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Joshua Kosman

Opera buffa in three acts by Florian Leopold Gassmann to a libretto by Carlo Goldoni ; Vienna, Burgtheater, 26 April 1767.

One of Gassmann’s most enduring successes, this opera was performed throughout Austria, Italy and Germany, sometimes in translation as Die Liebe unter den Handwerksleuten; Haydn oversaw three productions at Eszterháza. The libretto, first set in ...


Luca Zoppelli

Poema tragico in three acts by Italo Montemezzi to a libretto by Sem Benelli after his play; Milan, Teatro alla Scala, 10 April 1913.

The action is set in the Middle Ages in a remote castle in Italy 40 years after a barbarian invasion. In the first act Baron Archibaldo (bass), old and blind, is wandering restlessly around his castle at night, reflecting on his heroic youth when he, a barbarian, had conquered Italy. His son Manfredo (baritone) is away fighting, and Manfredo’s young Italian wife Fiora (soprano) has been left in the castle, where she meets her lover Avito (tenor), also an Italian, at night. Archibaldo guesses that they have an adulterous relationship and interrogates Fiora, but his blindness prevents him from discovering the truth and he has to repress his hatred of her. When Manfredo returns, innocently happy at seeing Fiora again, she receives him with cold courtesy....


John C.G. Waterhouse

Comic opera in two acts by Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari to a libretto by Enrico Golisciani after Molière’s play L’amour médecin; Dresden, Hoftheater, 4 December 1913.

After his uncharacteristic excursion into post-Mascagnian verismo in I gioielli della Madonna (1911), Wolf-Ferrari returned, in this sixth of his published operas, to that special vein of lighthearted satirical comedy in which he most often gave of his best. ...


Kay Lipton

(b Venice, Sept 16, 1716; d Dresden, Nov 15, 1798). Italian tenor. He was considered one of the greatest tenors of the first half of the 18th century. He established his reputation as a singer of serious roles at the remarkably early age of 13, singing in revivals of Lanciani’s ...


Curtis Price

Pastoral in a prologue and three acts by Jakob Greber to a libretto after A. Amalteo; London, Queen’s Theatre, Haymarket, 9 April 1705.

Gli amori di Ergasto, the music of which does not survive, was the first Italian opera produced in London in Italian and inaugurated John Vanbrugh’s Haymarket Theatre, the principal opera house in London until ...



David Fallows

A performance direction found throughout the 18th century. Rousseau (1768) equated it with the French tendrement, with the qualification that amoroso had ‘plus d'accent, et respire je ne sais pas quoi de moins fade et de plus passionné’ (‘more emphasis and is perhaps a little less insipid and more impassioned’). Other forms encountered include ...


Lori Burns and Jada Watson

(b Newton, NC, Aug 22, 1963). American alternative-rock singer-songwriter, pianist, and record producer. She emerged in the early 1990s amid a resurgence of female singer-songwriters and has been one of the few well known alternative-rock artists to use the piano as her primary instrument. She attended the preparatory division of the prestigious Peabody Conservatory but left the school at the age of 11. She began to play her own music in nightclubs at 14, chaperoned by her father, who was a preacher. After Amos moved to Los Angeles in her late teens to pursue a recording career, her band Y Kant Tori Read released a self-titled album (Atl., ...


Opera by Sergey Prokofiev; see Love for Three Oranges, The .


Pastorale in nine scenes by Michel-Richard de Lalande; Fontainebleau, autumn 1697.

An occasional piece for the French court, L’amour, fléchy par la constance represents the reduced scope of Lalande’s middle-period stage compositions following the War of the League of Augsburg. The work played twice at Fontainebleau in autumn ...


James R. Anthony

Comédie lyrique in three acts by Jean-Joseph Mouret to a libretto by Philippe Néricault-Destouches, Sceaux, December 1714, as Le mariage de Ragonde et de Colin, ou La veillée de village (revised version, Paris, Opéra, 30 January 1742, as Les amours de Ragonde, ou La soirée de village...


