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Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Gadara, 110–100 bce; d ?Herculaneum, 40–35 bce). Epicurean philosopher, poet and critic of music . Philodemus went to Italy in about 65 bce and remained there until his death. He was the author of a treatise On Music, extensive parts of which have survived in a series of fragments discovered in the Herculaneum papyri, buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 ce. Excavations beginning in the mid-18th century brought the first of the papyri to light, and attempts at a reconstruction of the treatise have been published since the end of the 18th century. In 1884 Johann Kemke established a text including additional material that had been discovered; he proposed that Philodemus's treatise was comprised of four books, the first of which was a doxography of the music theory of the Academy, the Peripatetics and the Stoics (including Diogenes of Babylon); the second (essentially lost) and third provided a fuller explanation of the theory of the Academy and the Peripatetics; and the fourth presented Philodemus's polemic against Diogenes and other Stoics. Until the 1980s Kemke's text was the basis for most modern scholarship, despite objections to his arrangement that were periodically raised on various grounds. With the later work of Rispoli, Neubecker and Delattre, however, Kemke's interpretation (and much of his text) has been largely supplanted. Delattre has proposed on papyrological and contextual grounds that all the fragments belong to the fourth book of Philodemus's ...


Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Reşiţe, Feb 17, 1932). Romanian composer, musicologist, journalist, writer, and teacher. Closely connected to his activities as a musicologist and author of monographs, analytical studies, essays, and music criticism, his compositional practice is characterised by expressive and lyrical works, where traditional (especially Byzantine psaltic) elements are mixed with new music.

He began his music education in Reşiţa and continued at the Municipal Conservatory of Timişoara. After a period of private study with Liviu Rusu (harmony, counterpoint, and musical forms) and Hedviga Haliţchi (piano), Popovici studied at the Bucharest Academy (1950–55) with Mihail Jora, Mihail Andricu (composition), and Theodor Rogalski (orchestration). In 1968 he attended the summer courses in Darmstadt.

Between 1968 and 2002 he was a music editor with the Romanian Radio, while also teaching at the National University of Music Bucharest and at the private universities Luceafărul and Spiru Haret. The composer himself outlined three periods of his creative development. The first one (...


(b 1542; d Mantua, 1612). Italian Jewish physician and writer on Hebrew antiquities. He discussed music, at great length, in his final work Shil ṭei ha-gibborim (‘Shields of Heroes’; Mantua, 1612), in which he glorified the ancient Temple, its architecture, its liturgy and its music. Ten of the 90 chapters are devoted to music. Portaleone conceived the music of the Levites after Italian Renaissance practices and humanist music theory: thus the discussion turns on polyphony, lute tablatures, contemporary instruments (in analogy to ancient ones, which are described in considerable detail), modes, the doctrine of ethos, simple and compound intervals and the differentiation between consonance and dissonance. He maintained that music in the Temple was a learned art, acquired after a rigorous course of training; it was notated, thus meant to be preserved; its performance was based on written sources. Portaleone acknowledged Judah Moscato as his teacher, although he noted that they conceived music differently: whereas Moscato spoke, generally, of number, harmony and ‘science’, treating music for its cosmological and spiritual connotations, his pupil was concerned with ...


Flora Dennis

(b Lugo di Romagna, Feb 1, 1880; d Ravenna, May 17, 1955). Italian composer, critic and musicologist. He studied composition at the Pesaro Liceo Musicale, where he received some lessons from Mascagni. His early works often incorporated Romagnese folk melodies, their influence being most apparent in the symphonic cycle Romagna and his second opera La sina d’Vergöun. His involvement with the futurist movement began in 1910 when he wrote the first of three manifestos: the Manifesto dei musicisti futuristi. This criticizes the current state of Italian music and includes polemical passages inserted by Marinetti; the Manifesto tecnico della musica futurista (1911) and La distruzione della quadratura (1912) advocate atonality, microtones and rhythmic irregularity. The manifestos are mainly of theoretical interest since no futurist musician realized their implications to any great degree; Pratella’s Musica futurista, violently received in Rome, is an amorphous, simplistic piece relying on the whole-tone scale and the repetition of short phrases. His futurist opera ...


(b Paris, Nov 28, 1871; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, June 18, 1956). French musicologist and critic. After schooling at the Lycée Condorcet (until 1887) and a year’s training in the merchant marine at Guadeloupe he studied music history and philology at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, Paris (1890–94), and later continued his studies in Germany (1899–1910), Belgium and the Netherlands (1912, 1913). His career as a music journalist began in 1895 with contributions to Revue socialiste, Enclos and other journals; in Munich, where he lived from 1897 to 1900, he founded and edited the Deutsche-französische Rundschau (1899–1902). On his return to Paris he founded (with Dauriac and Ecorcheville) the French section of the International Musical Society (1904), of which he was secretary from 1903 to 1913; he was also a founder (with La Laurencie, 1917), secretary (1917–20...


