigt II (b 15 April 1766; d 13 Feb 1846). The last also made guitars, and in the 19th century several other Voigts also turned to guitar making, and later to bow and zither making. In the 20th century, Arnold Voigt (b 13 May 1864...

Article

Hans Klotz

revised by Felix Friedrich

(b Dörna, nr Mühlhausen, bap. Dec 6, 1655; d Mühlhausen, June 13, 1729). German organ builder . He rebuilt the organ at Divi-Blasii-Kirche, Mühlhausen, in 1687–91 (to a plan by J.G. Ahle); he built an organ at Seligenstadt Abbey, 1695; one at the Neue Kirche, Arnstadt, 1701–3 (tested and played by Bach), and he enlarged the organ at Divi-Blasii, Mühlhausen, in 1708 (to a plan by Bach). He also built an organ at the Maria Magdalen-Kirche, Mühlhausen, in 1702 (today preserved in Dörna), and at the Severikirche, Erfurt, in 1714 (the case survives); enlarged one at Merseburg Cathedral in 1714–16 and built one at the Kaufmannskirche, Erfurt, in 1728–9. His work was much in demand; among those who had a high opinion of it were Bach, Kuhnau and Mattheson (who ranked him with Gottfried Silbermann).

In his Principal choruses Wender aimed at the classical arrangement (8′, 4′, 2⅔′, 2′, Mixtur, Zimbel, on the ...

Article

Anne Beetem Acker

English family of virginal makers, active in London. Of 22 known English virginals, 7 were built by members of the family. Thomas (i) was the father of Thomas (ii), and Gabriel Townsend apprenticed with him, so he was almost certainly a virginal maker. Thomas (ii) (bur. London, 5 Jan 1660) lived in Old Jewry, London. A surviving ottavino (1638, private collection) by him is most likely the child of a mother and child virginal, the only known example of this type made in England. His virginal of 1642 (GB.L.v) is the second-oldest known English virginal. It has a Flemish-style soundboard painting and naive paintings inside the lid and on the drop front. Other extant examples of his work are also typical English virginals (1651, GB.Y.m; 1653, Duke of Devonshire, Hardwick Hall, England). Thomas (iii) was admitted free of the Joiners’ Company in 1669. A typical English virginal at the National History Museum, Cardiff, is probably by this Thomas White, but there has been some speculation about the date, possibly ...

Article

Alexander Pilipczuk

(b ?1683; bur. Hamburg, April 13, 1763 ). German harpsichord maker. The year of his birth is conjectured from an entry in the register of deaths and burials at the Jacobikirche in Hamburg stating that he was 79½ when he died. According to Krickeberg and Rase he was probably a pupil of Michael Mietke. He is first mentioned in 1722 in the register of citizens of Hamburg. On 1 September that year he married the widow of the instrument maker Carl Conrad(t) Fleischer (1680–1721/2), whose workshop near the old Gänsemarkt opera house he took over. There were three children of the marriage, all with godparents from Hamburg families of musicians. Christian Zell is thought not to have been related to the painter and draughtsman Gottfried Zell, active in Hamburg 1788–90. Three surviving Zell harpsichords are known: one dated 1728, in the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg , another, dated ...