Jérôme de La Gorce

Opéra-ballet in a prologue and three entrées by Thomas-Louis(-Joseph) Bourgeois to a libretto by Louis Fuzelier ; Paris, Opéra, 22 August 1713.

This work, which takes its title from a ballet of 1664 by Lully, was so successful that it was revived in 1714 with a new act, ...


Margaret Campbell

(b Paris, June 22, 1949). French violinist. He studied the violin with Rolland Charmey privately and at the Paris Conservatoire, winning the premier prix aged 12. He won the Ginette Neveu Prize (1963) and the Paganini Competition at Genoa (1964...


Daniel Avorgbedor

(b Adiemmra, Ghana, March 31, 1945). Ghanaian popular guitarist, singer and master of guitar-band. Highlife and concert parties. He formed the African Brothers International Dance Band in 1963, a band that produced important musicians such as the late Eddie Donkor. Ampadu acquired rudimentary guitar skills with the help of P.K. Yamoah and worked briefly at the Ministry of Agriculture in his home district area. He performed briefly with the T.O. Jazz band led by T.O. Ampoma in ...


Jeremy Drake

French firm of music publishers. It was founded in 1943 in Grenoble by Hervé Dugardin (1910–69). At first Dugardin published works of composers whom he knew (Arrieu, Pierre Auclert, Barraud, Daniel-Lesur, Mihalovici, Sauguet and Wissmer). In 1946 the firm was transferred to Paris, and a shop was opened in the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées. In the early 1950s Dugardin published some highly significant contemporary works including Boulez's First Piano Sonata (...



Bertil H. van Boer

Opéra-ballet in a prologue and one act by Johann Gottlieb Naumann to a libretto by Gudmund Göran Adlerbeth after Antoine Léonard Thomas’s play; Stockholm, Bollhus Theatre, 24 January 1778.

Antiope (soprano) loves Mercury’s son, Amphion (tenor) who is able to calm the passions of beasts through his song. She is threatened by the Chieftain of the barbarians (bass), who demands her love. Rejected, he captures and threatens both her and Amphion with death, but Amphion disarms the barbarians by singing. They promise to reform themselves, and Amphion weds Antiope....


Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

Ancient Greek mythological figure, son of Zeus and Antiope. When he and his twin brother Zethus built the walls of Thebes (Homer, Odyssey, xi.260–65), the stones set themselves in place through the power of his lyre (Hesiod, frag.96, ed. Evelyn-White). According to Pausanias (ix.5.8), Hesiod's near contemporary Eumelus of Corinth called Amphion the first lyre player, taught by Hermes; late sources made further claims typical of the feats credited to Orpheus, Marsyas and other names in the pre-history of Greek music. To Virgil Amphion was simply a pastoral singer (...



Trade name for a Reproducing piano introduced by the American Piano Co. (see Aeolian, §2) in 1913.


Hugh Davies

An electrical circuit which increases the strength of its input, and normally acts as an interface between an otherwise incompatible input and output. Certain hi-fi systems and large-scale amplification installations feature separate power amplifiers, which drive one or more loudspeakers, and preamplifiers, which boost and match the different electrical characteristics of a variety of inputs; preamplifiers are otherwise incorporated into other devices, such as mixing consoles and stereophonic hi-fi amplifiers. At its simplest the amplification chain can be seen as microphone (or other source)–amplifier–loudspeaker. The rock music ‘amp’ (combination unit or ‘combo’) consists of a portable loudspeaker cabinet containing an appropriate power amplifier and preamplifier. ...


The maximum amount of disturbance from the equilibrium state in a vibration or wave. See Sound, §5 .



Generic term current in Madagascar for percussion instruments. It includes cylindrical drums such as amponga ntaolo (‘ancestors’ drum’) and the ground zither amponga tany (‘earthen drum’).