A term used in ancient Greece in the period of Pindar for the prelude or introduction to a song but subsequently associated with the melodically extravagant, chromatically inflected solo songs or monodies of which Timotheus of Miletus was the most significant exponent. Hans Kotter used the term (in Greek) in the early 16th century for a freely constructed keyboard prelude in a tablature (in ...
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French band. Co-founded in 1976 by Marc Richard and the pianist and historian Philippe Baudoin, it was inspired by the concept of playing a modern repertory by Thelonious Monk, John Coltrane, and others in a traditional-jazz style, as may be heard on its eponymous début album, ...
(b Freiberg, Saxony, Oct 17, 1790; d Freiberg, Aug 21, 1854). German Kantor and composer. He studied at the Freiberg Gymnasium, then at Leipzig University, where he took the master’s degree. He continued his education with J.G. Schicht, W.F. Riem, G.C. Härtel and Friedrich Schneider and lived in Leipzig as a singer, pianist and music teacher. In ...
Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen
(b Teos, c.570
Acte de ballet by Jean-Philippe Rameau to a libretto by (Jean-)Louis de Cahusac ; Fontainebleau, 23 October 1754.
Intended for a projected opéra-ballet, Les beaux jours de l’Amour, this is one of two independent works by Rameau with the same title (the other, to a libretto by Pierre-Joseph Bemard, eventually became part of ...
London society of aristocratic and wealthy amateur musicians founded in 1766. See London, §V, 2 .
Term for the Arab and Persian nafīr, a straight trumpet. It was introduced to Iberia by the Moors during the Middle Ages. The añafil is commonly represented in Iberian art from the 10th century to the 13th with banners and in the context of battles, and thereafter throughout medieval European iconography....
Brian W. Pritchard
Dramma per musica in three acts by Antonio Caldara to a libretto by Gerolamo Gigli ; Rome, Palazzo Bonelli, 4 January 1711.
This opera, commissioned by Francesco Maria Ruspoli for Carnival 1711, was staged 13 times by 5 February and was perhaps the most frequently performed of all Caldara’s operas. Its plot is based on an incident in Bartolommeo de Rogatis’s ...
James W. McKinnon
A reader in the Orthodox Church. His function is to announce the Prokeimenon of the day and to chant the appropriate lessons from the Old Testament or the Epistles (see Ekphōnēsis). The related term ‘anaginōskos’ (Gk.: ‘reader’) already appears in the description by Justin Martyr (...
A kalophonic (‘embellished’) setting of certain Byzantine stichēra (see Stichēron) used on festal occasions. Only a part of the hymn text is used, and this is preceded and followed by very florid teretismata; see Kalophonic chant.
(fl 1617–25). Italian composer. His name has sometimes been incorrectly spelt ‘Anagnino’ and ‘Agnanino’. He was an Augustinian monk and lived for part of his life in Naples. He published several volumes of music but only two survive (and the second of these is incomplete): ...
Instrument constructed by Akio Suzuki in several versions since 1972. It consists of a long, flexible spring stretched between two metal cylinders, each with an ‘echo-plate’ across one end. One cylinder is normally fixed. The spring, which can be extended up to at least 8 metres, is stroked, plucked, or struck; the instrument is also effective if, when the spring is extended, the performer sings into the cylinder that is held. Three types of Analapos have been made: Type A is a single unit (many of which have been sold to collectors); Type B (four models) consists of a tall stand from which between four and about 20 units are suspended; and Type C, the Deep-Sea Sonar, consists of a single spring mounted inside a cardboard tube about 1 to 1½ metres long, which is shaken to produce the sound (hundreds have been made for educational purposes). The long resonances and echoes of the first two types are matched visually: especially when the spring is fully stretched, a ‘wave’ can be seen to travel across the instrument several times in each direction before dying away. Suzuki has explored similar sound qualities in the Spring Cong family, in which lengths of thin sprung steel ‘ribbon’ are mounted on a stand (in spiral or arc configurations, or in two interlocking vertical loops at right angles to each other) or on a wooden base (in arc or ‘omega’ shapes)....
Analogue waveform with digital representation
Ian D. Bent
Reviser Anthony Pople
A general definition of the term as implied in common parlance might be: that part of the study of music that takes as its starting-point the music itself, rather than external factors. More formally, analysis may be said to include the interpretation of structures in music, together with their resolution into relatively simpler constituent elements, and the investigation of the relevant functions of those elements. In such a process the musical ‘structure’ may stand for part of a work, a work in its entirety, a group or even a repertory of works, in a written or oral tradition. The relationship between the structures and elements proposed by analysis, and experiential, generative and documentary perspectives on music, has circumscribed analysis differently from time to time and from place to place, and has aroused debate. Less controversially, a practical distinction is often drawn between formal analysis and stylistic analysis; but this is unnecessary insofar as on the one hand any musical complex, no matter how small or large, may be deemed a ‘style’; and on the other hand, all the comparative processes that characterize stylistic analysis are inherent in the basic analytical activity of resolving structures into elements....
Alastair Dick and Jeremy Montagu
Variable tension chordophone of Bengal (east India and Bangladesh). Ānandalaharī (‘waves of joy’) appears to be a literary name; in the countryside the instrument is more often called by the onomatopoeic names gubgubī or khamak. The body is a wooden cylinder open at both ends and somewhat barrel-shaped or tapering inward towards the top. The lower opening is completely covered by a skin and the upper by a skin with the centre cut away; both skins are laced to plaited leather hoops and braced by cord V-lacings, each having a metal tuning-ring, giving an inverted Y-shape. (Older models had only a lower skin, glued on.) A gut string is looped through two holes and a protective button (or piece of bamboo etc.) in the centre of the lower skin, passing up through the body as a single or double string to a hole in the bottom of a small brass pot, where the string is attached with another toggle. The body is tucked into the left armpit and the string tensioned by the left hand gripping the small pot; the right hand plucks the string with a small plectrum of bone, plastic, or other material. The tension of the string, and hence its pitch, can be greatly and instantly varied by the left hand to produce a dramatic accompaniment for song or dance; it can play both rhythms and melodies, with swooping portamento leaps within about an octave. The ...
Anastasia Robinson: mezzotint by John Faber the younger after John Vanderbank, 1727
The property of Lord Langford
Werner Bachmann and Belkis Dinçol
An area roughly corresponding to the Asian part of Turkey. At the time of the Hittite empire (c
(b Cochabamba, Sept 23, 1912; d Cochabamba, Feb 15, 1998). Bolivian pedagogue, composer and architect. After fighting in the Chaco War he studied music and architecture in Chile (1936–42); thereafter, apart from a study trip to Madrid in 1959, he remained in his native Cochabamba. The Coro de los Valles, which he founded in ...
American record company. In 1973, Neil Bogart, Cecil Holmes, Larry Harris, and Buck Reingold founded Casablanca, an independent label based in Los Angeles that specialized in rock, funk, and disco. With Bogart as figurehead, the company released music by some of the most important and successful artists of the 1970s, including the theatrical rock-band Kiss, best-selling disco artist Donna Summer, gay icons the Village People and Cher, and funk acts Parliament and Chic. The producer Giorgio Moroder, known for his extended disco arrangements, was associated closely with Casablanca during the latter half of the 1970s. After the company’s acquisition by Polygram in ...
Arthur Jacobs, Charles Barber and José A. Bowen
(b Tučapy, Bohemia, April 11, 1908; d Toronto, July 3, 1973). Czech conductor. He studied composition and conducting at the Prague Conservatory (1925–9) and then was assistant conductor to Hermann Scherchen in Alois Hába’s opera The Mother at Munich in 1931...