Robert Stevenson

(b Zamora, Michoacán, Sept 29, 1900; d Mexico City, Dec 3, 1991). Mexican music critic, scholar, pianist and composer . After studying the piano with Antonio Gomezanda in Mexico City, she was a pupil of André Schaeffner, Lazare Lévy and Alfred Cortot in Paris. She gave début piano recitals in New York City in 1938 and in Paris in 1948. Upon resettling in 1949 in Mexico City, she assisted Adolfo Salazar as writer for the newspaper Novedades and contributed extensively to Mexican and foreign journals. In 1963 she established Heterofonía, Mexico’s longest running musicological journal, and was its editor until her decease.

La mujer mexicana en la música (Mexico City, 1958); repr. in Heterofonía, nos.104–5 (1991), 5–99 Ludwig van Beethoven (Mexico City, 1970) ‘Mexico’, VintonD ‘Mexican Women in Music’, LAMR, 4 (1983), 120–31 I. Farfán Cano: ‘En los ámbitos de la música’, Inter-American Music Review, 12/1 (1991), 1–2...


André Barbera

(fl second half of the 6th century bce). Greek philosopher and religious teacher. Born on Samos, he emigrated to Croton around 530 and later settled in Metapontum in southern Italy; both moves may have been caused by political or religious persecution. He believed in the transmigration of souls, established a bios (way of life), was probably a religious leader at Croton, and emphasized the numerical underpinnings of the natural world. An extreme version of Pythagorean doctrine holds that the physical world is a material working out (representation) of numerical truth, and that this truth is immediately and easily apprehended, albeit superficially, in elementary musical consonances.

Pythagoras’s teachings, prominently publicized by Philolaus (fl second half of the 5th century bce) and further promulgated by Archytas (fl first half of the 4th century bce), were well known to Plato and Aristotle, by whose time Pythagoras was already a legendary figure. During the 5th century the Pythagorean community split into a scientific branch (...


Vincent J. Novara


(b Dover, NH, 21 Dec 1930; d Durham, NH, 26 Jan 2008). American musicologist, author, and editor. She studied music at the University of New Hampshire (BM 1952) and low brass performance at the University of Illinois (MM 1953), where she later obtained an MLS (1965). In 1957, Rasmussen established Brass Quarterly, a journal “devoted to articles, research studies, bibliography, and reviews concerning brass instruments and their music.” She served as editor and publisher until its dissolution in 1965 and again for its second iteration as Brass and Woodwind Quarterly from 1967 through 1969. The journal published two of Rasmussen's books, A Teacher's Guide to the Literature of Brass Instruments (Durham, NH, 1964) and A Teacher's Guide to the Literature of Woodwind Instruments (Durham, NH, 1966). She was a member of the music faculty of the University of New Hampshire (1968–97...


Era Barutcheva

(b Kuybïshev [now Samara], Sept 4, 1935). Russian musicologist and critic. He graduated from the Leningrad Electrotechnical University in 1957, and from the Leningrad Conservatory in 1975. Rayskin is one of the most active and authoritative critics and writers on music in St Petersburg. He has worked for the editorial board of the journal ...


Jürg Stenzl

(b Vienna, May 27, 1898; d Zürich, May 1, 1980). Swiss music critic and musicologist of Austrian birth. He studied musicology with Lach, Orel and Haas at Vienna University, where he took the doctorate in 1934 with a dissertation on Martini; concurrently he took private lessons in music theory and composition with Berg (1927–35) and Webern (1936–8). From 1920 he worked as a music critic for several Viennese and foreign newspapers. Encouraged by Berg, he edited the journal 23eine Wiener Musikzeitschrift (1932–7), which took vehement issue with the defects of Viennese musical life and supported the new music, particularly that of the Second Viennese School. The journal, which in June 1933 had emphatically criticized National Socialism and whose regular authors included Ploderer, Krenek and Adorno as well as Reich, was banned immediately after the Austrian Anschluss. In 1938 Reich moved to Basle, where he worked as a freelance writer. In ...


(b Nuremberg, bap. March 3, 1720; d Altdorf, cFeb 5, 1771). German theologian and writer on music. After studies at Altdorf and Halle he held posts at the Dominican church at Nuremberg and parish church at Rasch before becoming professor of theology and deacon (later archdeacon) at Altdorf in ...


Julian Herbage

[Alexander] (Thomas Parke)

(b Southsea, June 3, 1892; d Midhurst, Jan 18, 1982). English writer on music. He was educated at Bradfield College and the RAM (1910–13), where he studied chiefly the organ, harmony and composition, and was organist and choirmaster at Frensham parish church and briefly at Farnham. During World War I he served in India, Egypt and Palestine. In 1919 he was appointed music lecturer to London County Council evening institutes. In 1920 he joined the Gramophone Company's educational staff, first as a lecturer and later as its head. In 1930 he entered the Collegio Beda, Rome; he was ordained priest in 1934 and held an appointment at Westminster Cathedral. Though he returned to professional life in 1938 his experiences of Catholic church music, particularly Gregorian plainchant, led him to write a number of books on the subject. In 1940 he joined the Gramophone Department of the BBC, and after the war was appointed chief producer of music talks on the Home and Third Programmes. He developed a highly individual manner as a broadcaster and gave many illustrated talks, which he continued even after his retirement from the BBC in ...


Gordon A. Anderson

revised by C. Matthew Balensuela

[Rodulfus Sancti TrudonisRudolf of St Trond]

(b Moustiers-sur-Sambre, nr Namur, c. 1070; d St Truiden, 1138). South Netherlandish ecclesiastic. He was abbot of St Truiden (north-east of Liège) from 1108 until his death. He began the Gesta abbatum Trudonensium (ed. in PL, vol.173, 33–434; and Monumenta Germaniae historica, Scriptores, vol.10 Hanover, 1852/R, 227–317), in which he described all aspects of monastic life including musical practice at St Truiden and the teaching of boy scholars according to the methods of Guido of Arezzo. An anonymous tract Quaestiones in musica has sometimes been attributed to him, probably incorrectly (see Anonymous theoretical writings).

MGG1 (‘Rodulfus von Sint Truiden’; P. Fischer)R. Steglich: Die Quaestiones in musica: ein Choraltraktat des zentralen Mittelalters und ihr mutmasslicher Verfasser, Rudolf von St Trond (1070–1138) (Leipzig, 1911/R)J. Smits van Waesberghe: Muziekgeschiedenis der Middeleeuwen, vol.1 (Tilburg, 1936–9), 253–7M. McCormick: ‘Rudolf of St Trond’, ...


Robert Henderson

(b Clamecy, Jan 29, 1866; d Vézelay, Dec 30, 1944). French man of letters and writer on music. Educated at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (1886–9), he spent the years 1889 to 1891 in Rome where he completed his mémoire d’étude in the diplomatic history of the early 16th century. It was also in Rome that he began to expand his musical interests and to lay the foundations for his doctoral dissertation Les origines du théâtre lyrique moderne presented at the Sorbonne in 1895. After several years teaching courses in art history at various lycées in Paris (during which time he organized the first music history congress to be held in Paris, in 1900, and the next year was a co-founder of the Revue d’histoire et de critique musicales), and then as director of the newly founded music school of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales (...


Stanley Sadie

(b London, Sept 30, 1917; d London, March 19, 1987). English writer on music. He studied at University College, London (BA 1940), and embarked on a teaching career, but became increasingly involved in music, principally as a critic and lecturer. In 1948–9 he worked with the Earl of Harewood on the journal Ballet and Opera, and he was Harewood's assistant editor when Opera was founded in 1950. In 1953 he became editor of Opera; under his guidance the journal came to provide an extensive coverage of operatic events throughout the world and exercised considerable influence on operatic life in Britain. He was archivist of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden (1950–56). He wrote extensively for periodicals and was a correspondent of Opera News (1947–52) and Musical America (1955–60); he was also much engaged in broadcasting and in lecturing. Rosenthal's work is highly regarded for its judiciousness, based on a thorough knowledge of the human voice and the operatic repertory....


Rosemary Williamson

(b Florence, June 8, 1927; d Cambridge, Jan 16, 2001). British writer of partly Italian descent. He studied at Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, and was a research student in history with Herbert Butterfield at Cambridge (1948–51). He then worked for the (Manchester) Guardian, as leader writer, features editor and deputy London editor, before moving to Sussex University, 1964–89, to teach history, finally as reader. Rosselli worked as a critic but was chiefly noted for his writings on the social and economic background of opera, particularly in Italy. His authoritative The Opera Industry in Italy (1984) explored aspects of operatic history and culture unfamiliar to the music historian, as too did his Music and Musicians in Nineteenth-Century Italy (1991) and his studies of the role, in the broadest sense, of the singer. These include important articles on castratos, the singer’s relation to his patrons, a study of contractual documents between pupils and teachers, and a book on the profession itself, ...


David Scott

(Reginald )

(b Brighton, Oct 31, 1917; d Nashville, TN, Oct 8, 1982). English writer on church music. He read classics at Magdalen College, Oxford (1936–40, BA 1940), and theology at Mansfield College, Oxford (1940–43), and in 1943 became a minister in the Congregational Church of England and Wales. He took the Oxford BD in 1946 with a thesis on church music and theology (published as The Church and Music) and in 1948 joined the staff of Mansfield College as director of music; he took the Oxford DPhil in 1952 with a dissertation on the music of Christian hymnody. He served as a minister in Edinburgh (1959) and Newcastle upon Tyne (1967) before becoming professor of church music at Westminster Choir College, Princeton, New Jersey (1975).

In addition to his pastoral work and writing Routley was active as an organist. He was the first president of the Guild of Congregational Organists (...


Nina Yur′yevna Afonina

(b Detskoye Selo [now Pushkin], Aug 22, 1922). Russian musicologist and music critic. She studied at the Leningrad Conservatory (1944–9), specializing in musicology with S.N. Bogoyavlensky and composition with M.O. Steinberg and Yu.V. Kochurov, and subsequently undertook postgraduate studies there with A.N. Dmitriyev (1950–53). In 1953 she was appointed to teach at the conservatory, becoming a reader in 1966 and professor in 1981. After gaining the Kandidat degree in 1963 for her dissertation Vokal′noye tvorchestvo Yu.V. Kochura (‘The Vocal Art of Kochurov’), Ruch′yevskaya was awarded the doctorate in 1979 for the dissertation Struktura i funktsii muzïkal′noy temï (‘The Structure and Functions of Themes in Music’). She is a member of the Russian Federation Union of Composers.

Ruch′yevskaya’s area of research encompasses the fundamental problems of musical form, genre, style and the relationship between word and music, studied within a historical and cultural context over a broad range of musical material. Central to her work is her stance on the functional nature of the musical theme. She defines it as an element of the structure of the text and demonstrates that it is the interaction of the theme and its variants that causes the development of form. Her typology of structural and functional types of thematicism, which has become the academic standard with regard to the general forms of sound and zones of distinct and summary perception, also takes into consideration the rhythmic and timbral thematicism current in 20th-century music. She considers large-scale cyclic forms, for example, to be the result of the interaction of principles of structure and genre and their subsequent alteration in the process of stylistic evolution. She has also studied the theory of syntax and has devised a hierarchical system of syntactic levels. In vocal music she has demonstrated the principles of transformation of speech intonation into music, elaborated in detail the classification of melodic types and has also been the first in Russia to study opera as an integral form, as the manifestation of operatic drama within a thematic development. As the originator of fundamental concepts and the teacher of a whole generation of musicians in Russia and other countries, Ruch′yevskaya is one of the most authoritative figures in contemporary Russian musicology. (...


Julie Anne Sadie


(b London, 30 Oct 1930; d Cossington, Somerset, 21 March 2005). English musicologist, critic, and editor. He was educated at St Paul’s School, London, and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, reading music under Thurston Dart, Charles Cudworth, and Patrick Hadley (BA, MusB 1953, MA 1957, PhD 1958). After teaching at Trinity College of Music, London (1957–65), he worked as a music critic for The Times (1964–81), a reviewer for Gramophone (1965–2005), editor of the Musical Times (1967–87), and general editor of the Master Musicians series (from 1976). In 1970 he was appointed editor of the New Grove dictionaries, serving as emeritus editor from 1999; he also initiated and edited a number of related or kindred publications including a Handbook series and the Man and Music/Music and Society series. He was for many years a regular broadcaster on Radio 3 and the World Service, chiefly on 18th-century topics, and prepared several critical editions, notably of the Mozart piano sonatas (...


Albert Cohen

revised by Julie Anne Sadie

(bap. St Denis-le-Gast, Manche, Jan 5, 1614; d London, Sept 29, 1703). French man of letters. After studies at the Jesuit college in Paris, he entered military service, rising to the rank of maréchal de camp in 1652. During the Fronde he was disgraced by his Lettre sur la Paix des Pyrénées (1661) and was obliged to seek exile outside France. He fled to the Netherlands and in 1670 to England, where he was appointed Charles II’s Keeper of the Ducks in the Decoy at St James’s Park. A keen music lover and amateur, Saint-Evremond frequented the Chelsea académie of Hortensia Mancini, the Duchess of Mazarin (the niece of Cardinal Mazarin and mistress of the king), where French music was performed and discussed. His own home in London also became a centre of intellectual and social activity which is reflected in his literary production. He is said never to have learnt to speak English....